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(Click) Man’s simple life is living according to his (Click) basic needs like food,

water, air, shelter, and clothes. But because man reaches for the economic
development and the idea of discovery, thus he progresses. Through the discovery of
(Click)machine, for instance, (Click)Britain became the birth place of industrial age
around 18th and 19th centuries where the rise of production are dominant and there is
unlimited production of goods because of it.

However, there is a danger of becoming more progressive and productive, .i.e.;

it leads one’s life to become greedier (Click). The greater proportion of goods and
services are being produced the greater people are willing to spend money to acquire
and consume more. They consume excessively. They spend more, thus can create cycle
of demand leading to greater production.

From this instance, the (Click) basic needs of man that are supposed to be
prioritized evolve into wants(Click) where the buying of things that are not really vital
for human survival becomes the way of life. Man’s willingness to spend his money for
his wants, like buying luxuries such (Click) as sports car, gadgets alters what is
supposed to be done by an individual, i.e., prioritizing the basic needs.

In our current society, this kind of issue is very rampant. It is the problem posted
by materialism and consumerism where the tendency of people seems to acquire or
value the things that are not really needed in sustaining one’s life. They are just fun of
fulfilling what is dictated by their desire. They become hedonists (Click) who only seek
for what is pleasurable. They are acquiring material things for the sake of enjoyment.
Thus, as an effect, human becomes (Click) individualistic, self-centered, egoistic,
because they seem to nurture their material things in owning possessions, wealth,
power, money not for the others but for themselves only.

According to Erich Fromm, (Click) the person is driven to consume more and
more in compensation for inner vacuity, passivity, loneliness and anxiety. For this, he
argues that instead of acquiring or consuming excessively (Click) or what he calls “to
have,” man should focus to what is “to be.” The being “to have” refers to the man who
is engaged to the material things. While being “to be,” it is a being of man where he
aspecs to be productive on his activities through (Click) loving, sharing, and giving.

This is the truth which people deny and thus people of the modern world have
completely lost their inner selves. They are preoccupied of their mistaken conception of
living, which is, being “to have.” However, this being would not lead them to have an
authentic life. It is because they forgot what their real being is, and that is the being “to
be.” The being “to be” means also that every human person is a mortal being. He has
the capacity to be non-being or a being that is finite. Whereas, the mistaken conception
of life according to people, .i.e., “to have” will be useless because they cannot bring the
things that they have acquired here on earth when worms eat their flesh.

Furthermore, because of these issues posted by materialism and consumerism,

Dr. Erich Fromm published the book which entitled (Click) “To Have or To Be?”
forcounter attack them. From this, the researcher would like to do a thesis that is
according to what Fromm postulates. Thus, he entitled his thesis (Click) “TO BE OR
Analysis of Erich Fromm’s Critical Theory. This study is centered on the modern society
which has become materialistic and consumerist and prefers "having" rather than
"being". Because the nature of "having" has become dominant than Being and having
has been more developed than "being". With that, the researcher wants to answer his
main question: (Click)

How Does The Concept Of “To Be’ Become A Norm In Attaining

Authentic Life?

Moreover, for further development of this study the researcher also aims to

answer the following question: (Click)

1) Who is Erich Fromm?

1.1. What is his personal and professional background?

1.2. What are his significant works?

1.3. Who are the key persons who influenced his work?

2) What is “To be” according to Fromm?

2.1 What are the key elements in the concept?”

2.2. What is the distinction between to be and to have?

3) What does being meant?

1.1 Why being is the normative approach to authentic life? Why not To


At this juncture, the researcher is open for interrogations, suggestions,

and recommendations.