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BIOLOGY (863)

Aims:
1. To enable candidates to acquire the knowledge and to develop an understanding of biological terms,
concepts, facts, principles, formulae, etc.
2. To develop the ability to apply the knowledge of biology in unfamiliar situations.
3. To develop experimental skills required in biology practical work.
4. To create awareness about the problems of the environment and the manner in which these problems can be
overcome.
5. To develop the ability to appreciate biological phenomena in nature and the contribution of biology to
human welfare.
6. To develop interest in plants and animals and in their respective environments.
7. To develop scientific attitude towards biological phenomena.
8. To create awareness of the fundamentals of human biology, food, health, nutrition and population control.

CLASS XI

There will be two papers in the subject.


Paper I: Theory: 3 hours ...70 marks Paper II: Practical: 3 hours ...20 marks
Project Work … 7 marks
Practical File … 3 marks
PAPER 1- THEORY: 70 Marks
There will be no overall choice in the paper. Candidates will be required to answer all questions. Internal choice
will be available in two questions of 2 marks each, two questions of 3 marks each and all the three questions of
5 marks each.

S.NO. UNIT TOTAL WEIGHTAGE

1. Diversity of Living Organisms* 07 + 10* Marks


2. Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants 11 Marks
3. Cell: Structure and Function 15 Marks
4. Plant Physiology 17 Marks
5. Human Physiology 10 Marks
Total 70 Marks

*The topic Biological Classification under Unit 1 – Diversity of Living Organisms is to be assessed through
Text Based Assessment which will include questions of 10 Marks. No other questions will be asked from this
section.
The material for Text Based Assessment is to be prepared by the school.
PLEASE NOTE: The topic for Text Based Assessment may vary from one year to another

190
PAPER I –THEORY – 70 Marks shape, nutrition and mode of respiration;
types of reproduction – definition of
Note: All structures (internal and external) are
fission, conjugation, transduction and
required to be taught along with diagrams.
transformation (details not required).
Economic importance with reference to
role of bacteria in sewage treatment,
1. Diversity of Living Organisms
antibiotics, energy production and house
(i) The Living World hold products (curd and cheese only).
What is living? Biodiversity; Need for (c) Kingdom Protista – only two general
classification; three domains of life; characteristics and two examples
taxonomy and systematics; concept of of subgroups: (i) Chrysophytes
species and taxonomical hierarchy; (ii) Dinoflagellates, (iii) Euglenoids,
binomial nomenclature; tools for study of (iv) Slime moulds, (v) Protozoans (to be
taxonomy-museums, zoological parks, studied under rhizopods, flagellates,
herbaria, botanical gardens. ciliates and sporozoans with two
Characteristics of living organisms. characteristics including modes of
Biodiversity (definition only). Need for locomotion and two examples of each).
classification should be discussed. Three (d) Kingdom Fungi: general characteristics
domains of life – distinguishing features of and mode of reproduction of each
(archaea, bacteria, eukarya), - a brief idea of (including types of spores and sexual
the role of different types of archaebacteria reproduction – definition of isogamy,
(methanogens, halophiles and anisogamy, oogamy, plasmogamy,
thermoacidophiles in their extreme karyogamy and dikaryophase).
environments, mycoplasma – three distinctive Zygomycetes, Ascomycetes,
features). Definition and explanation of the Basidiomycetes, Deuteromycetes -
terms taxonomy and systematics. Concept of characteristics with examples. Role of
species. Major taxonomical hierarchies fungi in the field of medicine, bakery and
(phylum, class, order, family, genus, environmental decomposition. Definition
species): definition and examples with of lichens and mycorrhiza (ecto and
reference to classification of man, house fly, endo).
mango and wheat. Rules of binomial
nomenclature and advantages of using Life cycles not required.
scientific names. Aids for study of taxonomy (e) Virus (characteristic features – link
–– a very brief idea of museum and herbaria, between living and non-living, structure
zoological parks and botanical gardens. of TMV and bacteriophage and
Definition of taxonomical keys. contribution of the following scientists:
Three systems of classification – artificial, D.J. Ivanowsky, M.W. Beijerinck,
natural and phylogenetic. W.M. Stanley) and Viroid (definition
only).
(ii) Biological Classification
(iii) Plant Kingdom
Five kingdom classification; s alient
features and classification of Monera, (a) Algae - characteristics (morphology,
Protista, Fungi, P l a n t a e and Animalia. common name, major pigments, stored
Lichens, Viruses and Viroids. food, composition of cell wall, flagellar
number and position of insertion, habitat,
(a) Five-kingdom system of classification mode of sexual reproduction –
and characteristics of different kingdoms isogamous, anisogamous and oogamous)
with examples. and examples of Chlorophyceae,
(b) Kingdom Monera: Bacteria - Phaeophyceae, Rhodophyceae; Economic
classification of bacteria according to importance of algae – any five.

191
(b) Bryophyta – general characteristics, mammalia) – three distinguishing characters
distinctive features of liverworts and with two examples of each).
mosses; graphic outline of life cycle of
2. Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants
Funaria with reference to alternation of
generations. Economic importance of (i) Morphology of Flowering Plants
bryophytes. (a) Morphology and modifications of root,
(c) Pteridophyta: characteristics; stem, leaf.
classification into classes: psilopsida Types of roots (tap, fibrous, adventitious),
(Psilotum), lycopsida (Selaginella, regions, modifications of roots for
Lycopodium), sphenopsida (Equisetum) storage, respiration (pneumatophores)
and pteropsida (Dryopteris, Pteris and and support (stilt and prop).
Adiantum). Graphic outline of life cycle
of a typical pteridophyte (fern). Definition Stems – features (nodes internodes,
of homospory and heterospory with buds), modifications – underground,
relevant examples. Economic importance. aerial and sub-aerial.
(d) Gymnosperms: general characteristics Leaves - parts of a simple leaf, venation,
and graphic outline of life cycle of a types of leaves (simple and compound –
typical gymnosperm (Pinus). Economic pinnate and palmate), phyllotaxy –
importance. alternate, opposite, whorled (with an
example of each).
(e) Angiosperms – general characteristics
and classification into monocots and Modifications for mechanical support,
dicots; Graphic outline of life cycle of a protection, storage, reproduction;
typical angiosperm. insectivorous plant (pitcher plant,
Venus-fly-trap.
(f) Comparison of life cycle patterns of
different plant groups (haplontic, (b) Morphology of flower, fruit and seed.
diplontic and haplo-diplontic). Structure of a typical flower, types of
inflorescence (racemose and cymose).
(iv) Animal Kingdom
Structure of a typical flower,
Animal Kingdom: animal construction - body bracteates/ebracteate, [symmetry
plan (cell aggregate plan, blind-sac plan and (actinomorphic, zygomorphic),
tube-within-tube plan), symmetry (spherical, trimerous/tetramerous/pentamerous
radial and bilateral symmetry), coelom complete/ incomplete, non-essential
development (diploblastic and triploblastic whorls (calyx: gamosepalous,
organisation in animals, acoelomate, polysepalous, corolla: gamopetalous,
pseudocoelomate, coelomate and polysepalous, perianth), essential whorls
haemocoelomate), segmentation. (androecium: cohesion - syngenesious,
Non-chordata - five distinguishing synandrous, monadelphous, diadelphous,
characters with two examples of Porifera, polyadelphous; adhesion – epipetalous,
Cnidaria, Ctenophora, Platyhelminthes, epiphyllous; number of lobes –
Nematoda (Aschelminthes), Annelida, monothecous, dithecous; Gynoecium:
Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, position of ovary – epigynous,
Hemichordata. hypogynous, perigynous, cohesion –
apocarpous, syncarpous, number of
Chordata – sub-classification of Chordata
locules – unilocular, bilocular,
with reference to notochord - sub phyla
multilocular], types of inflorescence
Urochordata, Cephalochordata. Vertebrata
(racemose and cymose – definition and
(classes – cyclostomata, chondrichthyes,
differences; subtypes not required).
osteichthyes, amphibia, reptilia, aves and

192
Fruits to be classified into true and false, Location, structure and functions of
structure of a typical fruit (mango and epithelial tissues with examples, types
coconut).
of junctions (tight, adhering and gap
Seeds – structure of dicot (bean) and junctions) location and general
monocot (maize), non-albuminous and structure of areolar tissue - functions of
albuminous, perisperm.
different types of cells; difference
Description of families – Solanaceae, between bone and cartilage; T.S. of
Fabaceae and Liliaceae.
hyaline cartilage, T.S of bone, (to be
(ii) Anatomy of Flowering Plants taught with the help of diagrams);
(a) Plant Tissues: types of plant tissues: different types of muscles and their
Meristematic tissues: classification of functions; structure of a neuron (types
meristematic tissue. Permanent Tissues: – unipolar, bipolar, multipolar,
structure and function of simple tissues myelinated, non-myelinated).
(parenchyma, collenchyma and Neuroglial cells.
sclerenchyma) and complex tissues (b) Cockroach
(xylem and phloem), tissue system. Morphology, anatomy and functions
Internal structure of root, stem, and leaf. of different systems (digestive,
Characteristics of meristematic tissue; circulatory, respiratory, nervous and
classification of meristems based on reproductive) of an insect (cockroach) -
origin and location; structure, function a brief account only.
and location of permanent tissues;
simple and complex tissues; epidermal, 3. Cell: Structure and Function
ground and vascular tissue systems. (i) Cell - the Unit of Life
Cellular diagrams of T.S. of roots and Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life:
stem and V.S. of monocot and dicot Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic
leaves are required. cells; Plant cell and animal cell; cell
envelope; cell membrane, cell wall
(b) Secondary growth in dicot stem and dicot
(including definition of plasmodesmata);
root
cell organelles – ultrastructure and
Basic idea of how secondary growth
function; endomembrane system
takes place in dicot stems and roots (with
(endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies,
the help of outline diagrams) and
lysosomes, vacuoles), mitochondria,
formation of annual rings. Activity of the
ribosomes, plastids, microbodies;
cambium and cork cambium, formation
cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles;
of secondary tissues, differences between
nucleus, nuclear membrane, chromatin,
heart wood and sap wood, early wood
nucleolus.
and late wood. Definition of bark.
Historical aspects, cell theory, size and
(iii) Structural Organisation in Animals shape of cells; general structure of
(a) Animal tissues prokaryotic cell; differences between gram
Epithelial, connective, muscular and +ve and gram –ve bacteria.
nervous tissues to be taught with the help General structure of eukaryotic cell, ultra-
of diagrams. structure and function of cell wall, cell
membrane (description of fluid mosaic

193
model; functions of the plasma membrane: substrate concentration. Competitive
active and passive transport, brief inhibitors.
explanation of facilitated diffusion (uniport, (iii) Cell Cycle and Cell Division
symport and antiport) with one example.
Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their
Mitochondria, nucleus (structure and types significance.
of chromosomes on the basis of the position
Different stages with diagrams. Significance
of centromere, satellite), types of plastids,
of mitosis and meiosis.
endomembrane system (endoplasmic
reticulum, Golgi complex, lysosomes and 4. Plant Physiology
vacuoles), ribosomes, microbodies,
(i) Transport in Plants
cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella and centrioles;
difference between prokaryotic cell and Movement of water, gases and nutrients;
eukaryotic cell, plant and animal cell, cell to cell transport, diffusion, facilitated
microfilaments and microtubules, flagella diffusion, active transport; plant-water
and cilia. relations, imbibition, water potential,
osmosis, plasmolysis; long distance
(ii) Biomolecules transport of water - absorption, apoplast,
symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure
P roteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic and guttation; transpiration, opening and
acids, enzymes. closing of stomata; uptake and translocation
Carbohydrates: general classification and of mineral nutrients - transport of food -
functions of: monosaccharides (glucose, phloem transport, mass flow hypothesis;
ribose and deoxyribose), disaccharides diffusion of gases.
(maltose, lactose and sucrose), Definition of imbibition; factors affecting
polysaccharides (glycogen, starch, cellulose, imbibition; importance of imbibition,
inulin, and chitin). characteristics and significance of diffusion;
Proteins: amino acids – (structure: glycine, osmosis - endosmosis and exosmosis;
alanine, serine); amino acids as zwitter-ion; significance of osmosis and turgidity -
examples of acidic, basic, neutral, sulphur osmotic pressure, turgor pressure, wall
containing amino acids; essential and pressure; definition of turgidity, plasmolysis,
nonessential amino acids; levels of protein deplasmolysis, importance of water; active
structure (primary, secondary, tertiary and and passive absorption of water; apoplastic
quaternary); functions of proteins. and symplastic movements, definition of
water potential and its components viz.
Lipids: classification, structure and functions solute, matrix and pressure potential
of fats and oils. (numerical problems based on this concept
Nucleotides and Nucleic acids: structure are not required). Root pressure – definition
and function of DNA. Differences between and experiment to demonstrate it.
DNA and RNA. Explanation and definition of transpiration,
significance of transpiration. Stomatal
Enzymes: general properties, nomenclature
mechanism – starch sugar inter conversion
and classification of enzymes according to
and K+-ion mechanism. Mechanism of ascent
type of reactions, co-factors (prosthetic
of sap by cohesion – tension and
groups, coenzymes and metal ions. Factors
transpiration pull theory. Guttation –
affecting enzyme activity - temperature, pH,
definition, differences between transpiration
194
and guttation. Function of stomata, lenticel cycles – graphic representation in correct
and hydathode. Mineral uptake by active and sequence (carboxylation, glycolytic reversal
passive transport. and regeneration of pentose); Differences
between C3 and C4 plants, C3 and C4 cycles,
Transport of solutes; evidences which Photosystems I and II, Photorespiration
indicate that downward movement of organic pathway in brief - explanation of how RuBP
solutes takes place in phloem; girdling and carboxylase acts as RuBP oxygenase.
tracer techniques, mechanism of Kranz anatomy. Blackman’s Law of limiting
translocation; mass flow hypothesis. factors, factors affecting photosynthesis.
(ii) Mineral Nutrition (iv) Respiration in Plants
Essential minerals, macro- and Exchange of gases; cellular respiration -
micronutrients and their role; deficiency glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA
symptoms; mineral toxicity; elementary idea cycle and electron transport system
of hydroponics nitrogen metabolism, (aerobic); energy relations - number of ATP
nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation. molecules generated; amphibolic pathways;
respiratory quotient.
Criteria for essentiality of minerals,
hydroponics, macro and micronutrients; role Types of respiration; mechanism of
and deficiency symptoms (hunger signs) of respiration: glycolysis, oxidation of
various elements. Mineral toxicity. pyruvate, Krebs’ cycle, ETS (only
Root nodule formation, biological nitrogen flowchart). Oxidative phosphorylation –
fixation, non-symbiotic nitrogen fixation and definition; Brief idea of fermentation and
symbiotic nitrogen fixation (such as Amphibolic pathway. Definition of
Rhizobium and Azospirillum). Role of respiratory quotient and RQ values of
cyanobacteria such as Azolla, Anabaena, carbohydrates, proteins and fats.
Nostoc; importance of nitrogenase complex (v) Plant Growth and Development
and leghaemoglobin pigment. Nitrogen cycle
Seed germination; phases of plant
(graphic outline).
growth; conditions of growth;
(iii) Photosynthesis in higher plants differentiation, dedifferentiation and
Photosynthesis as a mean of autotrophic redifferentiation; sequence of
nutrition; site of photosynthesis, pigments developmental processes in a plant cell;
involved in photosynthesis (elementary growth regulators - auxin, gibberellin,
idea); photochemical and biosynthetic cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; seed dormancy;
phases of photosynthesis; cyclic vernalisation; photoperiodism.
and non-cyclic photophosphorylation; A brief idea about differentiation,
chemiosmotic hypothesis; photorespiration; dedifferentiation and redifferentiation.
C3 and C4 pathways; factors affecting Phases of growth in meristems, growth rate –
photosynthesis. definition; measurement of growth by direct
Contributions of Priestley, Sachs, method and use of auxanometer, factors
Engelmann, van Neil; differences between affecting growth.
absorption and action spectra. Discovery and physiological role of growth
Brief idea of photosynthetic pigments regulators in plants (such as auxins,
(difference between chlorophyll ‘a’&‘b’, gibberellins, cytokinins, ethylene and
carotenoids and xanthophyll), photochemical abscisic acid –four effects of each);
phase - pigment systems, cyclic and non- application of growth regulators, Definition
cyclic photophosphorylation, chemiosmotic of dormancy and quiescence; causes and
hypothesis; biosynthetic phase - C3 and C4 methods of breaking seed dormancy.

195
Photomorphogenesis in plants. emphysema, occupational respiratory
disorders.
A brief idea of short day, long day and day
neutral plants; critical day length, (iii) Body fluids and circulation
definition and differences between Composition of blood, blood groups,
photoperiodism and vernalisation. coagulation of blood; composition of lymph
and its function; human circulatory system
5. Human Physiology - structure of human heart and blood
(i) Digestion and Absorption vessels; cardiac cycle, cardiac output,
ECG; double circulation; regulation of
Alimentary canal and digestive glands, cardiac activity; disorders of circulatory
role of digestive enzymes; peristalsis, system.
digestion, absorption and assimilation of
proteins, carbohydrates and fats; calorific Difference between closed and open vascular
values of proteins, carbohydrates and system; external and internal structure of
fats; egestion; nutritional and digestive heart; working of the heart and blood flow
disorders. through the heart during different phases
should be described under the following
Calorific value of carbohydrates, proteins headings - auricular systole, auricular
and fats per gram; Structure and functions diastole, ventricular systole, ventricular
of the digestive organs and their associated diastole and joint diastole; definition of
glands, types of dentition (thecodont, cardiac output, regulation of heart beat,
heterodont, diphyodont) and dental formula ECG; arterial blood pressure (systolic and
of human; diagram of the digestive system diastolic), double circulation. The internal
with correct position of the organs and the structure of artery, vein and capillary.
associated glands; diagrammatic Importance of ABO groups in blood
representation of T.S. of gut showing the transfusion, Rh factor and its importance in
four layers - histology of individual organs transfusion and pregnancy; clotting of blood
not required; physiology of digestion and to be taught briefly; lymphatic system – a
absorption of food; assimilation of digested brief idea of lymph, lymphatic capillaries
food; disorders of the digestive system – and lymph nodes; disorders of the
Protein Energy Malnutrition ( PEM), circulatory system such as hypertension,
indigestion, constipation, vomiting, coronary artery disease, angina pectoris and
jaundice, diarrhoea. heart failure.
(ii) Breathing and exchange of gases (iv) Excretory products and their elimination
Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Modes of excretion - ammonotelism,
Respiratory system in humans; mechanism ureotelism, uricotelism; human excretory
of breathing and its regulation - exchange system - structure and function; urine
of gases, transport of gases and regulation formation, osmoregulation; regulation of
of respiration, respiratory volumes; kidney function, renin - angiotensin, atrial
disorders related to respiration. natriuretic factor, ADH and diabetes
Organs involved in respiration; mechanism insipidus; role of erythropoietin; role of
of pulmonary gas exchange; breathing other organs in excretion; disorders of the
process should be explained showing the excretory system - uraemia, renal failure,
action of diaphragm and intercostal renal calculi, nephritis; dialysis and artificial
muscles, regulation of respiration; kidney.
transport of oxygen in the blood, Define, differentiate and explain the terms
oxyhaemoglobin dissociation curve; ammonotelism, ureotelism and uricotelism;
transport of CO2; chloride shift, pulmonary external and internal structure of the kidney
air volumes and lung capacities; disorders (L.S.); structure of nephron; physiology of
of respiratory system such as - asthma,
196
urine formation - ultra filtration, selective Structure and functions of various parts of
reabsorption and active (tubular) secretion. the brain and spinal cord; conduction of
Counter current system, regulation of urine nerve impulses through nerve fibre (non
formation, renin-angiotensin, atrial myelinated and myelinated) and through
natriuretic factor, ADH. Role of synapse; physiology of reflex action, natural
erythropoietin. reflex and conditioned reflex - definition,
examples and differences; reflex arc to be
Role of skin, liver and lungs in excretion.
taught with diagram showing the pathway by
Homeostasis – definition. Disorders of the
means of arrows; eye and ear: structure and
excretory system - uraemia, renal failure,
working to be done along with the help of
renal calculi, nephritis.
diagrams. Elementary idea of nose (olfactory
Haemodialysis and artificial kidney. receptor) and tongue (gustato receptor).
(v) Locomotion and Movement (vi) Chemical Co-ordination and Integration
Types of movement - ciliary, flagellar, Endocrine glands and hormones; human
muscular; skeletal muscles - contractile endocrine system - hypothalamus, pituitary,
proteins and muscle contraction; skeletal pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal,
system and its functions; joints; disorders pancreas, gonads; mechanism of hormone
of muscular and skeletal system. action (elementary idea); role of hormones
Locomotion: Basic aspects of human as messengers and regulators, hypo - and
skeleton (number and names of the bones of hyperactivity and related disorders;
axial and appendicular skeleton). dwarfism, acromegaly, cretinism, goitre,
exophthalmic goitre, diabetes mellitus and
Functions of human skeleton; different types diabetes insipidus, Grave’s disease,
of joints - their location and function; Addison's disease.
general properties of muscles; structure of
skeletal muscle - sliding filament theory of Brief idea of location of endocrine glands;
muscle contraction; chemical events during role of hypothalamus; hormones secreted by
muscle contraction; definition of summation, different lobes of pituitary and their
tetanus, rigor mortis, differences between red functions; feedback control of tropic
and white muscles. hormones to be discussed giving examples;
hormones of pineal, thymus, thyroid,
Disorders of muscular and skeletal system: parathyroid, pancreas, adrenal glands, GI
(i) Myasthenia gravis, (ii) Tetany, tract (gastrin, secretin, GIP, CCK-PZ) and
(iii Muscular dystrophy, (iv) Arthritis, gonads; mechanism of hormone action
(v) Osteoporosis, (vi) gout. (through cAMP and steroid hormones only);
effects of hypo secretion and hyper secretion
Neural Control and Coordination
of various hormones of the above mentioned
Neuron and nerves; nervous system in glands.
humans - central nervous system; peripheral
Note: Diseases related to all the human
nervous system and visceral nervous
physiological systems to be taught in brief.
system; generation and conduction of
nerve impulse; reflex action; sensory
perception; sense organs; elementary
structure and functions of eye and ear.

197
PAPER II (ii) Preparation of temporary slides of Mucor /
Rhizopus.
PRACTICAL WORK – 20 Marks
The teacher should guide the students on the
1. Scientific Techniques
technique of culture, staining and mounting
To study parts of a dissecting microscope and the material and then observing under the
compound microscope. microscope. The students should also be able
The students should know all parts of dissecting to make labelled diagrams and record
and compound microscope and be able to handle observations.
the microscope independently. 4. Cytology
2. Physiology Preparation of temporary slides of -
(i) Food tests: test for starch, glucose, sucrose, (i) Onion peel (to study the plant cell)
proteins and fats.
(ii) Stages of mitosis in onion root tips.
Food tests: tests should be reported in
Correct method of selecting the root tip, fixing,
tabular form. Both positive and negative tests
staining and mounting should be taught.
should be reported.
Different stages should be observed first in low
(ii) To study the effect of thawing, heat and power and after locating the area, the students
alcohol on permeability of beet root cells. should see it under high power. Various stages
To study the effect of heat on permeability of should be drawn and labelled.
cell membrane of beet root cells: students (iii) T.S of monocot and dicot stem.
should record the observations at very low
(iv) T.S. of monocot and dicot root.
temperature, room temperature and higher
temperature to see the degree of leaching After staining and mounting the tissue students
and conclude accordingly. Experiment on should be able to draw the diagram and label all
effect of alcohol on the permeability with the parts as seen under the low power of
regard to leaching. microscope.
(iii) Separation of plant pigments from leaves by 5. Spotting: (Three minutes to be given for each
chromatography. spot which includes identification, drawing a
labelled diagram and writing at least two
(iv) Effect of different carbon dioxide
characteristics).
concentrations on the rate of photosynthesis.
(a) Identification of stained preparations of the
(v) Demonstration of plasmolysis (using Rhoeo
following:
leaf / onion bulb).
(i) Stages of meiosis.
(vi) Demonstration of osmosis in living plant
cells (potato osmoscope). (ii) Identification of mammalian blood
cells.
3. Morphology
(iii) Bacteria
(i) Morphology and modification of roots, stems
and leaves. (iv) Spirogyra
Teachers can show examples of roots, stems (v) Amoeba
and leaves modified for mechanical support,
(vi) Yeast
storage, reproduction or perennation –
students should learn to identify and draw the (b) Identification of the following specimens -
specimens. (i) Liverworts
Leaves: phyllotaxy – alternate, opposite (ii) Moss
whorled (with an example of each), shape,
venation, simple and compound. (iii) Fern
198
(iv) Pinus (i) Project related to experiment on any aspect of
plant life/animal life.
(v) Mushroom
(ii) Project related to any aspect of environment.
(vi) One monocot plant – bamboo
(iii) Diabetes.
(vii) One dicot plant – Petunia
(iv) Endocrine disorders.
(viii) Sponge
(v) Yeast fermentation and production of alcohol or
(ix) Hydra
any other commercial industry dependant on
(x) Tape worm plants and/or animals or their products.
(xi) Leech In addition, students may be taught how to
(xii) Silk Worm culture:

(xiii) Rohu fish − Earthworms.


Students should be taught how to identify, − Protozoans.
draw, label and give at least two significantly
− Moulds.
visible characteristics, as observed, of each
spot, in a given time of three minutes. − Setting up of an aquarium.
(c) Comment on experimental set up studied in Suggested Evaluation Criteria for Project Work:
physiology.
Format of the Project:
(a) Osmosis
– Content
(b) Transpiration
– Introduction
(c) Photosynthesis
– Presentation (graphs, tables, charts, newspaper
(d) Transpiration pull. cuttings, handmade diagrams, photographs,
Students should identify (aim of the statistical analysis if relevant)
experiment), draw a labelled diagram of the – Conclusion/ Summary
physiological set-up and write observation
and inference of the experiment within the – Bibliography
allotted time i.e., 3 minutes. Projects should be handwritten by the candidate. The
written pages should not exceed 15-20 pages.
PROJECT WORK AND PRACTICAL FILE –
Practical File – 3 Marks
10 Marks
Each practical done during the year, needs to be
Project Work – 7 Marks
recorded by the student in the Practical file and
Candidate is to creatively execute one the same must be checked, signed and dated by
project/assignment on any aspect of Biology. the teacher.
Preference is to be given to investigatory projects.
Teachers are required to assess students on the basis
Following is only a suggestive list of projects.
of the Biology Practical file maintained by them
Teachers may assign or students may choose any one
project of their choice. during the academic year.

199
CLASS XII

There will be two papers in the subject.


Paper I: Theory: 3 hours ... 70 marks Paper II: Practical: 3 hours ...20 marks
Candidates will be required to answer all questions. Project Work … 7 marks
Internal choice will be available in some selected Practical File … 3 marks
questions.

PAPER 1- THEORY: 70 Marks


There will be no overall choice in the paper. Candidates will be required to answer all questions. Internal
choice will be available in two questions of 2 marks each, two questions of 3 marks each and all the three
questions of 5 marks each.

S. No. UNIT TOTAL WEIGHTAGE

1. Reproduction 16 Marks

2. Genetics and Evolution 15 Marks

3. Biology and Human Welfare 14 Marks

4. Biotechnology and its Applications 10 marks

5. Ecology and Environment 15 Marks

Total 70 Marks

200
PAPER I –THEORY – 70 Marks agencies and examples; outbreeding
devices; pollen-pistil interaction; double
All structures (internal and external) are required
fertilization; post fertilization events -
to be taught along with diagrams.
development of endosperm and embryo,
development of seed and formation of fruit;
1. Reproduction
special modes - apomixis, parthenocarpy,
(i) Reproduction in Organisms polyembryony; Significance of seed
Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all dispersal and fruit formation.
organisms for continuation of species; Pre-fertilisation structures and events.
modes of reproduction - asexual and sexual
reproduction; asexual reproduction - binary Structure of microsporangium, T.S. of
fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule anther microsporogenesis, structure and
formation, fragmentation; vegetative development of pollen grain, viability of
propagation in plants. pollen grain, economic importance of
pollen grain. Pistil – structure of
Definition of life span; life span of a few megasporangium (L.S. of anatropous
organisms (banana, rice, rose, banyan, ovule), megasporogenesis, structure and
butterfly, fruit fly, tortoise, crocodile, parrot, development of female gametophyte.
crow, elephant, dog, horse, and cow).
Types of pollination (autogamy,
Asexual reproduction – definition, types chasmogamy, cleistogamy, geitonogamy,
(binary fission in Amoeba and Paramoecium, xenogamy), adaptations in flowers
budding in yeast and Hydra, conidia in
pollinated by wind, water and insects.
Penicillium, zoospores in Chlamydomonas,
gemmules in sponges), definition of clone. Advantages of self and cross-pollination.
Contrivances for prevention of self-
Vegetative propagation – definition, pollination. Pollen-pistil interaction in
vegetative propagules (tuber of potato,
terms of (incompatibility/compatibility),
rhizome of ginger, bulbil of Agave, leaf buds
of Bryophyllum, offset of water hyacinth, events leading to fertilisation), definition of
runner of grass, sucker of pineapple, bulb of triple fusion and double fertilization,
onion). significance of double fertilization.
Apomixis, polyembryony, parthenocarpy to
Sexual reproduction: Plants – definition,
be explained briefly. Significance of seed
phases of life cycle (juvenile/vegetative,
reproductive and senescence), unusual and fruit formation. Significance of
flowering phenomenon (bamboo and dispersal of seeds.
Strobilanthes kunthiana). Animals – seasonal Post-fertilisation events - embryo formation
breeders (definition and examples). (monocot and dicot); types of endosperm
Events in sexual reproduction – pre- (cellular, nuclear and helobial); changes in
fertilisation (gametogenesis and gamete the ovule and ovary for seed and fruit
transfer in plants and animals), chromosome formation.
number in the cells of house fly, fruit fly, (iii) Human Reproduction
butterfly, human beings, rat, dog, maize,
apple, onion; fertilization (definition, types - Male and female reproductive systems;
external and internal), post-fertilisation microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary;
(embryogenesis), definition and example of gametogenesis - spermatogenesis and
oogenesis; menstrual cycle; fertilisation,
parthenogenesis, differences between asexual
embryo development upto blastocyst
and sexual reproduction. formation, implantation; pregnancy and
(ii) Sexual reproduction in flowering plants placenta formation (elementary idea);
parturition (elementary idea); lactation
Flower structure; development of male and (elementary idea).
female gametophytes; pollination - types,
201
Organs of male and female reproductive - definition and application only. Causes,
system and their functions; internal structure symptoms and methods of prevention of
of testis and ovary to be taught with the help sexually transmitted diseases (gonorrhoea,
of diagrams; gametogenesis- syphilis, genital herpes, chlamydiasis, genital
spermatogenesis (including spermiogenesis warts, trichomoniasis, hepatitis- B, AIDS).
and spermiation) oogenesis; hormonal
control of gametogenesis, structure of sperm 2. Genetics and Evolution
and mature ovum, menstrual cycle - different (i) Principles of inheritance and variation
phases and hormone action, differences
between oestrous and menstrual cycle, Heredity and variation: Mendelian
menarche and menopause, physico-chemical inheritance; deviations from Mendelism -
events during fertilisation, implantation, incomplete dominance, co-dominance,
embryonic development up to blastocyst multiple alleles and inheritance of blood
formation, important features of human groups, pleiotropy; elementary idea of
embryonic development (formation of heart, polygenic inheritance; chromosomal theory
limbs, digits, appearance of hair on head, of inheritance; chromosomes and genes; sex
eyelashes, separation of eye lids, external determination - in humans, fruit fly, birds
genital organs and first movement of foetus and honey bee; linkage and crossing over;
with reference to time period) placenta and mutation; sex linked inheritance -
its functions. Parturition; lactation – haemophilia, colour blindness; Mendelian
hormonal control and importance. disorders in humans; chromosomal
disorders in humans.
(iv) Reproductive Health
Explanation of the terms heredity and
Need for reproductive health and prevention variation; Mendel's Principles of
of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs); inheritance; reasons for Mendel's success;
birth control - need and methods, definition of homologous chromosomes,
contraception and medical termination of autosomes and sex chromosomes; alleles –
pregnancy (MTP); amniocentesis; infertility dominant and recessive; phenotype;
and assisted reproductive technologies - genotype; homozygous; heterozygous,
IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (elementary idea for monohybrid and dihybrid crosses; back cross
general awareness). and test cross, definitions to be taught with
Definition of reproductive health, programs simple examples using Punnett square.
of reproductive health (family planning, Incomplete dominance with examples from
RCH), population explosion - role of plants (snapdragon - Antirrhinum) and
government in controlling the population, co-dominance in human blood group,
contraceptives methods and their methods of multiple alleles – e.g. blood groups,
action (natural-periodic abstinence, polygenic inheritance with one example of
withdrawal or coitus interruptus, lactational inheritance of skin colour in humans
amenorrhea; artificial – barriers, IUDs, oral (students should be taught examples from
pills, implants and surgical methods, human genetics through pedigree charts).
definition of medical termination of Biological importance of Mendelism.
pregnancy (MTP) and reasons for it; causes Pleiotropy with reference to the example of
of infertility. Amniocentesis – role in Phenylketonuria (PKU) in human beings and
detecting genetic defects. Assisted starch synthesis in pea seeds. Chromosomal
reproductive technologies: IVF, IUT, ZIFT, theory of inheritance; autosomes and sex
ICSI, GIFT, artificial insemination (AI, IUI). chromosomes (sex determination in humans,
202
fruit fly, birds, honey bees and grasshopper), Human Genome Project: goal;
sex-linked inheritance - with reference to methodologies [Expressed Sequence Tags
Drosophila (wings & eyes), and man (EST), Sequence Annotation], salient
(haemophilia & colour blindness), definition features and applications. DNA finger
and significance of linkage and crossing printing – technique, application and ethical
over. Mutation: spontaneous, induced, gene issues to be discussed briefly. Rice Genome
(point – transition, transversion and frame- Project.
shift); chromosomal aberration: euploidy
(iii) Evolution
and aneuploidy; human genetic disorders:
haemophilia, phenylketonuria, thalassaemia, Origin of life; biological evolution and
colour blindness, sickle cell anaemia; evidences for biological evolution
chromosomal disorders: Down’s syndrome, (palaeontology, comparative anatomy,
Klinefelter’s syndrome, Turner’s syndrome. embryology and molecular evidences);
Darwin's contribution, modern synthetic
(ii) Molecular basis of Inheritance
theory of evolution; mechanism of
Search for genetic material and DNA as evolution - variation (mutation and
genetic material; structure of DNA and recombination) and natural selection with
RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; examples, types of natural selection; gene
central dogma; transcription, genetic code, flow and genetic drift; Hardy - Weinberg's
translation; gene expression and regulation principle; adaptive radiation; human
- lac operon; human and rice genome evolution.
projects; DNA fingerprinting.
Origin of life - abiogenesis and biogenesis,
Structure of eukaryotic chromosomes with effect of oxygen on evolution to show that
reference to nucleosome; properties of genes reducing atmosphere is essential for abiotic
such as ability to replicate, chemical synthesis. Important views on the origin of
stability, mutability and inheritability. Search life, modern concept of origin of life, Oparin
for DNA as genetic material - Griffith’s Haldane theory, definition of protobionts,
experiment, Hershey and Chase’s coacervates), vestigial organs; Miller and
experiment, Avery, McLeod and McCarty’s Urey experiment. Evidences of evolution:
experiment; double helical model of DNA morphological evidences, definition and
(contributions of Meischer, Watson and differences between homologous and
Crick, Wilkins, Franklin and Chargaff); types analogous organs (two examples each from
of RNA (tRNA, mRNA and rRNA, snRNA, plants and animals). Embryological
hnRNA); central dogma – concept only; evidences – theory of recapitulation,
reverse transcription (basic idea only), definition and differences between ontogeny
Meselson and Stahl’s experiment, replication and phylogeny. Palaeontological evidence –
of DNA (role of enzymes, namely DNA definition of fossils. Geological time scale
polymerase and ligase), transcription, post- (with reference to dominant flora and fauna)
transcriptional processing in eukaryotes Biogeographical evidence – definition of
(splicing, capping and tailing). Intron, exon, biogeography, molecular (genetic) evidences
cistron, (definitions only). Discovery and -for example genome similarity, universal
essential features of genetic code. Definition genetic code; Darwin's finches (adaptive
of codon. Protein synthesis - translation radiation).
in prokaryotes. Gene expression in Lamarckism: brief idea of Lamarck's theory,
prokaryotes; lac operon in E. coli. evidences in favour of Lamarckism such as
evolution of long neck of giraffe to be
203
discussed. Darwinism: salient features of treatment, characteristics of cancer cells
Darwinism, contribution of Malthus, example (loss of contact inhibition and metastasis).
of giraffe’s neck according to Darwinism, Immunity (definition and types – innate and
criticism of Darwinism. Examples of natural acquired, active and passive, humoral and
selection – industrial melanism, resistance of cell-mediated), structure of a typical
mosquitoes to DDT and resistance of antibody molecule, types of antibodies - IgG,
bacteria to antibiotics, Neo-Darwinism IgA, IgM, IgD and IgE, vaccination and
(Modern Synthetic Theory); Variation - immunisation, allergies and allergens –
causes of variation, Hugo de Vries theory of definitions and general symptoms of
mutation - role of mutation in evolution; allergies; autoimmunity, primary and
Hardy Weinberg’s principle, factors affecting secondary lymphoid organs and tissues, brief
Hardy Weinberg equilibrium: gene migration idea of AIDS – causative agent (HIV), modes
or gene flow, genetic drift (Founder’s effect, of transmission, diagnosis (ELISA),
bottle-neck effect), mutation, genetic symptoms, replication of retrovirus in the
recombination and natural selection, types of infected human cell (including diagram) and
natural selection (directional, disruptive and prevention.
stabilizing). Evolution of man - three Alcoholism and smoking - effects on health.
features of each of the ancestors Drugs: effects and sources of opioids,
Dryopithecus, Ramapithecus, cannabinoids, cocaine and barbiturates.
Australopithecus, Homo habilis, Homo Reasons for addiction; prevention and
erectus, Homo neanderthalensis, control of alcohol and drug abuse.
Cro-magnon man and Homo sapiens leading
(ii) Strategies for enhancement in food
to man of today.
production
3. Biology and Human Welfare Improvement in food production: plant
breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein,
(i) Human Health and Diseases
biofortification, apiculture and animal
Pathogens; parasites causing human husbandry.
diseases (common cold, dengue, Measures for proper maintenance of dairy
chikungunya, typhoid, pneumonia, farms and poultry farms; apiculture and
amoebiasis, malaria, filariasis, ascariasis, pisciculture – definition, brief idea and
ring worm) and their control; Basic advantages of each.
concepts of immunology - vaccines; cancer, Animal breeding - brief idea of inbreeding,
HIV and AIDS; Adolescence - drug and out-breeding, cross-breeding and artificial
alcohol abuse. insemination, Multiple Ovulation Embryo
Communicable and non-communicable Transfer Technology (MOET). Advantages of
diseases; modes of transmission, causative artificial insemination.
agents, symptoms and prevention; viral Plant breeding – a brief reference to green
diseases (common cold, chikungunya and revolution. Steps in plant breeding
dengue), bacterial diseases (typhoid and (germplasm collection, evaluation, selection,
pneumonia), protozoal diseases cross hybridisation or artificial hybridisation
(amoebiasis, and malaria, graphic outline (concept of emasculation and bagging),
of life cycle of Plasmodium), helmintic selection and testing of superior
diseases (ascariasis, and filariasis); fungal recombinants, testing, release and
(ringworm); cancer - types of tumour commercialisation of new cultivars),
(benign, malignant), causes, diagnosis and advantages of mutation breeding, examples
of some Indian hybrid crops like wheat, rice,
204
maize, sugarcane, millet. Definition of 4. Biotechnology and its Applications
heterosis.
(i) Biotechnology - Principles and processes
Application of plant breeding for disease
resistant (examples of some disease- Genetic Engineering (recombinant DNA
resistance varieties of crops for example technology).
wheat (Himgiri), Brassica (Pusa swarnim),
Definition and principles of biotechnology;
cauliflower (Pusa shubhra, Pusa snowball K
isolation of genomic (chromosomal) DNA
– 1), Cow pea (Pusa komal), chilli (Pusa
sadabahar), insect resistance (examples of (from bacteria/plant cell/animal cell, by cell
some insect resistant varieties of lysis), isolation of gene of interest (by
crops – Brassica (Pusa Gaurav), flat electrophoresis), steps of formation of
bean (Pusa sem 2, Pusa sem 3), okra (Pusa recombinant DNA, discovery, nomenclature,
sawani, Pusa A–4)), improved food quality features and role of restriction enzymes
(biofortification) protoplasmic fusion. Tissue (EcoRI, HindII), ligase; cloning vectors
culture (technique and application – (features of a good cloning vector, examples
micropropagation, somaclones, disease free
of cloning vectors like pBR322,
plants and somatic hybridisation), single cell
Agrobacterium, retroviruses, bacterial
protein – source and significance.
artificial chromosome (BAC), yeast artificial
(iii) Microbes in Human Welfare chromosome (YAC)), methods of transfer of
In household food processing, industrial rDNA into a competent host, e.g. by direct-
production, sewage treatment, energy method (temperature shock), microinjection,
generation and microbes as biocontrol gene gun, methods of selection of
agents and biofertilisers. Antibiotics; recombinants (antibiotic resistance,
production and judicious use.
insertional inactivation/blue-white selection),
Use of microbes in: household products: cloning of recombinants, i.e., gene
Lactobacillus (curd), Saccharomyces amplification (by in vivo or in vitro method -
(bread), Propionibacterium (Swiss cheese); using PCR technique), bioreactor (stirred
industrial products: beverages (with and
tank and sparged tank), downstream
without distillation), antibiotics (Penicillin
processing.
– discovery and use); sources (microbes)
and uses of organic acids, alcohols and (ii) Biotechnology and its applications
enzymes (lipase, pectinase, protease,
streptokinase) in industry, source Applications of biotechnology in health and
(microbes) and applications of agriculture: human insulin and vaccine
Cyclosporin-A, Statins. Sewage treatment – production, stem cell technology, gene
primary and secondary treatment; therapy; genetically modified organisms -
production of biogas (methanogens, biogas Bt crops; transgenic animals; biosafety issues,
plant, composition of biogas and process of biopiracy and biopatents.
production); harmful effects of chemical In agriculture: for production of crops
pesticides; microbes as biocontrol agents
tolerant to abiotic stresses (cold, drought,
(ladybird, dragonfly, Bacillus thuringiensis
salt, heat); pest-resistant crops (Bt-crops,
Trichoderma, Nucleopolyhedrovirus
(Baculovirus), IPM and microbes as RNAi with reference to Meloidogyne
biofertilisers (Rhizobium, Azospirillum, incognita); biofortification (golden rice,
Azotobacter, Mycorrhiza, Cyanobacteria). wheat – Atlas 66, maize hybrids, iron
fortified rice).
205
In medicine: insulin, gene therapy - with Population interactions – definition of
reference to treatment of SCID, molecular mutualism, competition (interspecific,
interference, competitive release and
diagnosis by PCR, ELISA and use of
Gause’s Principle of Competitive
DNA/RNA probe. Exclusion), predation (adaptations in
Transgenic animals for bioactive products organisms to avoid predation), parasitism
like alpha-1-antitrypsin for emphysema, (ecto-, endo-, and brood parasites),
alpha-lactalbumin; vaccine safety testing, commensalism, amensalism with examples
of each.
chemical safety testing; study of diseases.
Role of GEAC, definition and two examples (ii) Ecosystem
of biopiracy, biopatent; ethical issues. Ecosystems: patterns, components;
productivity and decomposition; energy
5. Ecology and Environment flow; pyramids of number, biomass,
energy; nutrient cycles (carbon and
(i) Organisms and Populations phosphorous); ecological succession;
Organisms and environment: habitat and ecological services - carbon fixation,
niche, population and ecological pollination, seed dispersal, oxygen release
adaptations; population interactions - (in brief).
mutualism, competition, predation,
Definition and types of ecosystems;
parasitism; population attributes - growth,
structure of ecosystem (brief idea
birth rate and death rate, age distribution.
about biotic and abiotic components).
Definition of ecology; major biomes; Structure and function of pond ecosystem;
abiotic factors (temperature, water, light, ecosystem functions: (i) Productivity – gros
soil – definition of stenothermal, primary productivity (GPP), net
eurythermal, stenohaline and euryhaline), primary productivity (NPP) and
responses to abiotic factors (regulate, secondary productivity (ii) Decomposition
conform, migrate, suspend); ecological (fragmentation, leaching, catabolism,
adaptations: morphological, physiological humification and mineralization), factors
and behavioural in response to loss of affecting rate of decomposition (iii) Energy
water and extremes of temperature in plant flow. Various types of food chains – grazing
and animals including humans. Definition and detritus, food webs, trophic levels,
of habitat and niche. ecological pyramids – energy, number and
Definition of population; population biomass (iv) Nutrient cycle – definition of
attributes: sex ratio, types of age biogeochemical cycles – gaseous (Carbon)
distribution pyramids for human and sedimentary (Phosphorous). Graphic
population; definition of population density, representation of the above cycles.
natality, mortality, emigration,
Definition of PAR, 10% Law, standing crop
immigration, carrying capacity. Ways to
and standing state.
measure population density. Calculation of
natality and mortality. Succession: definition to explain the
meaning, kinds of succession (hydrarch,
Population growth: factors affecting
xerarch; primary and secondary succession
population growth and population growth
with examples), definition of pioneer
equation; growth models: exponential
community, climax community and sere;
growth and logistic growth along with
significance of ecological succession.
equations, graph and examples of the same;
life history variations: definition of Ecological services and their cost.
reproductive fitness and examples.

206
(iii) Biodiversity and its Conservation precipitators, catalytic converter, CNG,
Bharat stages, noise pollution: harmful
Concept of biodiversity; patterns of
effects and control; Water pollution, major
biodiversity; importance of biodiversity; loss
sources and its control, composition of waste
of biodiversity; biodiversity conservation;
water, thermal pollution, eutrophication -
hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction,
cultural and accelerated, BOD, effect of
Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, national
sewage discharge on BOD and dissolved
parks, sanctuaries and Ramsar sites
oxygen content in river; case studies of waste
Definition of biodiversity, few examples of water treatment (FOAM and EcoSan); Soil
each type of biodiversity - species, ecosystem pollution – sources, effects and control,
and genetic. Global biodiversity and agrochemicals and their harmful effects,
proportionate number of species of major integrated organic farming, contribution of
taxa of plants, invertebrates and vertebrates; Ramesh Chandra Dagar, biomagnification
patterns of biodiversity (latitudinal gradients, and bioconcentration; solid waste
species-area relationship – graph and management, Radioactive waste
equation), “rivet popper hypothesis”, management, e-waste.
importance of species diversity to the
A brief understanding of the concept of
ecosystem (narrowly utilitarian, broadly
deforestation (slash and burn agriculture or
utilitarian, ethical).
jhum cultivation’s contribution), greenhouse
Examples of some recently extinct organisms, effect. Impact of global warming in terms of
causes of loss of biodiversity (habitat loss climatic changes, rise in sea levels, melting
and fragmentation, over-exploitation, alien of ice caps, El Nino effect ; impact on
species invasion, co-extinction). animals and plants due to climate changes.
Biodiversity conservation: In-situ methods - Ozone depletion – causes, ozone hole,
protected areas: biosphere reserves, national Dobson unit, effects on plants and animals,
parks, wildlife sanctuaries, sacred groves; methods to control ozone depletion, Montreal
ex-situ methods - captive breeding, zoo, protocol. Any one of the following case
botanical gardens, cryopreservation, wild studies as success stories addressing
life safari, seed banks, tissue culture. environmental issues: Chipko Movement,
Definitions and examples of each of the Joint Forest Management, contribution of
above. Hotspots, Ramsar sites and Red Data Ahmed Khan of Bangalore.
Book. Environmental Acts — Environmental
Historic conventions on biological diversity Protection Act, Water (prevention and
(the Earth Summit and the World Summit). control of pollution), Air (prevention and
control of pollution act).
(iv) Environmental Issues
Air pollution and its control; water PAPER II
pollution and its control; agrochemicals and PRACTICAL WORK – 20 Marks
their effects; solid waste management;
1) Taxonomy: Study floral characteristics through
radioactive waste management; greenhouse
dissection of flowers, drawing floral formula and
effect and climate change; ozone layer
diagrams of following families:
depletion; deforestation; any one case
study as success story addressing (i) Malvaceae: type – China rose / Hollyhock.
environmental issue(s).
(ii) Leguminosae: subfamily – Papilionaceae –
Definition of pollution and pollutant; type – Sweet pea/ Pea/ Bean/ Sesbania/
environmental issues: air pollution and its Clitoria (single flower).
control, major sources of gaseous and
(iii) Solanaceae: type – Petunia / Datura / Brinjal
particulate pollutants, control devices for air
Flower / Solanum nigrum.
pollution such as: scrubbers and electrostatic

207
(iv) Liliaceae: type – Onion or Amaryllidaceae – Students should be taught to set up and
type – Lily/Spider lily/ Tiger lily/ Tube rose/ demonstrate the experiments with correct
Gladiolus. diagram of the setup, record their
observations methodically and give
Floral characteristics should be explained by
conclusions. This will give a clear idea of the
dissection of flowers. Students should be
physiological processes. Questions can be
taught how to cut vertical section of the flower
asked based on the above physiological
and draw accurately labelled diagrams. The
processes studied.
technique of drawing floral diagrams with the
mother axis in the right position is necessary. (iii) To study the effect of enzyme (amylase)
Floral formula should be correctly written. action at three different temperatures and pH
Identification of the correct family giving on starch solution.
reasons, technique of cutting T.S. and L.S of Effect of enzyme (amylase/ diastase) action
ovary should be explained and accordingly at three different temperatures (low- below
correct labelled-diagram should be drawn. 10oC, optimum - 37oC and high – above
70oC) and pH (acidic, neutral and basic) on
Students should know the examples of plants
starch solution.
(belonging to each family) which are of
economic importance. The examples of (iv) To isolate DNA from available plant
common names of plants must be supported material.
with correct scientific names as well. Isolation of DNA from spinach leaves, green
pea seeds, pulp of banana and papaya.
NOTE: In the examination, candidates will
be tested on any one of the above families. Take half a ripe and peeled banana into a
beaker and add 50 ml of extraction fluid
2) Simple biochemical and physiological
(1.5gm table salt +10 ml liquid detergent
experiments
+90 ml distilled water). Place the beaker in a
(i) Study of arrangement/distribution of stomata water bath set at 60 °C for 15 minutes. Stir
in dicot and monocot leaves. gently with a glass rod. Filter 5ml of cooled
(ii) Study of soils from two different sites. content into a clean test tube and add 5ml of
Collect soil samples from two different areas cold 90% ethanol. DNA molecules separate
and make a comparative study of their out and appear as white fibres.
texture, moisture content, humus content, 3) Slide preparation
water holding capacity and pH.
(i) Germination of pollen grain in a nutrient
Guidelines for collection of soil samples:
medium.
• Texture - loamy, sandy and clayey soil.
(ii) T.S. of ovary of any locally available flower,
• Moisture content – Soil samples are to be to show marginal / axile placentation.
collected from a dry place and a wet
place. Alternatively samples of soil can be (iii) T.S. of a hydrophyte stem.
dried to different degrees in oven/by (iv) T.S. of a xerophytic leaf (Nerium).
keeping in sun.
(v) L.S. of monocot and dicot seed (soaked seeds
• Humus Content – Collect one sample from
of maize/wheat, pea/ bean.)
roadside/barren land and one sample
from garden/cultivated field. The technique of staining and mounting
• Water holding capacity – Pour given neatly should be explained. Students should
amount of water in known weight of soil also know how to make labelled outline
sample and record the volume of water diagrams. They should also be taught to
retained by the soil sample. identify the mount under low/ high power of
microscope. Two identifying features of the
• pH – Add water to the soil sample and above need to be mentioned.
test with pH paper.

208
4) Spotting: (three minutes to be given for each PROJECT WORK AND PRACTICAL FILE –
spot which includes identification, drawing a 10 Marks
labelled diagram and writing at least two Project Work – 7 Marks
identifying characteristics). The project work is to be assessed by a Visiting
NOTE: Spotting must be done on a separate Examiner appointed locally and approved by the
answer sheet during examination, which Council.
should be handed over to the Examiner The candidate is to creatively execute one
immediately after spotting. project/assignment on an aspect of biology.
(i) Identify and comment on the following: Preference is to be given to investigatory projects.
(a) T.S. of ovary of mammal (Permanent Teachers may assign or students may choose any one
slide). project of their choice. Students can choose any other
(b) T.S. of testis of mammal (Permanent project besides the ones indicated in the list.
slide). Following is only a suggestive list of topics:
(c) Germinating pollen grain (slide/chart). (i) Genetic disorders
(d) T.S. of ovary to show the type of (ii) Gene therapy
placentation (marginal, axile, basal, (iii) Human Genome Project
parietal). (iv) DNA fingerprinting
(e) T.S. of blastula / blastocyst of a mammal (v) Bio-piracy
(chart/ slide). (vi) Cancer.
(f) Whole mount of Plasmodium sporozoite (vii) AIDS/Hepatitis.
(slide /chart). (viii) Drug addiction and community.
(g) Whole mount of Entamoeba histolytica (ix) Role of micro-organisms in industry.
trophozoite (slide/chart). (x) Human population.
(h) Preserved specimen/ chart/ model of (xi) Mendelian Inheritance
Ascaris. (xii) Environmental resistance.
(xiii) Traditional and modern methods: Study of a
(ii) Comment upon ecological adaptations of
few traditional methods of pest deterrence
plants and animals.
vis-a-vis modern methods of pest control -
Models/ virtual images/ charts of one viability of traditional methods in today's
plant and one animal found in xeric and scenario and limitations and dangers of modern
aquatic habitats. methods.
(xiv) Role of agrochemicals in increasing food
. (iii) Flowers adapted to pollination by different production.
agencies – insect and wind.
Students should be able to identify the type of Suggested Evaluation Criteria for Project Work:
pollination of the given flower, draw the Format of the Project:
diagram of the flower and give two reasons – Content
for the type of pollination. Example: Hibiscus – Introduction
and grass. – Presentation (graphs, tables, charts, newspaper
Students should be taught how to identify, cuttings, handmade diagrams, photographs,
draw, label and give significantly visible statistical analysis if relevant)
characteristics as observed, of each spot, in a – Conclusion/ Summary
given time of three minutes. ‘T.S.’, ‘model’, – Bibliography
‘whole mount’, ‘chart’, ‘image’ of the Projects should be handwritten by the candidate.
specimen should be mentioned as a part of Written pages should not exceed 15-20 pages.
identification.

209
Practical File – 3 Marks 24. Avery, MacLeod and McCarty: DNA is the
The Visiting Examiner is required to assess genetic material
students on the basis of the Biology Practical file 25. Hershey and Chase: DNA is the genetic material
maintained by them during the academic year. 26. Meselson and Stahl: Semi-conservative
Each practical done during the year, needs to be replication of DNA
recorded by the student in the Practical file and 27. G. Gamow: Triplet nature of codons
the same must be checked, signed and dated by
the teacher. 28. S Ochoa: discovered polynucleotide
phosphorylase
SCIENTISTS AND THEIR CONTRIBUTIONS: 29. Wallace: divided the Earth into biogeographical
1. Oparin: Coacervates, Conditions on primitive regions
earth were favourable for chemical evolution 30. M S Swaminathan: Green revolution in India
2. Stanley Miller & Harold Urey: Recreated 31. H Boyer: discovered Restriction Enzyme
probable conditions on primitive earth
32. S Cohen: method to transfer plasmid DNA in
3. Ernst Haeckel: Proposed the recapitulation theory host cells
4. Charles Darwin: Natural Selection 33. R Mishra: Father of Indian Ecology
5. Lamarck: Inheritance of acquired characters 34. E Wilson: coined the term Biodiversity
6. Hugo de Vries: Mutation 35. P Ehrlich: Rivet Popper Hypothesis
7. T. R. Malthus: Theory of Human Population 36. Sanger: DNA/Protein sequencing
Growth/ Essays on population
8. Alec Jeffrey: DNA finger printing
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS TO BE STUDIED
9. Temin and Baltimore: Reverse transcription.
1. DDT – Dichloro diphenyl trichloro ethane
10. Jacob, Monad and Lwoff: proposed Lac operon.
2. ECG – Electrocardiogram
11. Watson & Crick: Structure of DNA
3. C. T. Scan – Computed Tomographic Scanning
12. Nirenberg and Khorana: Genetic code
4. IUCD/IUD – Intra uterine contraceptive device
13. Benzer: Cistron, recon, muton
5. SCID – Severe Combined Immuno Deficiency
14. Gregor Mendel: Father of genetics
6. MRI – Magnetic Resonance Imaging
15. Sutton and Boveri: Chromosomal theory of
inheritance 7. SSBP–Single Strand Binding Protein
16. Hugo de Vries, Correns and Tschermack: 8. PKU- Phenyl ketonuria
Rediscovered Mendelism 9. ADA- Adenosine Deaminase
17. T H Morgan: Linkage 10. RCH- Reproductive and Child Health Care
18. P Maheshwari: Plant tissue culture Programmes
19. A Sturtevant: Chromosomal mapping 11. MMR- Maternal Mortality Rate
20. Henking: Discovered X-chromosome 12. IMR- Infant Mortality Rate
21. F. Meischer: Isolated nucleic acid from pus cells, 13. LAB- Lactic Acid Bacteria
called Nuclein 14. PID- Pelvic Inflammatory Diseases
22. Chargaff: Rule of equivalence in DNA structure 15. ET- Embryo Transfer
23. F. Griffith: Transformation in bacteria 16. IUT- Intra Uterine Transfer

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17. ISCI- Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection 30. LSD- Lysergic Acid Diethylamide
18. IUI- Intra Uterine Insemination 31. IRRI- International Rice Research Institute
19. snRNA- Small Nuclear Ribo Nucleic Acid 32. IARI- Indian Agricultural Research Institute
20. hnRNA- Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribo Nucleic 33. EFB- European Federation of Biotechnology
Acid 34. GMO- Genetically Modified Organism
21. sRNA- Soluble Ribo Nucleic Acid 35. GPP- Gross Primary Productivity
22. UTR- Untranslated Region 36. NPP- Net Primary Productivity
23. EST- Expressed Sequence Tags 37. GFC- Grazing Food Chain
24. SNPs-Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms 38. DFC- Detritus Food Chain
25. VNTRs- Variable Number of Tandem Repeats 39. IUCN- International Union for Conservation of
26. CMI- Cell Mediated Immunity Nature and Natural Resources
27. MALT- Mucosal Associated Lymphoid Tissue 40. CPCB- Central Pollution Control Board
28. NACO- National AIDS Control Organisation 41. CNG- Compressed Natural Gas
29. MOET- Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer 42. JFM- Joint Forest Management
Technology

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