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Present Simple Tense

We use the Present Simple for repeated actions and for thoughts,
feelings and states.
 !" #$
The sun shines by day and the moon shines by night.
Death comes to everyone sooner or later.
ก#&! !>ก ?@(  ก A>$A(B!
This vegetable is fresh.
I go to church every Sunday.
3. ก#&กก(G ( B (customs) J (ability)
Vegetarian abstains from meat.
Jack often comes to work late.
I go to church every Sunday.
ก ?กก(G ก A>$  !" (G adverb of
frequency  !"  (always, sometimes)
They do not always play tennis in the morning.
She sometimes drops in see her parents.
I always walk to school.
He always cooks dinner at home.
5. &  ก "
U V ก" &  Wกก
'( กก
U กA"
  ?Y#Z "
Meanwhile the window opens and a masked man enters the room.
ก ?กก "
U กG  V Yก
() V ก" Yกก 
We leave Bangkok at 9 p.m. next Friday and arrive in Chiangmai at 5 a.m.
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7. (Y G#
Look this program.
Let me help you.
8. @e ?GB#
B "
It is easier than done B!
" ก"G
It never rains but it pours.
B(Zก AB( ก
Refrain from doing evil. 
'( กG#
Procrastination is the thief of time. g'# #(ก#B"

9.  Future Tense  subordinate clause

Main clause Conjunction Subordinate clause

Future Simple as soon as Present Simple

He will get good marks if he works hard.

She will return home as soon as she finishes.
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10. Adverbs of frequency A

present simple Tense '(G&ก '
? U "

Adverbs of frequency Other time markers

Always 100 without fail

almost percent as a rule
usually, normally on a regular basis
typically by general
commonly in general
often, frequently at time, from time to
sometimes time
occasionally on occasion
seldom (every) now and then
hardly ever (every) now and
almost never 0 again
never percent once in a (great)
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Present Continuous Tense (is, am, are + Ving)

We use the present continuous to say that we are in the middle of an action.
ก ?กก(GกG'#
ก A>$ adverb of time
(now, just now, right now, etc.)
He is listening to the radio right now.
ก ?กก(G ก A>$ ( (  V"G  

U A(B!
Marwin is working for an advertising company.
กก(G ก A>$ # ? (G ' ' >

 'G ก# " "
Jarunee is getting up late this morning.
4.  future tense B?
"กก(G#$( ก A>$ #ก'
The smiths are coming to dinner this evening.
The man is getting his suit tomorrow afternoon.
5. (Y A>$   ?
Keep quiet! The teacher is teaching.
Be careful ! The truck is coming.
6. ก  '#
while ?ก ก(Y  >
 Present Simple ?
Present Continuous.
She comes in while I am calling.
Student is reading cartoon while teacher is teaching.
7. ก V"  Present Continuous Tense  " Present Simple 
J'  ( ' V
7.1 ก  ก ก#&!>กV ก"
see, hear, smell, taste, notice, recognize
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7.2 ก  ก ก#&!>ก

V ก"
wish feel desire love dislike forgive
care refuse adore like hate
7.3 ก  ก ก#& V ก"
think feel realize forget
understand know suppose expect
believe trust mean
remember recollect recall
7.4 ก ? U V ก"
seem appear consist hold
own belong possess contain
He feels happy. It belongs to me.
Verbs with different meanings
We have three cars. (=own) Weore having lunch. (eating)
I come from Sweden. Iom coming from Sweden.
( : I live in ,was born in ) ( : travelling from )
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Past Simple Tense (V2)

We use the Past Simple to talk about the past
กก(G ก A>$  '($ '
'   adverb
V ก" yesterday, last (Saturday, week, month, year) in 1993 ago.
He went to Hong Kong last week.
กก(G #  
He was always absent last semester.
She usually got up early when she was a student.
3. &  ก ก A>$ " ?
4. !"ก#& past simple past simple as past simple
She went to Chiangmai as they stayed at home.
Past Perfect Tense ( had + V3)
We use the Past Perfect for an action before a past time.
Tense $(V" ก A>$ Y U 
!"ก#& past simple  Y ก
ก ก"ก ( past simple "
Mrs.Allen had left before the telegram arrived.
The children went home after they had finished their lesson.
!"ก#& Past Simple Tense
./0ก234567.ก89:;<ก=ก828>?@ Past Perfect Tense
./0ก234567.ก89:;</ABCก828>?@ past Simple
กก Past Perfect Tense
He had had his breakfast before he went to school.
She went to bed after she had done her homework.
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Past Continuous Tense was + Ving


We use the Past Continuous to say that somebody was in the middle of
doing something at a certain time. The action or situation had already started
before this time but had not finished:
ก ?กก(GกG'#
ก A>$  ' ' >
 'กG  V 
He was sleeping at that time.
The students were studying mathematics at ten ooclock.
2. !"ก#& Past Simple (when , while)

He met his friend when he was crossing the road.

3. !"ก#& Past Continuous (while) B?&กJ>
ก ก A>$ก"
' #
V"& ' ก >
She came in while her mother was cooking dinner.
* (#

Past Continuous ( 
 #&ก '"ก#$
Past Simple (s + v2) (B! J>
ก  &$'
Y V"V (& '
Future Tense (will, shall + V)
 To be going to  will , shall กsV  "
I am going to go to Chiangmai next week.
We are going to learn German tomorrow
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AG ก will/shall ก#& to be going to #$ ก "

'sก ?
- ( to be going to ก#& ก V  />ก V'( 
- ( will/shall ก#& กV"V   />กก"'"

ก ก A>$  adverb
(tomorrow, nextw (Monday ,week, year), in five minutes
She will take Thai course next semester.
2. (Y 
?VA && 1
He will get good marks if he works hard.
3. !"ก#& Present Simple
She will return home as soon as she finisher.
Future Perfect Tense (will, shall + have + V3)
When we talk about something that will be completed by (not later than) a
certain time in the future.
1.  ก'"
ก ?กก(G($  #$
A(B! ก ?กก(G#$ #
V" ก A>$  adverb of time 

tense #
by that time by eight ooclock by then
by tomorrow by two hours
By next September I will have worked here thirty years.
We will have finished this book in June.
Present Perfect Tense (has + have + V3)
When we talk about a period of time that continues from the past until now ,
we use the Present Perfect.
ก ?กก(G ก A>$ ' #$
'   '(g!
B! V"V &ก ' ก ?กก(G#$ ก A>$ adverb of frequency
(many time , several time , over and over , over)
He has ever been to Japan.
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ก ?กก(G ก A>$  '( G  ? J>

%&# adverb of time (since, for, at last, recently, lately, so far, up to now,
up to the present time)
He has been a secretary up to now.
ก ?กก(G ก A>$  '( B
$ ก" '
B! 'sก  adverb of time (just , already ,yet)
She has just had lunch.
They have seen this movie already.
He hasnIt done his homework yet.
Present Perfect Continuous Tense (has , have) + been + Future Tense
(will, shall + V)
ก ?กก(G ก A>$ 
G  ? J>
%&# '(( G  "V 
He has been watching this film.
2. ก  tense $
stay wait sit stand lie
learn study live rest look
She has been studying in Chulalongkorn University.
3. ก V" tense $ ( Present Perfect )
be know believe
like prefer understand
We havenIt believed his stories.
She has understood this program.
1. J ก G  ?  #$
 " → %&# '(&$A(B!
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Present Perfect Tense

2. J ก G  ? ก  J>
%&# '(( ก A>$ "V
ก  (
Present Perfect Continuous Tense
Past Perfect Continuous Tense (S + had + been + Ving)
 Tense $ก ก%&# ( Past Perfect Continuous
ก(B! J>
ก >
ก A>$ Y  ก#$ 
I had been swimming for half an hour when I remembered that I had a
ก "ก"(GV " /JB9 กs '"$G  #$
Dome had been singing for years before he became an actor.
(Y V 
ก ก"(ก'  #ก
:@J2KL Past Perfect Continuous #ก(ก#&ก  กก(G
 " work , wait , sleep , write , paint
She had been sleeping in that room for 4 hours when she was woken up.
( yV  '#& 
4 #Y

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Pre M test on Tense

Direction. Choose the correct answer for each item.

1. I canot remember meeting him at any time in the ______. Yet when
_______ him on the street the other day, I could have sworn Iove known him
forever. Maybe we were friends in a _______ life.
a. passed w. past w. past
b. past w. passed w. past
c. passed w. past w. passed
d. past w. passed w. passed
2. His uncle _______ for three years.
a. died b. been died
c. been dead d. dead
3. The police _______ all the ports now.
a. are watching b. has watched
c. is watching d. have watched
4. |It _______ that there _______ a shortage of energy soon.}
|Oh, letos be prepared for it, then.}
a. is expected w. is
b. is expected w. will be
c. was expected w. would be
d. has expected w. will be
5. |What was the matter ?}}something strange ________ to me.
while I ________ home last night.}
a. was happened w. was walked
b. was happeningw. walked
c. happened w. Was walking
d. was happening w. Was walking
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6. Before the end of the eighties, air pollution a serious problem that
the health of the human race.
a. became b. will have become
c. is being become d. will be becoming
7. The patient ________ nothing but orange juice for the whole of next
a. will be having
b. will be had
c. will have had
d. will being had
8. |You look very tired.}} I am. I ________ papers all day.}
a. had marked
b. had been marking
c. am marking
d. have been marking
9. |When will you finish the letter ? It must arrive before noon tomorrow.}
| I om rather busy now. But donot worry.} ________ it by the time you
come back.
a. will be writing
b. will have written
c. would be writing
d. would have written
10. | Did anyone get killed in the accident at the bus stop? }
| Fortunately, _______ }
a. the bus had picked up ten people before the accident had occurred.
b. the bus has picked up ten people before the accident was to occur.
c. the bus picked up ten people before the accident had occurred.
d. the bus had picked up ten people the accident occurred.
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11. A: Why is the patient feeling much better, Doctor?wwwwwwwww

B: She hopes to return to Chumporn where she__________ for ten
a. lived
b. had been living
c. had lived
d. has lived
12. History__________ us that people__________ that the earth was flat.
a. tells w.used to believe b. told w.used to believe
c. tells w.are used to believing d. told w.are used to believing
13. | Do you think they will be fired? }
|Whether they will be fired or not __________on the final
decision of the committee.}
a. depends b. depend
c. is depending d. are depending
14. Kannika , the girl you __________at the party, __________my nephew.
a. meet w.marries
b. met marrying
c. have met w.will be married
d. will meet going to be married
15. She has no false ideas about the world__________ .
a. she lives and works in
b. in that she lives and works
c. in which she lives and she works in
d. where she lives and she works in
16. Has anyone __________while I __________absent?
a. been w.was being b. being w.have been
c. been w.was d. being
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17. It __________me a lot of money to have my house repaired last year.

a. cost b. wait
c. costs d. would cost
18. I __________here for the last there hours.
a. am waiting b. wait
c. waited d. have been waiting
19. The twenty € first century __________on the first of January,2001.
a. begins b. will begin
c. began d. might begin
20. At this time yesterday I __________above the Mediterranean.
a. flew b. have flown
c. was flying d. had flown

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Exercise 1 (Tenses)
Direction : Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense.
( present simple, present continuous, present perfect )
1. Our school (begin) __________at 8.30 a.m. and (end) __________at
3.30 p.m.
2. How long__________ it (take) __________you to dress , usually?
3. She will clean his room before he (come) __________.
4. Please be quiet! The baby (sleep) __________.
5. Seri (make) __________good progress in his studies at present.
6. I shall go to the movie as soon as they (be) __________ready.
7. There (be) __________a lot of changes recently.
8. We (eat) __________in that restaurant many times.
9. Listen! Someone (knock) __________at the door.
10. Nipa usually sits in the front of the class ,but today she (sit)
________ at the back row.
11. Her friend (wear) _________ very expensive clothes.
12. They (be) ________ very busy lately.
13. It (rain) ________ all day long.
14. Those two fellows (fix) __________the car right now.
15. She (leave) ________ her house at 8 ooclock every morning.
16. This coffee (taste) ________ good.
17. This cigarette case (hold) ________ thirty cigarettes.
18. Water (freeze) ________ at 320 Fahrenheit.
19. He (use) _________ this razor blade only three times : it is still good
20. She (teach) ________ French for five years.
21. They (learn) mathematics very well yet.
22. Hurry up ! We (all wait) ________ for you.
23. The children (write) ________ compositions at this moment.
24. I will tell you as soon as he (come) ________ .
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25. Weoll be glad if it (rain) ________ soon.

26. The weather (be) ________ terrible ever since last week.
27. She (see) ________ this film several times
28. They ________ already (read) ________ that magazine.
29. This medicine (consist) ________ principally of water, aspirin and sugar.
30. Please donot interrupt him while he (speak) __________ .

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Exercise 2 (Tenses)
Direction : Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense (past simple, past
continuous, past perfect, future simple, future continuous, future perfect)
1. I (live) _______ in Saraburi for three years when I (be) _______a child.
2. The phone rang while he (have) __________his bath.
3. After I (take) __________a cold shower I felt refreshed.
4. They had just finished supper when she (arrive) __________ .
5. The gardener (dig) __________in the garden when he found a valuable
old coin.
6. Before we (go) __________very far the car broke down.
7. Come on I (buy) __________you a drink.
8. Ladda (come) __________soon.
9. They (go) __________to bed after they finish watching TV
10. By the next time I see you ; I (graduate) __________ .
11. The painters (finish) __________the upstairs rooms by four ooclock
12. This time tomorrow we (lie) __________on a beach in Pattaya.
13. He (fail) __________unless he works harder.
14. As he entered the room he (take off) __________his hat.
15. She explained that she (forget) __________her keys.
16. He told me her name after she (leave) __________ .
17. When I came in, the cat (sleep) __________in my armchair.
18. She fell while she (go) __________down the stairs.
20. By next summer they (stay) __________with their parents.

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Exercise 3 (Tenses)
Direction : Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses.
1. The meeting (finish) ________ by the time we get there.
2. He (meet) ________ them in front of the office in ten minutes.
3. Porn (be) ________ in Australia since he won his scholarship.
4. She (go) ________ out at ten ooclock and hasnot returned yet .
5. The accident (occur) ________ at eleven ooclock this morning.
6. The early bird (catch) ________ the worm.
7. That umbrella (belong) ________ to my sister.
8. While she (speak) ________ the students (make) ________ notes.
9. Sir Isaac Newton (sit) ________ under a tree when an apple fell on his
10. I donot like to be disturbed if I (work) _________ .
11. He comes in while she (read) ________ a newspaper.
12. The post (just come) ________ .
13. She (work) ________ pretty well up to now.
14. By this time next year she (complete) ________ the education.
15. He (do) ________ nothing before he saw them.
16. After I (hear) ________ the news, I hurried to see her.
17. She lost her fountain € pen while she (water) ________ the flowers.
18. As he (cross) ________ road last night, he (slip) ________ and (fall)
19. Whenever they (go) ________ to Rome, they visit the Coliseum .
20. We (stay) ________ at home if it rains.

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Direction : Choose the correct answer for each item.

1. I intended to write to you several times, but something ways_______ .
a. interferes
b. interfered
c. has interfered
d. was interfering
2. If the telephone __________while I am out, please answer it.
a. will ring
b. rings
c. is going to ring
d. is ringing
3. When I met Tom yesterday, it was the first time I ________ him since
a. had seen
b. saw
c. have seen
d. see
4. Please take a message __________he calls.
a. when
b. will
c. should
d. if
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5. This is the first time I __________the experiment on plant breeding.

a. do
b. would do
c. have done
d. did
6. Up to the present time she __________writing her scientific report yet.
a. had not finished
b. does not finish
c. did not finish
d. has not finished
7. As a matter of fact, things came out rather better than I__________ .
a. have planned
b. had planned
c. would have planned
d. would planned
8. A football game, with its color, excitement, and struggles, always
_______ me.
a. fascinate
b. fascinating
c. fascinates
d. is fascinated
9. He has been collecting stamp for many years, and he _______ nearly
1000 stamps by the end of this year.
a. would collect
b. will have collected
c. would be collected
d. will have been collecting
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10. The old building __________in the town __________yesterday.

a. being situated w.was collapsed
b. having situated w.collapsed
c. situating w.collapsed
d. situated w. collapsed
11. |The singers __________here every Christmas
But this year they will not}
a. used to sing
b. get familiar with singing
c. are used to sing
d. are accustomed to singing
12. |When will your daughter come back from Chiangmai?wwwwwwww
|She __________there until the university __________.}
a. will be w.closes b. may be w.closed
c. may be w.will close d. will be w.had closed
13. |Do you often hear from John?}wwwwwwwwwwww
|No, I __________from him since I __________his last letter three
months ago.
a. didnot hear w.received
b. havenot heard w.received
c. didnot hear w.have received
d. havenot heard w.have received
14. I __________thirty cigarettes a day but now __________down to ten
a. smoke w.cut
b. smoked w.cut
c. used to smoke w.had cut
d. used to smoke w.have cut
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15. |I canot find Wanee and Wina anywhere. Have you seen them?ww. .
They __________for you __________noon.}
a. are waiting
b. have waited w.before
c. have been waiting w.since
d. had waited w.from
16. Thomas __________for Bangkok as soon as he __________about
your accident.
a. had left w.was informed
b. had left w.had been informed
c. leaves w.has been informed
d. left w.was informed
17. You ________ come to the party last week. Iom sure youod have liked
it if you
a. did w.had
b. didnot w.had
c. could w.did
d. couldnot w.did
18. While the guests were dancing, thieves broke into the house
and_________ a lot of fur coats.
a. stole
b. stealing
c. was stealing
d. has stolen
19. Up to now, the data for the research __________collected yet.
a. has not been
b. had not
c. have not been
d. had not been
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20. Sri __________a lot about the beauty of Chiangmai, and __________to
go there one day.}
a. is hearing hoping
b. has heard w.hopes
c. hears w.will hope
d. heard w.would hope

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Tense Review
Read the following passage. Decide which one of the four
choices given in each item would most suitably fit the passage.
|Can you guess what I_____(1)_____in my hand?| my friend, Tracey,
asked me. I saw that she had a small box wrapped with some coloured paper.
|Is it your engagement ring?| I asked her. We both laughed. |Why
_____(2)____you try again?| she said. I made several guesses but in the
end I_____(3)_____up.
|I_____(4)_____you open the box, Debbie,} she told me. I was
so curious that in a few seconds I_____(5)____ The wrapping and opened the
box. There was a lovely ring inside. |I am sure you would like to hear the
story of this ring.| |Of course, please_____(6)_____me in suspense,} I
|This ring_____(7)_____to bring luck to the person who wears it,|
Tracey_____(8)____ , |and it belonged to my heat grandfather who obtained it
from an Arab trader. It_____(9)_____that it was found with other treasures in
Southern Arabia, and out to Java.|_____(10)_____
She continued by relating to me how the ring was bought by a
Japanese prince who _____(11)_____a large sum of money for it. For many
years it_____(12)_____in his treasure chest until one day it was stolen by a
gang of bandits who raided the palace.
Soon afterwards the bandit chief died of a horrible disease. His
followers _____(13)_____
rid of the ring as they thought it_____(14)_____bad luck to their leader. They
threw the ring away near a market € place and a poor farmeros
wife_____(15)_____it up and sold it. Tracey concluded, |It came into my
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great grandfatheros hands and it is now in my hands. I mustnot do anything

wrong or I will be punished I suppose.|
1. a. am hold b. held
c. holding d. am holding
2. a. not b. donot
c. cannot d. didnot
3. a. give b. gave
c. given d. giving
4. a. will let b. should let
c. had let d. would let
5. a. have tear b. has teared
c. had torn d. had tear
6. a. donot kept b. do not keeps
c. not keep d. donot keep
7. a. is supposing b. was supposed
c. is supposed d. is supposing
8. a. begins b. begun
c. began d. beginning
9. a. seems b. seem
c. seemed d. is seemed
10. a. was snuggled b. been smuggled
c. is smuggled d. smuggled
11. a. have pay b. is paid
c. was paying d. paid
12. a. lain b. lay
c. laid d. lies
13. a. wanted to get b. wanted to got
c. want to get d. get
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14. a. had bringed b. had brought

c. was brought d. will bring
15. a. pick b. picked
c. is picked d. was picking

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News report 1
Complete the news report. Put each into the correct form.
An eight € year € old boy has disappeared.
Mark Davidson disappear
ww.(1)ww.yesterday from the 1. not return
park near his home in Copley Road, 2. live
Dulverstone. The Davidsons ww..(2)wwfive 3. go
Minuteso walk away from the park. 4. play
Mark ww.(3)wwto the park at four 5. play
ooclock and ww.(4)ww. Football with his 6. sit
friends. After they ww..(5)ww.for about an 7. leave
hour, they ww.(6)wwdown for a rest. 8. be
Mark ww(7)ww.the park at quarter past 9. walk
five. He ww.(8)ww..alone. A man who 10. see
ww.(9)ww.his dog www(10)wwwhim go out 11. see
through the gate. No one ww..(11)ww.. 12. question
Mark since then. Policeww..(12)ww. Local 13. speak
residents, and so far they ww.(13)ww.. to 14. want
about two hundred people. They 15. lie
ww.(14) question a middle € aged 16. search
man in a green sweater who ww.(15)ww.
on the grass near the park exit at five
ooclock. At the moment police and
other helpers ww.(16)ww..nearby fields
and woods in the hope of fending the
missing boy.
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News report 2
Complete the radio news report. Put in the correct form of the
†Hello. I ww..(1)ww... to you from Oxford, 1. speak
where the finals of the World Quiz 2. know
Championships will begin tomorrow. The 3. hear
favourite is Claude Jennings from 4. take
Cornwall, the man who ww..(2)ww.. 5. answer
everything. Twelve months, although 6. arrive
ww..(3)ww...of Claude Jennings, although 7. wait
he ww(4)ww..part in quiz competitions for 8. read
years. Now suddenly he is a big star. so
far this year he www(5)wwwevery single
question correctly. And he is popular
too. When he ww..(6)wwwhere two days
ago, hundreds of fans www.(7)
welcome him at the station.
Since his arrival Claude ww..(8)www
encyclopedias in his hotel bedroom. He
is clearly the man to watch. And now
back to the Radio Ten News Desk.o
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T20U Tenses 567V=กB

Present Simple V=กBกBW Future simple Present simple V=กBกBW Present Continuous

when while ?

as soon an
If Present Continuous V=กBกBW Present Continuous
future till Present
while ?
Simple until before Simple
provided Past Simple V=กBกBW Past Simple
(that) as ?

Past Simple V=กBกBW Past Continuous Past Simple V=กBกBW Past Perfect

Past Continuous when Past Simple Past Perfect before Past Simple
Past Simple after Past Perfect
Past Simple while Past
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 Adverbs !"#$%& Tenses

Present Tenses

Simple Continuous am Ving Perfect + have + V3

Always, nearly Now, just now, right now, many times, several
Always, usually, at the present time, times, over and over,
Often, generally, in a minute, so far, up to now,
Sometimes, ever, at present, today since, for, up to + the
Rarely, seldom, present time, at last,
Never, hardly recently, lately, just,
Every day, every, already, yet, all day
Now + and them, long , all night long
at times, from + time
to time, once
(twice, three)
times a day
กก ก
ก ก    

Past Tense

Simple +V2 Continuous + were +Ving Perfect (had + V3)

Yesterday, last - 567ก Past Simple 89 when - 567ก Past Simple
(night, week) 8:; while 89 before 8:;
ago, at that time, after ก
ก  Past Continuous
this morning,
 Past Perfect
all the morning, - =>?@:A979B9กCก ?79
when (I was young), at nine o0clock yesterday
in (1960)
at this time last week

Future Tenses

will be will
Simple shall +v Continuous will
+ ving Perfect shall
+ have + V3

Tomorrow , next =>?@:F>GA979B9กCก ?79 by that time , by tomorrow

(week , month) at this time next year by then , in a weekHs time,
in (time) , soon every Sunday next week by the end of May
กก ก
ก ก    


 , #   (B
Z '( B
( ˆ .
Grammar.  B#&' , 2540.
กก ก
ก ก    

กก ก
ก ก    



1.b 2.c 3.a 4.b 5.c

6.b 7.a 8.d 9.b 10.d
11.d 12.a 13.a 14.b 15.b
16. c 17.a 18.d 19.b 20.c
กก ก
ก ก    


1. begins, ends 2. does it take

3. comes 4. is sleeping
5. is making 6. are
7. have been 8. have eaten
9. is knocking 10. is sitting
11. wears 12. have been
13. has rained 14. are fixing
15. leaves 16. tastes
17. holds 18. freezes
19.has used 20. has taught
21. have learned 22. are all waiting
23. are writing 24. comes
25. rains 26. has been
27. has seen 28. have already read
29. consists 30. is speaking
กก ก
ก ก    


1. lived, was 2. was having

3. has taken 4. arrived
5. was digging 6. went
7. shall buy 8. will come, is coming
9. will go 10. will (shall) have graduated
11. will have finished 12. will (shall) be lying
13. will fail 14. took off
15. has forgotten 16. had left
17. was sleeping 18. was going
19. exploded 20. will have stayed
กก ก
ก ก    


1. will have finished 2. will meet

3. has been 4. went
5. was occurring 6. catches
7. belongs 8. was speaking, were making
9. was sitting 10. am working
11. is reading 12. has just come
13. has worked 13. will have completed
15. has done 14. had heard
17. was watering 18. was crossing, slipped, fell
19. go 20. will (shall) stay
กก ก
ก ก    


1. b 2. b 3. c 4. d 5 .c
6. d 7. b 8. c 9. b 10. d
11. a 12. a 13. b 14. d 15. c
16. d 17. d 18. a 19. a 20. b
กก ก
ก ก    


1.d 2.b 3.b 4.a 5.c

6.d 7.c 8.c 9.a 10.a
11.d 12.b 13.a 14.b 15.b
กก ก
ก ก    

News report 1

1. did not/ didnot return 2. live

3. went 4. played
5. od/has played 6. sat
7. left 8. was
9. was walking 10. Saw
11. has seen 12. are questioning or
13. have spoken have been questioning
(† ve spoken) 14. want
15. was lying 16. are searching
กก ก
ก ก    


1. Rm / am speaking 2. knows
3. has heard 4. Rd/has been taking
5. Rs/ has answered 6. arrived
7. were waiting 8. has been reading
กก ก
ก ก    

กก ก
ก ก    

1.c 2.b 3.d 4.a 5.c
6.b 7.d 8.c 9.d 10.a
11.b 12.b 13.c 14d 15.d
16.a 17.a 18.b
1. The screaming gulls flew seaward.
2. No one sat in the broken chair.
3. The visitors admired the books bound in red leather.
4. A fence surtounding the grounds provides privacy.
กก ก
ก ก    

5. We skated across the frozen fields.

6. Jack fixed the leaking faucet.
7. The crowded ship sails toward land.
8. The skipper raised the torn flag.
9. We saw the thief hiding inside.
10. Manat rsed thr broom standing nearby.
11. Joe admired the trophy held by dard.
12. We watched the student holding a baton.
13. Dust raised by the wind filled the air.
14. She sat in the hall waiting for a taxi.
15. Having given/ him some medicine, the doctor sent
Given him home.

2.1 Introduction
Participles  J>
Gก @e#
ก‰e  Z#BA  G
Y  ing  ก" present participle 
"#$ g!ก(Gก #$
" a crying baby sกกG'#

V  ? V.3  ก" past participle 
#$ g!J!กก(G " a broken desk Y Š( #ก
Participle &"
ก  2  ?
1. present Participle ( 2. Past Participle (V.3)
2.2 Present Participles (
กก ก
ก ก    

ก $ G B?
" aB<.UbcV@ก2d5Lก28>B<
กก#$ #
  phrase (') ก   ก" present participle phrase
B?(Y  Simple Sentence 2 (Y  A (Y   ก#
/@567eAdLe/=C:C Present participles
1. V G ( + noun) "
Let talking students be out of the room. ก(Y 
Let students who are talking be out of the room.
'" #ก  กG'#
 ก#  !"ก 
2.  phrase (') G G?U ( + word or words) "
Seeing his moth, the boy ran away.
ก(Y  Simple Sentence 2 (Y (y   ก# #
 ก#  Simple Sentence (Y    Y # (y ?ก#
 1 # ก  ก ก"G  V-ing (Y & กV  #
The boy saw his mother. The boy ran away.
Being tired out, she wanted to rest.  ก  2 (Y ?
She was tired out. She wanted to rest.

2.3 Past Participles (V.3)

ก $ G B?
"#$ g!J!กก(G กก#$ #
phrase (') ก   ก" past participle phrase B?(Y  Simple
Sentence 2 (Y  A (Y   ก#

/@567eAdLe/=C:C Past participles

1.  !" G (V.3 + noun) ? '#
G (noun + V.3) ? 
transitive Verb (Vt. ก  
ก#&) '(V G "
?  intransitive verb (vi ก V" 
ก #&) "
The stolen car last night is mine. (Vt.)
กก ก
ก ก    

The car stolen last night is mine. ก(Y 

The car which was stolen last night is mine.
W#J!กAY ??'
Please change the faded roses in the vase. (Vi.) ก
Please change the roses which were faded in the
" '  กก '   'ก# 

/a>./0 G?U G

 ก#& passive voice (by + noun)
Past Participles (V.3) ( !" '#
G "
I saw a boy punished by his mother. ก(Y 
I saw a boy who was punished by his mother.
W# s sก  >
G #& transitive verb Jก  '#
 Ving  "JV"ก
I heard you arresting a pick - pocket
( a pick € pocket ก)
I heard you arrested. (V"ก  '#
2.  !" '#
verb to be G   passive voice (is, am, are, was, were +
v.3) "
He was sentenced to death. ( AJ!ก # (  )
3.  phrase (') G G?U (V.3 + word or words) "
Punished by his mother, he cried bitterly.
J!ก"GYe A
V  "
ก(Y  Simple sentence 2 (Y (y   ก# #
 ก#   Simple Sentence (Y   Y # (y ?ก#
 1 # ก  ก ก"G  past participle (V3) (Y & กV  #
He was punished by his mother. He cried bitterly.
กก ก
ก ก    

? She was permitted to rest. She went immediately. Phrase Permitted to
rest, she went immediately.
V #&‹  B#ก '"V#
4. Past Participle  adverb A  V  (adv. + pp. + noun) "
A well € designed dress = a dress which is designed well.
A carefully € driven man = a man who driven carefully.
/a>./0 : compound Adjectives  ก ก noun + ed
'( adjective + noun + ed '" Œ>
 (! ?ก#& past
participle #
a. noun + ed = new adjective " talent + ed = talented Œ>

BJ>=C a talented boy gets the first prize.
b. adjective + noun + ed = new adjective "
long + leg + ed. = long € legged Œ>
BJ>=C He wears long M legged trousers.
2.4 Combination of sentences by using participles.
ก(Y  Simple Sentence 2 (Y    Simple Sentence
(Y   ก# 2 '#กe( ?
1. (yA
2 (Y   #  ก#
2. (yA
2 (Y V"" #  ก#
1. ก22JaU2dh>567a6U2diBJ.96>JกB a6/ABก9BC6<
1) # (yก # >
J(y  noun # >
'( pronoun
'(ก # >
  # pronoun $

2) !ก G#‹ (finite verb) A

2 (Y 
a :- Jก  ก A>$ก"  !"! active form '(  past
simple tense ' ก #$  present participle (
b :- Jก  ก A>$ก" !"! passive form (Verb to be + v.3)
  # verb to be ก '? " v.3 (p.p.) ? being + v.3 กsV 
กก ก
ก ก    

c :- Jก  ก A>$ก" !"! active form '(  past perfect
tense (had + V3)   '  had  having ? # had ก '  V.3

ก28>5675L.Ub /2X v3 eAd?@L/@LX7 .26>กJ= participial

phrase 567.ก89Kก participle B7.C
a : He believed the beggaros story. He gave her fifty baht.
= Believing the beggaros story. He gave her fifty baht.
b : He was arrested by the police. He was sent to the prison.
= Arrested by the police. He was sent to the prison.
? Being arrested by the police, he was sent to the prison.
c : She had worked hard all day, She felt tired.
= Having worked hard all day, she felt tired.
? Working hard all day, she felt tired.
2. ก22JaU2dh>567ka=?=U2diBJ.96>JกB a6/ABก9BC6<
1) (yA
2 (Y V" # $

2) !ก G#‹ (finite verb) A

2 (Y 
a :- Jก  ก A>$ก" !"! active form '(  past simple
tense ' ก #$  past perfect tense (had + V3) '( '   had
b :- Jก  ก A>$ก" !"! passive form (verb to be + V3)
  '   had been + V3 ' '  had  having
c :- Jก  ก A>$ก" !"! active form '(  past perfect
tense (had + V3)   '  had  having
phrase  ก A>$$  ก" absolute phrase
a :- She sat on the bench. A scorpion stung her.
กก ก
ก ก    

She had sat on the bench. A scorpion stung her.

= She having sat on the bench, a scorpion stung her.
b :- She was taken to hospital, the doctor examined her.
She had been taken to hospital. The doctor examined her.
= She having been taken to hospital. The doctor examined her.
c :- He had worked for two days. A table was finally finished.
= He having worked for two days, a table was finally finished.
T20U Combination of sentences by using participle
1. (yA
2 (Y   #  ก#
1.1 (y  noun '( pronoun $

1.2 ก  ก ก" !"!'( tense #

$ ( !" (Y )

Active form passive form

was + V3
past simple tense (V2) past simple tense were

ก  '   Ving ก  '   V3 ? Being + + V3

Ex Ex
he believed the beggaros story. He was arrested by the police.
He gave her fifty baht. He was sent to the prison.
= Believing the beggaros story , he = Arrested by the police he was
กก ก
ก ก    

gave her fifty baht. he gave sent to the

Being arrested by the police he
past perfect tense (had +V3) was sent to
ก  '   Having + V3 ? The prison.
She had worked hard all day.
She felt tired.
= Having worked hard all day ,
she felt tired.

2. (yA
2 (Y V"" #  ก#
2.1 V" # (y$

2.2 ก  ก ก" !"!'( tense #


active form Passive form

was +
past simple tense (V2) past simple tense V3
ก  '   having + V3 ก  '   having + been + V3
Ex. Ex.
She sat on the bench. She was taken to hospital.
A scorpion stung her. The doctor examined her.
= She having sat on the bench , = She having been taken to
a scorpion stung her. hospital, the doctor examined her.
กก ก
ก ก    

Past perfect tense (had +V3)

ก  '   Having + V3

He had worked for two days.
A table was finally finished.
= He having worked for two days ,
a table
table was finally finished.

T20U participle phrase

1. Ving wwwwwwwwwwwwwww. , S wwwwwwwwwwwww.
2. V3 ww.wwwwwwwwwww.ww. , S wwwwwwwwwwwww.
3. Having V3 wwwwwwwwwwww. , S wwwwwwwwwwwww.
4. Having been + V3 wwwwwwwwwwww. , S
กก ก
ก ก    

5. Being + Adj wwwwwwww.. , S wwwwwwwwwwww..

Pre M test on Participles

DIRECTION : Choose the correct answer for each item.
1. The baby was holding a box _____________a glass when I came in.
a. contained b. being contained
c. containing d. was contained
2. ________ unable to fine the key, he was unable to enter the house.
a. Having b. Being
กก ก
ก ก    

c. To be d. Was
3. ________ told her everything, he drew his last breath.
a. Being b. Be
c. Had d. Having
4. She sat down, _________ weary.
a. sighing b. to sigh
c. sighed d. sigh
5. I smell something_________ .
a. to burn b. burns
c. burning d. be burned
6. The soldiers marched along the street, _________ their arms.
a swing b. swinging
c. swung d. to swing
7. One school report described him as a very shy boy-innumerable
a. suffered with b. suffered from
c. suffering with d. suffering from
8. _____________the office _____________Alfred went away.
a. Finding, close b. Fine, closed
c. Finding, closed d. To find, closed
9. Joe admired the trophy _____________by Nancy
a. holding b. being held
c. holded d. held
10. The _____________siren alerted the town.
a. shrieking b. shriekened
c. being shrieked d. shrieken
11. Dust _____________filled the air.
a. the wind raised b. raised by the wind
c. raising by the wind d. the wind raising
กก ก
ก ก    

12. Mali enjoys_____________ .

a. importing olives from Italy.
b. olives imported from Italy.
c. imported olives from Italy.
d. olives importing from Italy.
13. The skier _____________is my friend.
a. came down the hill
b. come down the hill
c. coming down the hill
d. have come down the hill
14. I like_____________ .
a. the displayed shoes there.
b. the displaying shoes there.
c. the shoes displaying there.
d. the shoes displayed there.
15. a. Seeds cluttered the lawn carried by the wind.
b. Seeds carrying by the wind cluttered.
c. Carried Seeds by the wind cluttered the lawn.
d. Seeds carried by the wind cluttered the lawn.

16. _____________the street, she was knocked by a car.

a. Crossing b. Crossed
c. Having sent d. Being crossed
17. _____________the telegram, he waited for a reply.
a. Sending b. Sent
c. Having sent d. Being sent
18. _____________very poor, they could not send their son abroad.
a. Were b. Being
c. Having been d. Been
กก ก
ก ก    


Exercise 1
Direction : Combined the following sentences by using Present
Participle or Past
1. The gulls flew seaward. The gulls were screaming.
2. No one sat in the chair. The chair was broken.
กก ก
ก ก    

3. The visitors admired the books. The books were bound in red leather.
=wwwwwwwww wwwwwwwwwwwww..
4. A fence provides privacy. A fence is surrounding the grounds.
5. We skated across the fields. The fields were frozen.
6. Jack fixed the faucet. The faucet was leaking.
7. The ship sails toward land. The ship is crowded.
8. The skipper raised the flag. The flag was torn.
9. We saw the thief. The thief was hiding inside.
10. Man at used the broom. The broom was standing nearby.
11. Joe admired the trophy. The trophy was held by Dara.
12. We watched the student, The student was holding a baton.

13. Dust filled the air. Dust was raised by the wind.
14. She sat in the hall. She waited for a taxi
15. The doctor had given him some medicine. The doctor sent him home.
16. He saw a tiger. He ran away.
กก ก
ก ก    

17. She was tired of concept. She sat down to rest.

18. He was punished yesterday. He felt ashamed.
19. The sun had risen. The fox disappeared.
20. He returned home. She had gone to the hospital.


Exercise 2.
Direction : Choose the correct answer for each item.
1. When I told the nurse I wanted some eggs she asked me if I wanted
them ______________ .
a. boil or fry b. boiled or fried
c. boiling or frying d. being boiled or fried
2. Having visited Bangkok, _______________ .
a. Chiangmai was the next trip
กก ก
ก ก    

b. The tourists went to Chiangmai

c. the tourists have been to Chiangmai
d. Chiangmai would be seen next
3. The student, _______________his lesson thoroughly was prepared for
the exam.
a. to study b. studied
c. studying d. having studied
4. He bought a car_______________ .
a. has made b. made in Japan
c. make in Japan d. being made in Japan
5. The book _______________from the bookstore is about Japanese
a. bought b. was bought
c. buying d. has been bought
6. The frightened baby _______________hard, was clinging to its mother.
a. cried b. cry
c. crying d. being cry

7. |The man devoted his life to help poor people.}

|The work ___________ by this man is almost impossible to believe.

a. being done b. doing

c. did d. done
8. |What did the manager say?}
|He said that any worker ___________ away from work will be
กก ก
ก ก    

a. stay b. stayed
c. staying d. to stay
9. ___________ at 2 a.m., Tawan was thought ___________ the suspect.
a. Seen and left
b. Seen leaving be
c. To be seen leaving be
d. Tawan seen and left be
10. ___________ in a high branch of the tree, the cat __________ only by.
a man using a long ladder.
a. Trapping w.was reached
b. Trapping w.had been reached
c. Trapped reached
d. Trapped w.could be reached
11. _________by a long walk, John went straight to bed on reaching home.
a. Having been exhausted b. Being exhausted
c. To have exhausted d. To be exhausted

12. _________ six cans of beer, Wichai handed his car € keys to one of
his friends
a. Drinking b. Being drunk
c. Having drunk d. To drink
13. The child opened the heavy oak door. _______________ , he trembled
a. Not knowing what expect
b. Had he not known what to expect
กก ก
ก ก    

c. Not to know what to expect

d. He did not know what to expect
14. Susan sat in the sun , _______________ what the future would bring.
a. wondered b. wonder
c. to wonder d. wondering
15. They stood in the front hall shaking hands with the _______________
a. departed b. having departed
c. departing d. being departed


Finite Verb ? ก G#‹ ?ก  # 1 A

(Y ( 
tense '((y
Ex. He is playing the piano.
She bought a lot books.
Non M Finite Verb ? ก  # 2 A
(Y  (g# ก  # 1 "#$
  ก# 3 ! ?
1. Infinitive with to
กก ก
ก ก    

2. Infinitive without to
3. Gerund (Ving)
Ex They agreed to do their homework. (1)
We let him go out. (2)
She avoided singing Chinese song. (3)
/a>./0 :
- Jก  '#
ก  # 1 
" ก( g!Gก  # 2
- JV"ก  '#
ก  # 1 
" (y( g!Gก  # 2

#$ก  #
"V$ ? Finite Verb ( 
  Non € Finite Verb 3
! "#$

ก2?@ Infinitive with to , Infinitive without to , Gerund

Infinitive with to Infinitive without to

1. Verb + to + Verb (infinitive) 1. Verb + to + Verb (infinitive)
agree arrange auxiliary verb ? (helping verb)
attempt care had better ( †d better)
consent decide would rather ( †d rather)
deserve endeavour would sooner ( †d sooner)
fail forget
กก ก
ก ก    

hesitate hope Ex.

learn manage He might go to England.
mean plan She had better go to bed early.
refuse swear
Ex. He tries to drink milk.
They plan to save money.

Infinitive with to Infinitive without to

2. V + n , pron. + to + V (infinitive) 2. V + n , pron. + V (infinitive)
advise allow bid help
beseech cause let make
command compel
encourage force Ex.
instruct invite She let her daughter play the guitar.
order permit >ก.J@ (Y  passive voice 

persuade press  to G ก   " let V" 

remind request  passive voice
Ex. Ex.
He allowed her to watch TV. He makes them take a bath.
She invites me to have dinner. They are made to take a bath by him.
กก ก
ก ก    

Infinitive with to Infinitive without to

3. V + to + V (infinitive) 3. V + n , porn. + V (infinitive) ?
V + n , pron. + to + V (infinitive) V + n , pron. + V ing
Ask beg feel hear
Desire expect notice observe
Hate like see watch
Prefer prepare
Promise trouble
Want wish

Ex. Ex.
I expect to finish this exercise. He heard the boy cry. (crying)
I expect him to finish this exercise. We notice him sleep.
ก  (Y  passive voice 

 to ก 

He heard her cry.
She was heard to cry by him.
กก ก
ก ก    

Gerund (Ving)
Gerund ?ก   ing 'G  G #ก('"ก ?
 ก   Verbs ก'"$( 
1. V + V ing
to be busy come go sit
appreciate avoid admit be no use
delay deny detest (hate) complete keep on
consider canot help enjoy escape
feel like finish go on get through to
give up miss mind canot stand
postpone practice worth keep
to be no good imagine recall risk
loathe (dislike) suggest would you mind

Ex. Would you mind passing me that book?

He gave up smoking.
2. V + Preposition + V ing /2X V + adj. + preposition + V ing
to be accustomed to  ,  "
to be afraid of ก'#
to be fond of &
to be interested in 
to be tired of &?
to be used to  ,  "
to devote to Z , & , '(
to give up '( , 'ก
กก ก
ก ก    

to look forward to Ž

to object to # 
to prevent w.from ก#V" 
to prohibit from 
to succeed in G s
to take to &
to think of  J>

Ex. They are interested in swimming.

He succeeded in cooking dinner.
3. V + V ing /2X V + to + V (infinitive) ก ก'"$J V #$

Gerund '( Infinitive  "  ( ก "

ก# B
begin canot bear (stand) V"V 
commence continue cease like
love hate intend prefer
remember neglect plan try
start stop
Ex. He begins doing (to do) his work.
She likes playing (to play) the piano.
/a>./0 ก  !" ' #J V #$
Gerund '( Infinitive  "
  ( ' '
'sก "
1. She tried to sing this song. B  (

She tried driving a car.  '

2. Remember to return him his book.   %&#
= Donot forget to return.  "'?"
??  A( ( ?GV "
I remember returning his book.     W#GV "
V ? #
กก ก
ก ก    

3. They stopped to eat. (stop + to + V  B?(Gก #$)

=  B?ก
They stopped eating (stop + V ing  กก(G#$)
=  กV '
4. Tata forgot to phone to me last night.
= '?(Y   ?? ( #
V"V Y)
Tata forgot phoning to me last night.
= '?V"V Y   ??
5. I regret to tell you the truth.
= W#  ( 
ก" ( #
V"V &ก)
I regreted telling you the truth.
= W#!>ก  V &ก
ก"V (&กV')
JG Verb   GV  Y ก  ing ? to  V
Y ('" ก ?  Y (   กB
To study here is convenient to you.
To play in the rain is dangerous to your health.
 "%&#$ V"" ( "
(Y '#กe($ก#ก Y ( A 
(Y  "  #
$ Y  It is A>$ (Y 
* It is convenient to you to study here.
* It is dangerous to you health to play in the rain.
J  Ving A>$ (Y  Y  (y(J!ก 
Walking is useful to us.
Eating to much makes us sick.
KL '#
Prepositions #ก(   V ing "
She left me without saying anything.
After clearing his problems, John was relieved.
Santi goes on his speech continuously.
กก ก
ก ก    

Pre M Test on Infinitive and Gerund

DIRECTION : Choose the correct answer for each item.
1. This English test measured the ability of students________ .
a. in listening, in reading comprehension and in self expression.
b. in regards to oneos listening, reading with comprehension and how
to express oneself.
c. to know how to listen, how to read with comprehension and how to
express oneself.
d. in listening, reading with comprehension and to express oneself in
2. David prefers _________ to_________ .
a. skiing, skating b. to ski, skate
c. ski, skating d. to ski, skating
3. |Do you feel that Thai people have gradually changed?}
|Yes, Western influence and economic problems have made them
________ their religion.}
a. to neglect b. neglected
c. neglect d. neglecting
4. He said he was tired ________ the same complaints.
a. by hearing b. to hear
c. in hearing d. of hearing
5. They went straight home after ________ the club.
a. left b. leaving
c. to leave d. leave
6. John spends every free hour _____________science fiction.
a. to read b. read
c. at reading d. reading
กก ก
ก ก    

7. She urged _________ for dinner.

a. us to stay b. we to stay
c. us staying d. us stay
8. Mr.Brown was _________ his watch in his pocket.
a. surprised to not find b. surprised to find not
c. surprised not to find d. surprising not to find
9. He advised them _________ harder.
a. worked b. working
c. to work d. work
10. I helped her ________ the examination.
a. passed b. pass
c. passing d. passes
11. Tom said that he wouldnot mind________ .
a. to wait for us b. wait for us
c. for waiting us d. waiting for us
12. Is this book worth _________ ?
a. reading b. to read
c. reads d. read
13. You _________ your visa extended before it expires.
a. had better to get b. had better get
c. had to get better d. had better got
14. It is difficult for me _________ their questions.
a. answered b. answer
c. to answering d. to answer
กก ก
ก ก    

15. If Mr.Walker talks to Miss Blunt much longer, heos likely _________
his train.
a. to miss b. missing
c. miss d. of missing
16. Charles would rather _________ football than_________ .
a. played, ate b. to play, to eat
c. play, eat d. playing, eating
17. I hope _________ from you soon.
a. hear b. to hear
c. hearing d. for hearing
18. Please practice _________ that exercise again.
a. writing b. write
c. to write d. written
19. This watch needs_________ .
a. to clean b. be cleaned
c. cleaning d. clean
20. Make him _________ his homework more carefully.
a. doing b. done
c. to do d. do

กก ก
ก ก    

Exercise 1. infinitive and Gerund

DIRECTION : Choose the correct answer for each item.
1. This watch need ___________ .
a. clean b. to clean
c. be cleaned d. to be cleaned
2. She will explain the situation ____________ the boss in detail.
a. to b. at c. with d. for
3. We are both looking forward ____________ next week.
a. to go on vacation
b. going on vacation
c. to going on vacation
d. to be going on vacation
4. Jim always eats a lot. This eating habit causes
_________ uncomfortable.
a. he feels b. him to feel
c. him feeling d. to feel
5. The night was clear, but very cool. A biting wind made the girls
_________ under their blankets.
a. shivered b. shiver
c. shivering d. to shiver
6. Last Sunday I _________ three hours in the morning _________up
in the mountains.
a. took, to walk b. used to walk
c. found, walking d. spent, walking
7. He took some medicine, but forgot _________ it before
_________ it. Now heos jumping up and down.
a. to shake € take b. shaking - take
c. to shake € taking d. shaking € taking
กก ก
ก ก    

8. She advise him __________ an adviser.

a. to see b. seeing
c. see d. seen
9. He let them __________ to see the film.
a. go b. to play
c. going d. to going
10. He watched his sons__________ .
a. play b. to play
c. going d. to be played
11. She is made __________ by me.
a. work b. working
c. to be worked d. to work
12. Itos better __________ it yourself than to ask someone to help you.
a. do b. to do
c. doing d. to be done
13. We never forget __________ our books to school.
a. bring b. to have brought
c. to bring d. bringing
14. Do you remember __________ Sanit at the races yesterday?
a. met b. done
c. meet d. meeting
15. Make him __________ his homework more carefully.
a. doing b. done
c. to do d. do
กก ก
ก ก    

Exercise 2
DIRECTION : Choose the correct answer for each item.

1. Some children wish people wouldnot keep on __________ out now,

years ago, children were made _________ far more respect to their elders.
a. pointing b. pointing w.showing
c. pointing show d. point w.showing
2. Itos no use ____________him really. You know he had no choice
but _________ as he was told.
a. to blame b. blaming do
c. to blame w.doing d. to be blamed
3. If catch you____________ again I shall make you stay in after school
some extra work.
a. cheating do b. to cheat w.doing
c. cheated w.done d. cheat w.doing
4. Itos right that he should have failed since he started _________ a few
weeks before the exam.
a. to work b. worked
c. working d. to be worked
5. I canot stand _________ the same word many times.
a. repeating b. repeats
c. repeat d. repeated
6. _________ take this book from the library without permission.
a. Youod better not to b. Youod better not
c. Better donot you d. Itos better you not
7. In regard to the proposal to raise dues, ________ postpone the
matter until the next meeting.
a. let us to b. let us
c. letos us d. letos us to
กก ก
ก ก    

8. |Have you finished __________ hat book?}

a. to read
b. reading read
c. to read w.reading
d. reading w.reading
9. |The concert will begin in a few minutes.}
|__________ or weoll be late.}
a. Weod better hurry
b. We should be hurry
c. We must be hurry
d. Weod rather to hurry
10. |Iom surprised to know that Maria___________ .}
|I hope she wonot be disappointed.}
a. looks forward to be married
b. is looking forward to being married
c. looks forward to marrying
d. is looking forward to marry
11. |She __________ where he had fallen.} |She is very cruel.}
a. permitted him to lay
b. let him lay
c. allowed him lie
d. let him lie
12. We went ____________at the pool last Saturday.
a. swimming
b. swam
c. to swimming
d. swim
กก ก
ก ก    

13. The institute is committed to ____________the quality of life in Asia

through teaching and research in technology and through the promotion of
human resourcefulness.
a. improve b. improving
c. be improved d. have improved
14. |How should I prepare myself for the university entrance examination,
Somsri?} Itos no use __________ when the examination drawing near}
a. worry b. to worry
c. worrying d. to have worried
15. |Whatos the matter with him?}
|Oh, I guess ________ this test.
a. heos rather sleeping than passing
b. heoll rather sleep than pass
c. heod rather sleep than pass
d. heod rather to sleep than to pass
16. A financial crisis often has the effect of making many people __________
to more stable and prosperous lands.
a. to decide emigrating
b. to decide to emigrate
c. decided to emigrate
d. decide to emigrate
17. A : Did you recognize that charming girl?
B : Why not? ____________with her last night.
a. I remember dancing
b. I remember dance
c. I remembered dancing
d. I remembered having danced
18. If you see Niyom, __________you mind __________him to get in touch
กก ก
ก ก    

with me?
a. will w.reminding b. will remind
c. would w.reminding d. would remind
19. |Do you thing we should leave now?
|Yes, itos wiser ____________before the traffic gets too heavy.}
a. than leaving b. to leave
c. when leaving d. leave

กก ก
ก ก    

4.1 Introduction
Subjunctive  J>
ก J '(

ก(   ?( VV  ? VV"V %&#
'(  Subjunctive &"
ก  3 ( @ ?
1. Present Subjunctive
2. Past Subjunctive
3. Past Perfect Subjunctive
4.2 Present Subjunctive
Present Subjunctive  J>
ก G '(
J VV   กก  3 (ก V ก"
1. eT9CJa@Cก2 (Demands or Requests) ก (Y #$
Subj. + V + that + subj. (should) + infinitive without to ก  '"#$ V ก"
Advise ((G ,#
) ask (A
) command (#
Demand ( 
ก , 
A) suggest ((G)
Insist ( ?ก) move ( ) order (#
Prefer (&กก"() urge (ก( ) propose ( )
Recommend ((G) request (A
) requir ( 
2. eT9CJaKL.Ub (Necessities) V ก"(Y A>$   ' "V$
It is important that + subj. + (should) +
Essential infinitive
กก ก
ก ก    

3. eT9CJaU22o (Wishes) V ก"(Y A>$  

It is (my, his etc.) wish that + subj. + (should) + infinitive without to
* /a>./0  '#
that ( should ?V"กsV ( 

She insisted that I (should) be here at seven ooclock.
I suggested that she (should) come early.
It is necessary that they (should) work harder.
It is my wish that he (should) take her out to dinner.
The doctor advised that the patient be rest.
It is better that we take the examination.
It is her wish that you do that work.
4.3 Past Subjunctive
Past Subjunctive  J>
JV" ก A>$

%&# (Present Unreal) G
Past Subjunctive
V ก" wish, if only, as if, as though (Y   '#
G '"$ ก ( 
Past tense TL/2BW verb to be ?@ were กBW50กW020p
I wish I were a millionaire. (but I am not)
He wishes he finished his work. (but he doesnot)
If only he came! = I wish he came. (but he doesnot)
 if only  wish V 
She looks as if (as though) she were a teacher. (but she isnot)
They act as if (as though) they knew this project well. (but they donot)
กก ก
ก ก    

1. wish (   that ?V"กsV 
2.  wish ? as if, as though ก ! present ?g!B! U 
%&# ! past ? g!B! U  
4.4 Past Perfect Subjunctive
Past perfect Subjunctive  J>
JV" ก A>$

  (Past Unreal) G
Past Perfect
Subjunctive V ก" wish, only, as if, as though (Y   '#
G '"$ก (
 Past perfect tense
I wish she had gone to the party last night. (but she didnot)
He wished he had been here yesterday. (but he didnot)
If only he had won the prize. (but he didnot)
They talked as if (as though) they had known everything. (but they didnot)
He walked as if (as though) he had been drunk.
/a>./0 กก wish , if only , as if , as though (
Subjunctive ' #
'? U '#กe(  ก#กV ก"
itos time J>
would rather  ก( wwกก"
itos high time ก" ''
would sooner  ก( ww..กก"
itos about time (V  '
supposed (that) ,supposing  "
กก ก
ก ก    

It is time the students had breakfast.
ItIs about time the class began.
Supposing we go up late !
IId rather you made a speech. (I would rather)
I would sooner he helped you.
ก2?@ wish
1. wish (
J%&#   '( #
I wish I were a Prime Minister. (Present)
He wishes he had got a scholarship last month. (past)
She wishes he would call up her. (Future)
2. wish = want ( 
 !"! Subj. + wish + (object) + to + infinitive
Ex : He wishes to be an engineer. AJ( Zก
She wished him to come here. yJ  A
กก ก
ก ก    

T20U Subjunctive
Present subjunctive example
Advise order Subj. + V + that + Subj. + (should) +
Insist request infinitive
Purpose demand without to
ask prefer she insisted that I (should) be here at
move require seven
recommend suggest ooclock.
command urge I suggested that she (should) come
The doctor advised that the patient be

Present subjunctive example

It is necessary that they

(should) work harder.
It is Essential that It is better that we
(should) take the examination.

It is my wish that he (should) take her

It is (my , his , etc.) wish that out to
It is her wish that you (should) do that
กก ก
ก ก    

past subjunctive
past perfect subjunctive example

wish itos time past subjunctive ก  '#

G '"$
if only itos high him 
as if itos about time past tense (V" 
as though supposed I wish I were a millionaire. (but Iom not)
would rather supposed If only he came. (but he doesnot)
would sooner ItIs about time the class began_(but it

past perfect subjunctive

ก  '#
G '"$  past perfect

It is the students had had breakfast.

(but they didnot)
Supposing we had finished our
(but we didnot)
กก ก
ก ก    

Pre M Test on Subjunctive

DIRECTION : Choose the correct answer for each item.

1. Why did you break your promise ?
I wish you ____________ it.
a. kept b. to keep
c. had kept d. would keep
2. I suggested that he ____________ to London with me.
a. ought to go b. would go
c went d. go
3. I suggested that working hours ____________ reduced next year.
a. be b. would be
c. will be d. would
4. I would rather you ____________ here tomorrow.
a. would be b. were
c. be d. will be
5. ____________ you would stop drinking !.
a. Only if b. Only
c. If Only d. Even if
6. He works as if he ____________ a machine.
a. were b. is
c. had been d. has been
7. I wish you ____________ beat the champion. (but you couldnot)
a. was able to b. could
c. could be able to d. had been able to
8. Iod rather you ____________ me the truth.
a. tell b. told
c. telling d. to tell
กก ก
ก ก    

9. Itos time you ____________ for the test.

a. study b. studying
c. studied d. to study
10. Mr. Wise suggested that his wife ____________ first.
a. should b. going
c. to go d. must go
11. It is essential that the needle ____________ first.
a. sterilize b. sterilizes
c. is sterilized d. be sterilized
12. If only I ____________ her name !
a. knowing b. knew
c. to know d. know
13. I wish she ____________ able to go with you.
a. us to stay b. was
c. were d. is
14. She urged that ____________ for dinner.
a. us to stay b. we stay
c. we would stay d. we stayed
15. He recommended that Louis ____________ with him.
a. go b. will go
c. want d. must go
16. It is necessary that he ____________ music lessons.
a. will take up b. took up
c. takes up d. take up
17. I am sorry I didnot see my uncle yesterday.
I wish ____________.
a. I didnot see him b. I have seen him
c. I saw him d. I had seen him
กก ก
ก ก    

18. It is important that one ___________ directions.

a. follow b. followed
c. I saw him d. will follow
19. She acts as if she ____________ his fiancee.
a. be b. is
c. were d. was
20. I would rather you ____________ your blue dress.
a. to wear b. wore
c. wearing d. wear
กก ก
ก ก    

Exercise 1
DIRECTION : Choose the correct answer for each item.
1. His doctor recommended that he __________ a vacation.
a. take b. took
c. take d. would take
2. Monkeys sometimes act as if they ____________ human.
a. be b. are
c. were d. being
3. I wish I ____________ to the cinema last night.
a. went b. would go
c. would have gone d. would have
4. If only I ____________more money , I could buy new shoes.
a. have b. had
c. had had d. would have
5. I donot want to do anything, |But itos time __________ your homework.
a. you did b. you do
c. you had done d. that you do
6. He suggested that the matter ___________ reconsidered.
a. is b. being
c. has d. be
7. It is important that the governor __________ a good image.
a. maintains b. maintain
c. maintained d. has maintained
8. |Are you leaving ?} |Yes, but I wish I ___________ to go.}
a. donot have b. will not have
c. didnot have d. may not have
กก ก
ก ก    

9. He proposed that the meeting __________ adjourned.

a. was b. should be
c. had been d. to be
10. It is essential that Tom ___________ a dinner jacket.
a. wears b. wore
c. had worn d. should wear
11. If only they ___________ yesterday.
a. had come b. came
b. come d. should come
12. Itos about time we ____________ to study seriously.
a. did begin b. began
c. begin d. would begin
13. |I wish he ____________ .} Itos unbelievable he didnot.
a. has succeeded b. will succeed
c. had succeeded d. would succeed
14. She talked as if she ___________ everything.
a. knew b. had known
c. knows d. has known
15. He wishes he ____________ a B.S., degree.
a. has received b. receives
c. has received d. received
16. They came to my house and demanded that I __________ them.
a. should help b. would help
c. had helped d. helped
17. It is strange that she ___________ her place.
a. should help b. remembers
c. had remembered d. remembered
กก ก
ก ก    

18. He felt as though he ____________ ill.

a. would be b. was
c. had been d. were
19. Iod rather they ____________ tomorrow.
a. come b. came
c. would come d. had come
20. Supposing he ____________ us to pay all the money back.
a. had asked b. would asked
c. asks d. asked

กก ก
ก ก    

Exercise 2
DIRECTION : Choose the correct answer for each item.
1. He recommended that she ___________ with them.
a. go b. goes
c. would go d. was going
2. I demanded that I __________ to take a trip around the world.
a. were allowed b. was allowed
c. be allowed d. am allowed
3. It is essential that she ___________ her physical check up
__________ every month.
a. haswdo b. havewdone
c. haswdoes d. havewdo
4. I wish I ____________ the entrance examination this time.
a. would have passed b. can pass
c. had passed d. could pass
5. He looks at me as if he ____________ me though we once met.
a. did never see b. had never seen
c. will never be seen d. would never have seen
6. |Do we have to study English in the university ?}
a. take b. to take
c. taking d. took
7. |What did you say to him ?}
|Yes, it is required that all first year students ____________ English.
a. suggest - inform b. suggest - informs
c. suggested - inform d. suggested - informed
กก ก
ก ก    

8. |Whatos your opinion about TV shows ?}

|Iod like to suggest __________ a closer eye on their young children
and choose better shows for them to watch.
a. that parents kept
b. that parents keep
c. parents to keep
d. to parents for keeping
9. They prefer that I __________ .
a. do not serve them about anything alcoholic
b. had not served them anything alcoholic
c. have not served them anything alcoholic
d. not serve them anything alcoholic
10. A : Tippa talked ___________ she had successfully done that many times.
B : __________ she lied she must have been very skillful.
a. as , If b. as , Unless
c. as if , Unless d. as if , Lest
11. I wish I __________ to the cinema last night.
a. had gone b. went
c. took d. would have gone
12. His doctor recommended that he __________ a vacation.
a. takes b. take
c. took d. would take
13. Itos high time I __________ home.
a. go b. have gone
c. was going d. went
กก ก
ก ก    

14. I wish you __________ in my place.

a. are b. had been
c. were d. will be
15. I suggest you __________ more careful.
a. be b. to be
c. are d. will be
16. |If only you __________ an obedient boy| Mr. West said to his stubborn
a. would be b. will be
c. are d. have been
17. I would rather you __________ in Bangkok.
a. to live not b. didnot live
c. not to live d. donot live
18. We wish you __________ in London a little longer.
a. will stay b. staying
c. can stay d. could stay
19. Today is a week-day. I wish it __________ .
a. were b. had been
c. werenot d. hadnot been
กก ก
ก ก    

Conditional Sentences (if-clause)  J>
A 2 " ?if-clause '( main clause
if clause (Y "   ?  
Main clause (Y "  g' "
If he comes , I will tell him.
(if clause) , (main clause)
Conditional Sentence &"
ก  4 ( @ ?
1. Future Possible
2. Present Unreal
3. Past Unreal
4. Mixed Type
5.2 Future Possible  J>
 VV  ก A>$V 
If + present simple , future simple
Will + V
future simple + if present simple
will + V
If he studies hard, he will succeed.
She will stay at home if it rains.
กก ก
ก ก    

/a>./0 :
1. ก  main clause ( may , can , must , (be) going to  will ,
shall V 
are going to
may , can , must
If you donIt hurry , you miss the train.

2. &
ก  if clause '( main clause  present simple tense (
 when ? whenever  if V  "
If (when , whenever) the weather is good , I play tennis.
If (when) the teacher asks , answer her.
3. J if clause  should  !"  JG   infinitive form V  Y #
if ก'(G Should A>$V (y "
If she telephones , tell me at once.
? Should she telephone , tell me at once.

5.3 Present Unreal

(Y  " ก#$ ก A>$%&#  "
ก A>$  ?

If + past simple past future

Verb to be  were กB would , should +
( could , might + V V )
past future simple If + past simple
(could , might , would , should + V)
verb to be  were กB
กก ก
ก ก    

If I were rich , I should travel around the word.
(but I am not rich.)
He would meet her if he went to the party.
(but he doesnIt go to the party.)

/a>./0 : G #&(Y  were #$G   Inverted Form V  

ก # If ก were A>$ (Y ' "  (y'("A  ?U
If I were rich , I should travel around the world.
Were I rich , I should travel around the world.
 "J ก(Y 
?VAV" were กsJ('( If V   " 

' !(Y  #
If I had more money , I would buy a new car.
Were I to have more money , I would buy a new car.
If she got a higher marks , her mother would buy her a new
Were she to get a higher marks , her mother would buy her a
new dress.
กก ก
ก ก    

5.4 Pas Unreal

(Y  " ก#$ ก A>$   "
ก A>$  ?

If + past perfect tense , past future perfect

Had + V3 (could , might , would , should + have + V3
past future perfect. if + past
perfect tense
(could , might , would , have + V3
have + V3

If she had been there , she would have seen the accident.
(but she wasnIt there)
He would have given her money if she hadnIt gone out.
(but she went out)
  : G #&(Y  had + V3 G   Inverted Form V   ก
# if ก had A>$ (Y ' "  (y + V3 + "A  ?U
If she had been there , she would have seen the accident.
? Had she been there , she would have seen the accident.
He would have given her money if she hadnIt gone out.
? He would have given her money , hadnIt she gone out.
กก ก
ก ก    

5.4 Mixed Types

&&g( "
Past Unreal '( Present Unreal (ก& 
Past Unreal Present Unreal
If + past perfect Past future simple
(had + V3) (would + V)
Present Unreal Past Unreal
Past future simple If + past perfect
(would + V) (had + V3)

If you had gone to bed early last night , you would be in Chiangmai today.
??J A " #G #$กs
 " (
กs? ?
? >ก'(#$  กs #
You would be in Chiangmai today if you had gone to bed early last night.
ก V "#$

(Y $' ก#? ( Past Perfect ก#&
"G&ก  Œ>
$กs? today >
ก ! Past Simple
Tense #$
U '#( !
should+ have + V กA
could 3
  : G #&(Y  had + V3 G   Inverted Form V  
ก # if ก  had A>$ (Y ' "  (y + V3 + "A 
?U "
กก ก
ก ก    

If you had gone to bed early last night, you would be in Chiangmai today.
? Had you gone to bed ear early last night, you would be in Chiangmai
you would be in Chiangmai today if you had gone to bed early last night.
? You would be in Chiangmai today, Had you gone to bed ear early
last night.

กก ก
ก ก    

T20U Conditional Sentences

Condition Structure Example

1. future - If + v (present) , will + - If he studies hard, he will
possible infinitive ? succeed. ?
กJ - will + infinitive , if + - He will succeed if he studies
VV  v(present) hard.
 J should  A>$  - If she telephones , tell me at once
(Y  ?
- should she telephones ,tell me at
2. present unreal - If + v (past) , would + - If I were rich, I would buy a new
ก V infinitive car.
V"V %&# (v. to be  were กB) (but Iom not rich) ?
? # if  were Were I rich , I would buy a new
A>$ (Y  ? car. ?
- would + infinitive , If + v - I would buy a new car if were
(past) rich.
3. past unreal - If + v (past perfect) ? - If she had been there , she would
ก V had + V3 , would have + V3 have seen the accident (but she
V"V   ? # if ก was not there)
 Had + subj + V3 - Had she been there , would
? have_seen the accident.
would have + V3 ?
If + had + V3 - She would have seen the accident
if she had been there.
กก ก
ก ก    

4. mixed type - If + V (past perfect) ? - If you had gone to bed early last
g( "
if (3) had + night , you would_be in Chiangmai
'( (2) ? V3 , would + V tonight.
(2) +if (3) - Had you gone to bed early last
# if กV  night ,you would be in Chiangmai
Had + Subj. + V3 tonight.
? ?
would + V - You would be in Chiangmai
if + had + V3 tonight if you had gone to bed
early last night.
(but you didnot go bed early last
night and you are not in Chiangmai
กก ก
ก ก    

Pre M test on Conditional Sentences

DIRECTION : Choose the correct answer for each item.

1. If he ___________ here yesterday, Iod have given him this letter.
a. were b. have come
c. had come d. would come
2. If you__________ ill, send for me at once.
a. are b. were
c. was d. had been
3. ___________ on time, they would have seen the entire show.
a. Should they arrive b. Had they arrived
c. Have they arrived d. If had they arrived
4. If were still a poor student, I would not go on holiday as
often as I___________ .
a. was b. do
c. go d. would
5. Do you mind if I____________ the window?
a. opening b. will open
c. opened d. open
6. If had know English was so difficult, I___________ it up.
a. would never have taken
b. would never taken
c. would never take
d. would never have been taken
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7. Had he studied harder, he__________ .

a. would not have fallen b. would not have fell
c. would not have failed d. would not fall
8. If there__________ no floods last year, the crop_________ better now.
a. had been, would be b. were, would be
c. had, would have been d. was, would have bee
9. If you raise no objections, I think I__________ tomorrow
a. would leave b. will leave
c. would have leaved d. have left
10. If I_________ you, I wouldnot return to call.
a. was b. be
c. am d. were
11. If it__________ rain tomorrow, weoll have a picnic.
a. didnot b. wouldnot
b. doesnot d. wonot
12. We would have been in time if we __________ five minutes earlier.
a. had started b. started
c. have started d. were started
13. __________ he call, tell him that Iom out .
a. For b. Were
c. Should d. If
14. If you want to know what everyone thinks about the
government, the man in the street.
a. will ask b. ask
c. have asked d. asking
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15. If everybody_________ the traffic rules, the road will be_________ .

a. obeys w. more safe b. obeys w. more safer
c. obey w. much more safer d. obeys w. much safer
16. If I_________ you were here, I_________ come sooner.
a. had know, would have b. had known, would have
c. knew, will d. know, will
17. ________ I refused, he would have hired someone else.
a. Had b. Have
c. Has d. Were
18. __________ I you. I wouldnot do that.
a. If b. Be
c. Were d. Had
19. If anyone calls, please___________ message.
a. takes b. take
c. would take d. took
20. If I__________ breakfast several hours ago, would not be hungry now.
a. ate b. were eating
c. have eaten d. had eaten

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Exercise 1
DIRECTION : Change the following sentences into
Conditional sentences.
1. Oil (float) if you pour it on water.
2. If it snows, they (stay) at home.
3. She would go for a walk if it (be) fine.
4. He (come) if we asked him.
5. If Porn (be) here, he would help us. (inverted form)
6. If he (not waste) his money on gambling, he could have bought a house.
7. If they had arrived on time. I (be) surprised.
8. If she (have) a chance to learn English, she would have got a better job.
(inverted form)
9. If he (Be) a faithful husband, she would have loved him more than ever.
(inverted form)
10. If I (finish) my work yesterday. I would be in Chiangmai now.

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Exercise 2
DIRECTION : Choose the correct answer for each item.
1. ___________ the problems carefully yesterday, you would not find
any difficulty now.
a. if only you have studied b. Even if you would study
c. if you had studied d. Unless you should study
2. Had the government transferred television stations to the Mass Media
Organization of Thailand, the workers____________ protested.
a. would have b. could have
c. should have d. had
3. We____________ in such a great mess now if we____________it before.
a. wouldnot have been w. Have know
b. wouldnot be w. Had known
c. wonot have been w have known
d. wonot be w knew
4. You__________ from my post card that I was in Paris last week if you
had looked closely.
a. has seen b. would see
c. will have see d. would have seen
5. |If you ever__________ the queen, hat_________ you do? |Bow to her.}
a. will meet w.will b. met w. will
c. meet w. Would d. met w. would
6. |Iom sorry that I am late, it took more time to get here than I expected.}
|You _______ sooner. If you ______ the early bus before the rush hour.}
a. can arrive € had taken
b. could arrive € would have taken
c. would have arrived € had taken
d. had arrived € would have taken
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7. If he_________quietly and instructed. he_______ a second heart attack.

a. had lain w.might not have had
b. had laid w.might not have
c. had lain w.might not have
d. had laid w.might not have had
8. |We were sorry you couldnot manage to join us.} |___________________}
a. If you invited me a few days before, I would cancel my appointment.
b. Had you invited me a few days before, I could have canceled my
c. If you invite me a few days before, I will cancel my appointment.
d. Have you invited me a few days before, I will have
canceled my appointment.
9. A : If I had known about the flood. I wouldnot have built my
house in this area.
B : Do you mean that___________________ ?
a. you donot own a house in the area.
b. your house was flooded.
c. your house wouldnot be flooded had you know?
d. youore not going to build a house there
10. __________ you in my position. what would you do?
a. Unless b. Had
c. If d. Were
11. __________ patient, and you will succeed in the end.
a. Being b. Have
c. Be d. Having
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12. ____________your wife here at this moment youod surely be in trouble.

a. Were b. Was
c. Being d. Be
13. If it___________________ fine yesterday. weod have reached our
destination by now.
a. were b. was
c. had been d. has been
14. If breakfast is not ready. I___________________ without it.
a. should go b. shall go
c. should have gone d. go
15. If had not come here last week. I ___________________ out all the truth
about him.
a. should not find b. found
c. did not find d. should not have found

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Exercise 3
DIRECTION : Choose the correct answer for each item.
1. |Itos high time yo_________ to work hard.}
a. begin b. began
c. were to begin d. would begin
2. _________ Inform his parents.
a. The child misbehaved and
b. Was the child to misbehave,
c. Were the child to misbehave,
d. Should the child misbehave,
3. You must have had a good vacation, or you_________ so much weight.
a. did not put on b. will not put on
c. had not put on d. would not have put on
4. But for his intelligence, we__________ able to achieve it.
a. would never have been b. were never
c. had never been d. shall never
5. I would not listen to him if I_________ you.
a. was b. am
c. would be d. were
6. Provided Kevin_________ the time and the money, he would
travel round the world.
a. had b. has
c. has had d. would have
7. We proposed that sever measures__________ to combat crime.
a. would be adopted b. should have been adopted
c. were adopted d. be adopted
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8. It is essential that shopkeepers__________ honest with their customers.

a. should to be b. be
c. were d. would be
9. Were the rain to continue, more landslideswwwwww. .
a. occur b. occured
c. would occur d. had occurred
10. Mother could have more time for rest if the familywwwwww. a
washing € machine.
a. has b. had
c. has had d. had has

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