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11 Ansichten9 SeitenApplication of pattern classification techniques for anisotropic
characterization of pavement foundations

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Application of pattern classification techniques for anisotropic
characterization of pavement foundations

© All Rights Reserved

0 Bewertungen0% fanden dieses Dokument nützlich (0 Abstimmungen)

11 Ansichten9 SeitenApplication of pattern classification techniques for anisotropic
characterization of pavement foundations

© All Rights Reserved

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© 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-1-138-29595-7

characterization of pavement foundations

The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX, USA

ABSTRACT: Several factors such as moisture state, particle geometry, gradation parameters, fines con-

tent, and the nature of stress paths contribute to the directional dependency of material properties in the

granular layers. The motivation for this study was to evaluate the applicability of pattern classification

techniques to provide class discriminatory information of the laboratory observations. For this purpose,

several experimental permutations were subjected to variable dynamic confining pressure stress path tests

to study the synergistic influence of different factors on the anisotropic behavior of aggregate systems.

The laboratory tests and the post processed data were in turn used to evaluate the relevance of pattern

classification techniques to unravel physically meaningful information of the multi-dimensional dataset.

The results of this effort will be instrumental for the practitioners to potentially reduce the number of

features needed to be determined in the laboratory for a refined and cost-effective testing protocol.

analyses (Oda & Nakayama 1989). Adu-Osei et al.

Unbound granular layers are integral component (2001) studied the impact of aggregate characteris-

of the highway pavements and airfield runways. tics on the level of anisotropy and demonstrated its

The main role of such layers is to distribute and dependency on particle size distribution, particle

reduce the traffic induced stress to a tolerable shape, and moisture content at a certain level of

level for sub grade soils. Additionally they serve compaction.

as robust platform for the surface to maintain Several predictive models have been proposed

adequate ride quality. Traditional pavement design in the literature to estimate the anisotropic behav-

approaches characterize the Unbound Aggregate ior of the UAB (e.g. Kim et al. 2005; Masad et al.

Base (UAB) layers as an isotropic medium. How- 2006; Ashtiani et al. 2008). Ashtiani et al. (2008)

ever, it is acknowledged by many researchers that proposed a simple procedure to evaluate the level

isotropic modeling of UAB causes the mechanical of anisotropy of aggregate systems using some

response of the pavement to be evaluated unreal- easily determinable aggregate properties. Subse-

istically (Karasahin et al. 1993; Masad et al. 2006; quently, they used the level of anisotropy as an

Wang & Al-Qadi 2013). Accordingly, some efforts input to predict the performance of aggregate

have been made to develop predictive models as bases. On the other hand, a number of research-

well as testing protocols to properly capture the ers have investigated the effect of loading on

anisotropic characteristics of the UAB (Adu-Osei the anisotropic responses of granular material.

et al. 2001; Kim et al. 2005; Ashtiani & Little 2009). Tutumluer & Seyhan (1999) studied the influ-

The directional dependency of material prop- ence of multiple stress path on the anisotropic

erties of the aggregate base is twofold. It is firstly behavior of granular materials. They utilized the

due to the characteristics of the material such as University of Illinois Fast Cell (UI-FC) for simu-

particle geometry and particle size distribution, lating the dynamic stresses on aggregate material

also known as inherent anisotropy; and secondly as a result of the moving traffic loads. Adu-Osei

due to the rotation of stress fields as a result of et al. (2001) tested aggregate materials at different

moving traffic loads, which is often referred to as stress states and dynamic stress paths using Rapid

stress-induced anisotropy in the literature. Early Triaxial Testing (RaTT) cell, and calculated the

attempts to investigate the impact of particle size anisotropic parameters through system identifica-

and geometry on the anisotropic response of gran- tion method scheme. He investigated the material

ular materials were made by Parkin et al. (1968), under three different stress regimes to capture the

El-Sohby (1969) and Oda (1972). Later, a number parameters required for characterization of trans-

of contributors assessed the concept of anisotropy versely isotropic media.

39

In the area of pavement engineering, pattern (Ey) can be represented by Equation 1. Also, the

classification techniques have been used mostly for horizontal resilient modulus (Ex) and the shear

automatic detection and classification of surface modulus (Gxy) can be determined by equations 2

distresses in place of the human labor (e.g. Saar & and 3, respectively.

Talvik 2010; Wu et al. 2014). In current research, k5 k6

these approaches were employed to study cross I τ

anisotropic behavior of UAB. For this purpose, E x = k4 Pa oct + 1 (2)

Pa Pa

initially a comprehensive experiment design was

developed to establish a multi-dimensional aggre- k8

I τ

k9

tures of aggregates mixes with different lithologies Pa Pa

and gradations which are tested at different satura-

tion levels. Nonlinear and cross-anisotropic mate- Several researchers have investigated the fac-

rial parameters were determined using Variable tors influencing the resilient behavior of aggregate

Dynamic Confining Pressure (VDCP) stress paths. systems subjected to moving traffic loads. Among

Aggregate Imaging System (AIMS) was employed these factors, moisture state, dry density, aggregate

to characterize the particle geometry parameters. geometry and stress path have been identified as

Subsequently, Hierarchical Clustering Analysis the factors that have the most considerable impact

(HCA) techniques based on different measures on the orthogonal load distribution capacity of

of distance were employed to investigate the simi- unbound aggregate systems. It is widely accepted

larities between the distributions of the param- that the resilient modulus significantly deteriorates

eters. Furthermore, Fisher’s Linear Discriminant as the saturation level increases (Dawson et al.

Analysis (LDA) and K Nearest Neighbor (KNN) 1996). Dry density (or degree of compaction) of

algorithm were used to classify the data based on aggregate materials is another factor which plays

predefined criteria. The results of this study iden- a crucial role in the resilient behavior. Generally,

tify the aggregate features with similar patterns the aggregate matrix becomes stronger and stiffer

and thus provide a deeper understanding of the as the dry density increases. It is worth mention-

underlying relations and interactions between the ing that the influence of dry density variations on

features of aggregate database. the resilient modulus is not the same for systems

with different lithologies, fine contents, and stress

states (Hicks 1970). Aggregate shape is considered

2 ANISOTROPIC CHARACTERIZATION as another factor which significantly affects the

OF UAB resilient behavior of granular materials. Roughly-

textured and angular aggregates form a stiffer

The resilient modulus (MR) of UAB is nonlin- mass through development of strong interlock-

ear, stress-dependent and anisotropic. The new ing forces. Previous studies have confirmed that

Mechanistic Empirical Design Guide (MEPDG) crushed aggregate material with high angularity

considers the following equation to capture the and rough texture shows higher resilient modulus

nonlinearity as well as hardening-softening behav- compared with the rounded and smooth counter-

ior (Uzan 1999): part (Ashtiani et al. 2008).

The moving nature of traffic loads adds another

k2

I τ

k3 component to the stiffness anisotropy of aggregate

M R = k1Pa oct + 1 (1) layer in the pavement structure. Figure 1 sche-

a a

P P matically illustrates the stresses felt by the mate-

rial below the surface due to moving wheel load

where I = first stress invariant; τoct is octahedral over the pavement. As is shown in this figure,

shear stress; Pa = atmospheric pressure; and k1, k2, the vertical stress (σy) reaches its maximum right

k3 are fitting parameters. In this equation, the term beneath the wheel load and reduces nonlinearly

(I/Pa)k2 is known as the hardening component, as the wheel moves away from the reference point.

which captures the stiffening effect of aggregate Similar manner is followed by the horizontal stress

matrix when subjected to repeated loading. On the (σx) but with a lower magnitude. Furthermore, the

other hand, (τoct/Pa)k3 is referred to as the soften- slope of the stress plot in the case of vertical stress

ing component, which characterizes the reduction is much higher than the horizontal stress. Conse-

of stiffness after exceeding the threshold load as quently, at any given point an extension-compres-

a result of the cumulative damage induced to the sion-extension stress regimen is experienced as

matrix. the wheel load passes over the pavement section.

In order to fully characterize the UAB as an Although the magnitude of the tensile stresses may

anisotropic medium, the vertical resilient modulus be very small, the rotation of the principal stress

40

were tested in three moisture conditions: Optimum

Moisture Content (OMC), dry of optimum mois-

ture content (-2% of OMC), and wet of optimum

moisture content (+2% of OMC). Specimens were

fabricated following (ASTM D1557) to determine

the optimum water content and maximum dry

density of each gradation variant. Table 1 provides

the labels selected to identify materials and features

of the aggregate database.

Traditional triaxial test protocols are com-

monly suitable for simulating the state of the

stresses under stationary loads. On the other hand,

dynamic stress path tests can be used to simulate

the stress states developed in aggregate layers by

the traffic loads. Such a proper test protocol is able

Figure 1. Distribution of normal and shear stresses at a

given point under a moving wheel load.

to capture the extension-compression-extension

stress regimens induced by moving wheel loads.

Particularly, VDCP type stress path tests take

plane will result in additional level of anisotropy advantage of applying dynamic vertical pressure as

induced on aggregate structure. Hornych et al. well as dynamic confinement on the specimen for

(2000) pointed out that the aforementioned stress a more realistic simulation of field conditions. In

regimen can increase the rate of plastic strains up this study, a customized triaxial setup called RaTT

to three times greater than those measured from (Rapid Triaxial Test) cell was used to perform

repeated plate load tests. VDCP stress path tests in accordance with the

Due to the role of stress states in directional stress path protocol outlined in ICAR/508 report.

dependency of material properties, anisotropic (Ashtiani & Little 2009)

characterization of granular materials using con- RaTT cell device is controlled by a multi channel

ventional tests such as plate load test or tradi- data acquisition system which is capable of apply-

tional triaxial setup is irrelevant. Therefore, some ing both vertical and dynamic confining pressures.

researchers have proposed new testing protocols The general setup for the stress path test using this

to simulate the rotation of principal stresses in the apparatus is consisted of RaTT cell mounted in the

laboratory. Universal Testing Machine (UTM), data acquisi-

Adu-Osei et al. (2001) developed a laboratory tion system, and a computer for control and stor-

testing protocol for anisotropic characterization of age of the data. This customized setup supports

unbound granular material. He applied ten static automated cell movement and multiple displace-

stress states followed by small dynamic excursions ment measurement with Linear Variable Differen-

in the stresses to obtain three stress regimes namely tial Transducers (LVDT) in both directions.

triaxial compression, triaxial shear, and triaxial The testing protocol provides a means to deter-

extension. Consequently, he determined the cross- mine cross anisotropic material properties including

anisotropic parameters of aggregate material via a elastic modulus in the horizontal and vertical direc-

back-calculation scheme called System Identifica- tions (Ex and Ey), Poisson’s ratio in the horizontal

tion (SID) method. A similar testing protocol is direction due to vertical loading (vxy), Poisson’s ratio

adopted in current study for anisotropic charac- in the horizontal direction due to horizontal load-

terization of the UAB. ing (vxx) and shear modulus (Gxy). For this purpose,

applied stresses and measured strains are used as

input parameters to an iterative error minimization

3 EXPERIMENT DESIGN

Table 1. Classification criteria and class labels of the

Various aggregate systems with distinct lithologies aggregate database.

were evaluated to study the factors that influence

the cross anisotropic behavior of unbound aggre- Classification Class

gate systems. Three gradation variants (i.e. coarse, Criterion Labels

well and fine gradations) of different granite, lime-

stone and gravel aggregates obtained from ten Lithology Limestone Granite Gravel

(L) (N) (G)

sources in Texas, Oklahoma and Minnesota, were

Gradation Coarse (1) Well (2) Fine (3)

incorporated into the experiment design. In order

Moisture Dry (D) Optimum Wet (W)

to investigate the effect of moisture state on the state (O)

mechanical response of the aggregates, the materials

41

technique (i.e. the SID) to simultaneously solve lead to a high dimensional aggregate database. In

four of the five anisotropic material properties (Ex, principle, the more information we gather about a

Ey, vxx, and vxy). The fifth material property (Gxy) phenomenon, the more accurate insight into that

is determined using elastic work potential rela- phenomenon we can achieve. However, analysis

tionships derived specifically for the shear stress of a database containing large number of data

regimen. Subsequently, the five cross anisotropic deems necessary to employ dimensionality reduc-

material properties as well as prescribed stresses in tion techniques to eliminate correlated features. In

the lab can be fitted to the material models, Equa- other words, the dimensionality reduction is syn-

tions 1 through 3, to determine the nine k param- onymous to the selection of the features with high-

eters for each aggregate system. The calculated k est significance. This is more pronounced when the

values will be used as input to characterize nonlin- development of prediction models becomes the

earity, stress dependency, and anisotropic behavior objective of the research.

of unbound aggregate systems in the lab. Dimensionality reduction is essentially a process

It is intuitively relevant that aggregate geom- of feature selection and thus can be regarded as a

etry characterized by its shape, angularity, and clustering problem. Clustering algorithms are cat-

texture greatly influence the level of anisotropy egorized into two general types namely supervised

unbound aggregate systems. This is mainly due and unsupervised approaches. The term supervised

to the contribution of the geometry to the inter- implies that the clustering is performed based on

locking mechanism in particulate systems. In this predefined training patterns. On the other hand,

study, aggregate geometry was characterized in unsupervised algorithms cluster the data only

terms of particle form, angularity, and texture according to the inherent scatter of the data. The

using the AIMS. Aggregate form refers to flat classification techniques employed in current

or elongated shape of the particles; angularity research include: Hierarchical Clustering Analysis

defines the degree of roundness or sharpness (HCA), K Nearest Neighbor (KNN), K-means

of aggregate corners; and texture is related to clustering and Fisher’s Linear Discriminant Anal-

small asperities at the surface of particles from ysis (LDA). These techniques have been success-

which the surface roughness originates (Kim et fully applied in several engineering practice such

al. 2005). Fifty-six aggregate particles from three as: geotechnical site characterization (Hegazy &

aggregate sizes of each source were evaluated Mayne 2002), detection of crack in pavements (Wu

using the AIMS device. Several two parameter et al. 2014), prediction of landslides due to rain-

and three parameter distribution functions were falls (de Souza & Ebecken 2012) and travel time

fitted to the aggregate geometry data. Based prediction on high-ways (Tak et al. 2014), to name

on the best fit analysis of the database, it was a few.

observed that the two-parameter Weibull distri- K-means is a clustering technique aiming to

bution provides a reasonable fit for both parti- generate exactly K different groups of data with

cle size distributions and geometrical properties greatest possible distinction (Duda et al. 2000).

of the aggregates data at a 95% confidence level. K-means algorithms require the number of clusters

The cumulative Weibull distribution function is (K), an initial assignment of data to clusters and

of the following form: the distance measure between data points. On the

other hand, HCA is another clustering approach

d

β

which only relies on a measure of similarity (or dis-

Q(d ) = 1 − − (4) tance) between the data points. The Euclidian dis-

α tance (also known as average distance) between all

pairs of objects in two clusters (r and s) is defined

where, d = the aggregate size; α = scale param- in Equation 5 as:

eter; and β = shape parameter. These distribution

parameters, which can be determined through fit- nr ns

1

ting the particle size distribution and aggregate d ( r, s ) =

nr .ns

∑ ∑ dist(x ri , xsj ) (5)

shape properties data to the Weibull distribution i =1 j =1

function, were later imported to the aggregate fea-

ture database. where, nr and ns are the number of samples in the

clusters r and s, respectively. On the other hand,

the Mahalanobis distance is defined as:

4 PATTERN CLASSIFICATION

dist( xri , xsj ) = ( xri − xsj )D −1 ( xri − xsj )T (6)

Anisotropic behavior of unbound aggregate sys-

tems is influenced by several aggregate features. In this equation, the distance between data

Hence, any comprehensive experimental study will points is normalized by the covariance matrix D.

42

Consequently, this measure is less sensitive to the function applied to the multi-dimensional aggre-

outliers of the system, and typically results in bet- gate database.

ter classification rates. Classification based on the aggregates’ lithol-

The objective of LDA is, in essence, to project ogy resulted in 73% classification rate. Based on

the data onto the direction which gives the best the statistical classification analysis of the data,

classification scheme. This can be achieved if angularity parameter, dry density, and k6 param-

within class scatter (SW) is minimized and, simul- eter, i.e. exponent of the hardening term for hori-

taneously, between class scatter (SB) is maximized. zontal modulus model, were found to be the most

Mathematically, the best direction vector (w) can influential features of the database. Classification

be obtained by maximizing the following objective based on gradation resulted in 62% classification

function (Duda et al. 2000): rate. SFS algorithm selected angularity param-

eter, k3 and k9, i.e. exponents of softening terms

wT SB w for vertical and shear modulus, respectively, as the

J (w) = (7) features that best explain the system’s behavior.

wT SW w

Finally, classification based on the moisture state

resulted in 52% classification rate and the features

KNN is another widely-used classification

selected by SFS were k3, i.e. softening exponent of

method that determines the class label for unla-

the vertical modulus, and k7, i.e. multiplier in the

beled data points based on their similarity. In this

shear modulus.

method, the class of the data is labeled based on

The best classification rate of 73% was observed

the majority vote of its neighbors. Hence, in binary

when classification was performed according to

classification problems the K would be chosen as

the lithology of the aggregates in the experiment

an odd number to avoid tied votes. For most prac-

matrix. The aggregates elected in the experiment

tical purposes, K is assumed as a positive integer

design had significantly different angularity char-

typically smaller than 10.

acteristics. This was confirmed by unenforced

In current study, discriminatory information

selection of this feature in the clustering analy-

among the features of the aggregate database was

sis. Natural selection of the angularity feature by

investigated through two approaches. In the first

mathematical algorithm is in conformity with the

approach, the classification was performed by

intuitive sense of the role of particle geometry

means of HCA based on two different distance

on the anisotropic behavior of aggregate systems.

measures of the data, namely Euclidean distance

Since load transfer in particulate media is carried

and Mahalanobis distance. After choosing the

out through particle interactions and interlock-

proximity measure, K-means algorithm was used

ing effect between solid grains, aggregate systems

to find the matching samples in each cluster. The

with more angular particles are expected to be

significance of this analysis is that it identifies

less prone to develop plastic deformations when

aggregate features with similar patterns subjected

subjected to external loads. To further investigate

to stimuli such as stress path tests. This analysis can

the role of the aggregate angularity, the shape and

potentially unravel the underlying relations and the

scale parameters of the aggregate angularity were

interaction between the features of the aggregate

removed from the database and the classification

system. In the second approach, the laboratory

algorithm was executed without these parameters.

measurements and post processed aggregate data

The removal of the angularity features resulted

were classified using Fisher’s LDA. In addition,

in significant drop in the classification rates from

KNN algorithm was also applied to improve the

73% to 46%.

performance of the classifier based on pre-defined

class labels. This approach helps to analyze the sep-

arability of the features in order to develop effec- 5.2 Hierarchical clustering analysis

tive testing protocols and/or regression analyses.

In order to find physically meaningful patterns

among the features of the aggregates, hierarchical

unsupervised clustering analyses were also per-

5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

formed on the database. The results of hierarchi-

cal clustering of the features based on average and

5.1 Supervised clustering analysis

Mahalanobis proximity measures are illustrated in

Supervised clustering analysis was performed Figures 2, 3, respectively.

on the aggregate data based on three classifica- The general findings from these two dendograms

tion criteria namely lithology, gradation, and are very similar to each other. As demonstrated in

moisture state. Additionally, Sequential Forward Figure 2, k1 and k4, which are the multipliers of the

Selection (SFS) algorithm was applied to select elastic modulus in vertical and horizontal direc-

the features that minimize the mean square error tions, respectively, have the closest patterns in the

43

drop of orthogonal stiffness and hence accelerates

the rutting potential in granular layers. This reduc-

tion of stiffness properties in unbound systems is

synonymous with increase of the softening param-

eter in Equation 1. Therefore, the patterns of the

softening parameter and water content obtained in

this study are in agreement with the expected behav-

ior of unbound aggregates.

Fisher’s LDA was used in order to provide class

discriminatory information among the features

of the aggregate database. Initially, the eigenval-

ues and eigenvectors of Fisher’s criterion (SW−1SB)

were determined, and then the data were projected

onto the principal components with the highest

eigenvalues. The knee in the resulted plot (Fig. 4)

suggests that the first two principal components

of Fisher’s criterion can reasonably explain the

dynamic nature of the system. In addition, KNN

Figure 2. Hierarchical clustering of aggregates’ features

using Euclidean distance as the proximity measure. classifier with different values of K (number of

neighbors) was applied to the projected data to

evaluate the classifier’s performance.

The classification rates for both raw and pro-

jected data after applying KNN classifier are

shown in Figure 5. According to this figure,

Fisher’s discriminant criterion accompanied by

KNN algorithm is well capable of providing class

discriminatory information when the class labels

are considered based on lithology. Furthermore,

Figure 5 suggests that this technique is not able

to provide class discriminatory information when

particle size distributions and moisture state are

regarded as true class labels.

using Mahalanobis distance as the proximity measure.

of the behavior of aggregate systems. On the other

hand, Figures 2, 3 show similar patterns for soften-

ing parameters (k3 and k9) and the water content

(w). It is well established in the literature that ingress

of moisture in unbound aggregate systems results in Figure 4. Eigenvalues of Fishers’ criterion (SW−1SB).

44

Figure 6 illustrates a good classification of

aggregate data through LDA accompanied by

KNN classifier. Although gravel aggregates are

fully separated using LDA+KNN classifier, some

misclassifications is evident in limestone and

granite materials. Moreover, limestone and gravel

aggregates have more condensed projections com-

pared to granite aggregates. This could be due

to the method of identifying aggregate types for

construction purposes where limestone and gravel

have more distinct definitions compared to granite.

Distribution of the observations before applica-

tion of LDA projection and KNN is shown in Fig-

ure 7. This plot when compared to Figure 6, clearly

demonstrates the significance of LDA+KNN

method in providing appropriate class discrimina-

tory information between the aggregate features. Figure 7. Classification using LDA projection based on

The results of classification analyses with regard to lithology (L: Limestone, N: Granite and G: Gravel).

other criteria and the corresponding distributions

are presented in Figures 8–11.

ent criteria.

Figure 8. Classification using LDA+KNN projection

based on gradation (1: Coarse, 2: Well and 3: Fine).

based on lithology (L: Limestone, N: Granite and G: Figure 9. Classification using LDA projection based on

Gravel). gradation (1: Coarse, 2: Well and 3: Fine).

45

this information can be used to develop more pre-

cise data-driven models such as regression models

and artificial neural networks.

The comprehensive experiment design consisted

of three aggregate types from ten different sources

with three distinct gradations molded at three dif-

ferent moisture states were incorporated in this

research effort. Subsequently, the aggregate sys-

tems were subjected to multiple variable dynamic

confining pressure stress path tests to determine

parameters associated with anisotropic material

properties. Aggregate geometry was character-

ized in terms of particle form, angularity, and tex-

ture using the AIMS. The distributions of these

parameters were, in turn, quantified through the

cumulative Weibull distribution function, and

Figure 10. Classification using LDA+KNN projection the parameters of the models were imported to the

based on moisture state (D: Dry, O: Optimum and W: aggregate feature database for post processing.

Wet). Unsupervised clustering techniques were per-

formed on the features of the aggregate system to

identify natural groupings present in the aggregate

database. Dimensionality reduction techniques

were also employed to find class discriminatory

information between the observations. The best

classification rate was achieved when classifica-

tion was performed based on aggregates lithology.

It was also confirmed that the angularity plays a

crucial role in the anisotropic behavior of aggre-

gate systems.

Additionally, Fisher’s LDA accompanied by

KNN algorithm was used to find class discrimi-

natory information based on pre-selected features

of the aggregate database. To accomplish this, the

Eigenvectors of Fisher’s LDA were calculated, and

the data was projected onto the two principal com-

ponents with highest Eigenvalues. The KNN algo-

rithm was used to calculate class rates according to

Figure 11. Classification using LDA projection based the true class labels. The highest rate was obtained

on moisture state (D: Dry, O: Optimum and W: Wet). when the classification was carried out based on

lithology using Fisher’s LDA in combination with

6 CONCLUSIONS the KNN algorithm.

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