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HHO Cell Configurator

HHO Generators/Cells are being manufactured by a lot of companies that only know what they
see other companies doing; they copy. They have no clue as to why the cell makes as little or
as much HHO as it does. All they know is it pumps out HHO when the amps are increased.
Most likely, you do not understand either. Not to worry, I will explain it for you as we go.

But, before I get into the nitty gritty, I should warn you; HHO companies make sales by
boasting about Liter Per Minute (LPM). They measure HHO with any kind of flow meter that will
indicate higher LPM; it makes their product look better. To my knowledge, no one, using a flow
meter, is measuring it accurate. Not even those that use Alicat Scientific Flow Meters, or
Dwyer Hydroxy Flow Meters. I take that back, Greenfuel H20 is using an Alicat correctly; he
even compares it with the water bottle test. It requires drying the gas before it enters the meter.
With this in mind, I came up with a method of predicting the HHO output of a cell --- before you
start the task of building it. The method is based on operating voltage, amperage used, number
of plates, size of plates, and the number of cell stacks. My method is proven to be accurate
when compared to measurements taken by timing how long it takes to fill a 1 liter bottle, and by
greenfuelh2o's Alicat measurements. It works with Flat Plates and with Tubes. The plate
arrangement can be Unipolar, Bipolar, or a combination of both. My Configurator is available to
download Free, but first I think it would help you to know more about how it works.

I searched the web extensively looking for formulas that I could understand; formulas I could
work with; there's some complicated stuff out there. What I found, what I used, and the way I
used it came about by trial and error; lots of it. I did not get it right, until I got the Cell Theory
right. It was a learning process that I am about to share with you; for Free.

The Configurator will help you understand what variables affect HHO gas production. You will
be able to size an efficient cell capable of producing the LPM you desire, and know ahead of
time the amount of amperage needed to accomplish it. That means no more guessing. That
will save you both time and money; and it is Free. My Serbian friend, Milos Panic was kind
enough to contribute to the cause by converting my Microsoft Excel Configurator into an
Executable Windows Program.

Calculations are made in both inches and centimeters. Calculations can include actual
dimensions of the assembled cell (if you want to pursue it); including the new Separation Cell
design. Did I mention it is all Free?

The following bullets are key points of my research and reasoning:

 Faraday told us that 1.24 volts is the minimum voltage for electrolysis efficiency.... that
is, with the least amount of energy lost to heat. That is, 1.24 volts of electrical pressure
between 2 plates that make a water compartment. Higher voltage results in increased
heat energy. Yule Brown used 1.48 volts and Bob Boyce uses 2.0 to 3.0 volts.
Through trial and error, I have concluded that Faraday's 1.24 volts and Brown's 1.48
volts are impractical when using straight DC as a power source; it is because of the
amount of electrolyte needed to lower the resistance of the water. 1.24 volts is very
little electrical pressure; it requires a lot of electrolyte. That is a big factor. Voltage is
the prime controller of heat and anything above 1.24 volts causes more of it. So if you
need 24 hour operating time, 7 days a week, you had best configure for lower voltage
across the plates. But wait; consider the following:

I discovered that the electrolyte determines the minimum voltage needed for
electrolysis to take place. Faraday's 1.24 volt minimum was based on the use of
Battery Acid. I discovered that NaOH minimum voltage is 1.69, and KOH minimum
voltage is 1.67. As it turns out, the electrolyte solution is affected by the voltage drop.
Now I know why my 8, 9, 10, and 11 plate series cells would not produce much
amperage --- when using a 12 to 14 volt DC power source.

 Continuing on, we know that the cell plate voltage is obtained by dividing the Operating
Voltage" supply by the number of cells in Series with it (isolated water compartments
located between positive and negative electrodes). A 12 volt power source needs 10
water compartments in order to drop the voltage to 1.2 volts per cell. That cell
configuration looks like this + n n n n n n n n n -. That is an 11 plate series cell. HHO is
produced in each of the 12 water compartment at the rate of 10.44 MLPM for each
ampere; says the late great Michael Faraday.

 Maximum Current Density: This is a biggie. It is being miscalculated by

everyone. Any electron flow produces heat; any. Our goal is to minimize the heat. We
know that each square inch of a plate surface, on one side of a plate, efficiently passes
0.54 amps of electrical current (Current Density). For HHO purposes, we need to
base our calculation on the surface area between the gasket; inside the gasket
area. this is where amperage is going to flow from in order to cross the water.
This is the area electron flow is going to be condensed into using. This is where
the plate is going to get the hottest. Higher amperage, per square inch, increases
HHO production, but also causes even more heat; the more amperage, the more heat
(along with more HHO). There needs to be enough surface area inside the gasket area
to handle the amperage you intend on using. This is a major factor in cell efficiency
that is being overlooked or exaggerated. This is what plate size is all about. Plate size
does not increase HHO production, it establishes a maximum efficient Current Density
(maximum operating amperage). If enough surface area is not available to handle the
amperage passing across a plate, electron flow will pile up at the nearest water
crossing...and heat that area. Electrons need enough room to move freely across the
plate, without getting piled up; you will find excess heat where they pile up. Examples:
Have you ever had a wire get too hot because its thickness was too small? Have you
ever noticed that a loose battery terminal gets hot?

(Physics defines Current Density as: The number of subatomic particles per unit of
time, crossing a unit area, in a designated plane, perpendicular to the direction of
movement of the particles). I interpret that as "The number of Electrons, crossing an
electrode surface, perpendicular to the direction of travel".

 We also know that the amount of HHO gas produced is in direct proportion to the
amount of power we use; Volts x Amps = Watts of Power. Thus, more surface area will
increase the current density maximum (or optimal) operating amperage we are
wanting to use. Surface area can be increased by increasing the size of the plates, but
it does not increase gas production; number of plates accomplishes that without
increasing amperage in a series arrangements of plates.

 We also know that Hydrogen and Oxygen are produced on opposing plates. This is a
biggie. Faraday tells us Hydrogen is equal to Amps x 0.000246 CFM, and Oxygen is
equal to Amps x 0.0001229 CFM. That gives us an HHO total of 0.0003689 CFM per
Water Cell area. It needs to be converted to Liters Per Minute, but that figure we can
work with.

 That is my theory of understanding efficient electrolysis of water.

So now we can use this information to configure an efficient Cell. First, we need to measure
the output voltage of our power source; in most cases that would be our Battery or Alternator.
We needed this in order to determine the voltage between adjacent plates (cell water area).
Keep in mind, our vehicles have a 12 volt system, but the Alternator produces higher voltages.
It is that voltage that we must account for.

1. If our vehicle's alternator is supplying 13.5 volts, under a load, and we want to try and
achieve 2 volts per cell, then we need to divide 13.5 volts by 2 volts in order to get the
number of cells needed for electrolysis efficiency. If we figure 7, that will be close, 1.93
volts, 6 cells would be 2.25 volts per cell. In any case, either figure is close enough.

2. Now add 1 to the number of cells and that is how many Plates we will need to build
into the Hydrogen Generator Cell Stack.

To make this easier, use my Configurator. I made it possible for you to change the numbers;
good for comparison, and good for calculating your old cells. I can not tell you that the figures
are perfect, but they are close.

If your interest is just in the Configurator, you can skip the next few paragraphs. But if you are
new to this technology, it may benefit you to read on.

The most efficient cell configuration has one Positive plate and one Negative plate, with
Neutral plates between them; that is a Series Configuration. The same electrical current
passes from the negative plate (-) to each neutral plate on its way to the positive plate. It looks
something like this ( - n n n n n n n n + ). The neutral plates cause voltage drops between
plates. It is that voltage drop that we need to create.... for efficiency. Simply counting all of the
water spaces, regardless of the number of positive and negative plates, will not cut it if there
are multiple positive and or negatives. If the voltage drop in each cell (between positive and
negative), does not add up to the value of the operating supply voltage, then you are not doing
correct measuring.

Series Parallel cells have multiple Series cell stacks in Parallel; sharing positives and or
negatives ( - n n n + n n n - ). A Series Parallel Cell is actually 2 Series cells ( - n n n +) and (+
n n n - ). They can not be calculated as 1 cell. The reason is, they are 2 cells (stacks). The cell
voltage is cut in half, every time a neutral is added between + and -. No neutrals means full
battery voltage or alternator voltage. One neutral cuts that in half. Two neutrals cuts it in half
again; etc. etc. etc. My Configurator calculates these as Stacks.

Parallel: If your cell has alternating positive and negative plates, you will never achieve
operating efficiency
(+ - + - + - + - ). You will always have operating voltage supplied to each cell. That is about as
Brute as you can get. It will make a lot of gas and it will make a lot of heat.... unless you add
enough stacks to lower the amp flow..... through each stack (a stack is a set of + & - plates.
Adding more sets will prolong the inevitable heat buildup. In addition, the amperage will eat up
the positive plates faster than any other configuration. Have you ever seen a Wire cell? Hello !
They make good water heaters. You pour the amperage to them in order to get them to make
gas. It does not take long for them to heat up and deteriorate. What Wire cells do best is create
water vapor. It is that water vapor that is providing most of the fuel efficiency increase results. It
has to be. Wire cells just do not make enough HHO to account for the benefit they provide. (ok
Ozie, your secret is out).

So, now we have come full circle. As experimenters, we started out with Brute Force
alternating positive and negative plates. Then we figured out that a series of Neutral plates
lowered the heat and produced more gas. Then we figured out how to combine two series cells
into one bigger cell, and how to maximize the efficiency and produce more gas with less heat.
All along the way, the ratio of gas increased while the water vapor decreased. We did this
because the experts warned us to keep the water vapor out of the engine. It is bad for the
engine. It will rust the engine. It will rust the injectors. Blah Blah Blah. Hog wash. Your engine
was designed to handle the vapor. Hydrocarbon fuels are made up of Hydrogen and Carbon
(mostly). When Hydrogen mixes with Oxygen in the combustion chamber ..... the by product is
Water. Did you catch that? Burning Gasoline and Diesel produces a by-product of water - in
the combustion chambers.

In closing, I offer one suggestion. If you want to make HHO and or water vapor, start with a
safe container; one that can take the Heat.

Have fun with the Configurator. If you need help with it, click on HELP at the top of this page. If
you have comments or suggestion, please let me know by way of my Help page.

Configurator - Version March 7, as a Windows Program.


Click to Download the Configurator. If your Anti-Virus Protection stops you,

please Allow.
Add the Icon to your Windows Desktop. The program is virus free if it comes from me. It
is Free to use.
This program is Open Source information; not to be sold.

Cell Stacks

Current Density | MMW | Neutral Plates | Number of Plates | Plate

Configurations | Voltage & Amperage

It has been brought to my attention that confusion exists, among experimenters, about
what a Stack of cell plates is and when and why multiple stacks are used. I will attempt to
explain it for you and provide some pros and cons for using them.

I will be analyzing cell stack efficiency and explaining the reasons for
additional neutral plates, additional stacks, and what they accomplish. Cell Stacks
is another topic that no one seems to explain; yet most companies incorporate
multiple stacks into their cells. For what it is worth, the following is My opinion; my
inside view of the process.

What is a cell stack?

Basically, a water "Cell Stack" is a group of electrodes consisting of a

positive and a negative, and any number of neutral electrodes between
them. For instance ( + - ) consists of a positive electrode and a negative
electrode. Together, they create a single water compartment between
them. We call that a "Cell". ( + n - ) consists of one neutral between
positive and negative. One neutral creates 2 water compartments
between positive and negative. ( + n n n - ) consists of 3 neutrals between
positive and negative. 3 neutrals create 4 water compartments between
positive and negative. Each water compartment is considered a "Cell" and a group of cells
is considered a "Cell Stack".

The most popular cell configuration for 12 volt

systems is 7 plates in Series. It consists of 5 neutral
plates separated by a single positive and a single
negative electrode (a cell stack). Its configuration
looks like this ( + n n n n n - ). The 7 plates create 6
water compartments between the positive and the
negative plates; count them. Each of those water
compartments creates a Voltage Drop that can be
individually measured. That voltage drop will be
equal to the voltage source divided by the number of water compartments. If 12 vdc is
applied to positive and negative, the voltage dropped across each water compartment will
be 2 volts; do the math --- 12 vdc divided by 6 water compartments = 2.vdc. 7 plates in
series is capable of producing 1 LPM @ 16 amps. The late great Michael Faraday tells us
that each water compartment can produce 10.44 ML PM of HHO, per amp. 10.44 x 6 = 62.64
x 16 = 1002.24 ML PM.

The most popular cell

configuration for 24 volt
systems is 13 plates in
Series. It consists of 11
neutral plates separated by
a single positive and a
single negative electrode (a
stack). Its configuration
looks like this ( + n n n n n
n n n n n n - ). The 13 plates create 12 water compartments between the positive and the
negative plates; count them. Each of those water compartments creates a Voltage Drop
that can be individually measured. That voltage drop will be equal to the voltage source
divided by the number of water compartments. If 24 vdc is applied to positive and
negative, the voltage dropped across each water compartment will be 2 volts; do the math
--- 24 vdc divided by 12 water compartments = 2.vdc. 13 plates in series is capable of
producing 1 LPM @ 8 amps. The late great Michael Faraday tells us that each water
compartment can produce 10.44 ML PM of HHO, per amp. 10.44 x 12 = 125.28 x 8 = 1002.24

Have you noticed that higher voltage requires more plates and uses less amperage
to produce more HHO gas

Multiple Cell Stacks

Generally speaking, we
recognize a group of
electrodes as a "Cell". We
usually do not include the
word "Stack". I think that is
what causes the confusion
when we have multiple
groups of Cells sharing the
same positive or negative electrode. For instance:

 2 Cell Stacks would look like this ( + - + ). Each cell stack is sharing the same
negative electrode.
 2 Cell Stacks could also look like this ( - n n + n n - ). Each cell stack is sharing the
same positive electrode. Or (+ n n - n n + ). Each cell stack is sharing the same
negative electrode.
 3 Cell Stacks could look like this (+ - + - ) or this ( - n n n + n n n - n n n + ). Each
cell stack is sharing either a positive or a negative electrode.
Why use Multiple Cell Stacks?
This is where it gets complicated. In the examples above, I stated that the most popular
12 vdc system uses 7 plates in Series. It is popular because it is proven to be a very
efficient configuration. It is capable of producing 1 LPM @ 16 amps; compared to a 6
plate cell stack that would only produce 835 MLPM @ 16 amps. Plus, 7 plates lowers
plate voltage to around 2 vdc, where as 6 plates would lower voltage to around 2.4 vdc.
The lower 2 volt plate voltage allows the cell stack to operate continuously for longer
periods of time than the 6 plates 2.40 vdc, because it produces less heat; about 40%
less. If it produces 40% less heat, then it can operate 40% longer --- while producing 1

The catch to this is the size of the plates. The

plates require enough Active Surface Area to
distribute 16 amps without causing overheating.
The late great Michael Faraday tells us that 1
square inch of surface area can distribute 0.54
amps. According to my calculations, 16 amps
would require about 30 sq. inches. That equates
to a surface of about 5.5 x 5.5 square. That is the
size requirement "between" the plate gasket, not
the size of the plate. To accomplish this, the
plates would need to be 6 to 6.5 inches square.

Now tell me, how many cells have you seen

advertised with 4 inch plates? Cells that can
produce 1 LPM or more? How can they do it, when 7 plates is about the maximum that can
reasonably be used without introducing excess heat? The answer is "Multiple Cell
Stacks". The smaller the plates are, the more stacks you will needed to create 1 LPM. Here
are some examples, but keep in mind, the size mentioned is the Active Surface area inside
the gasket; the area the water touches. Gaskets are generally 1/4 to 1/2 inch in diameter,
so a 1/2 inch gasket will require a plate about 1 inch wider:

 5.5 x 5.5 inch plates only need 1 cell stack ( + n n n n n - ) to produce 1 LPM @ 16
[Current Density is 16.34 amps per cell stack]
 3.9 x 3.9 need two cell stacks ( + n n n n n - n n n n n + ) to produce 1 LPM @ 16
[Current Density is 8.21 amps for each cell stack].
 3.5 x 3.5 need two cell stacks ( + n n n n n - n n n n n + ) to produce 829 MLPM @ 16
amps, and 3 cell stacks to produce 1.244 LPM @ almost 20 amps ( + n n n n n - n n
n n n + n n n n n -)
[Current Density is 6.62 amps for each cell stack]
 3 x 3 need two cells stacks ( + n n n n n - n n n n n + ) to produce 609 MLPM @ 16
amps, and 3 cell stacks to produce 913 MLPM @ almost 15 amps ( + n n n n n - n n
n n n + n n n n n -), and 4 cell stacks @ nearly 20 amps to produce 1.218 LPM
( + n n n n n - n n n n n + n n n n n - n n n n n +)
[Current Density is 4.86 amps per cell stack]
 2.5 x 2.5 need two cells stacks ( + n n n n n - n n n n n + ) to produce 423 MLPM @
nearly 7 amps, 3 cell stacks to produce 635 MLPM @ just over 10 amps, and 5 cell
stacks to produce 1.059 LPM @ almost 17 amps.
[Current Density is 3.38 amps per cell stack]

Heat Efficiency
All of the above are efficient configurations for 12 volt systems that can consistently
produce HHO while producing minimal amounts of heat. They all can accomplish the same
efficiency as long as their Current carrying capacity is not exceeded. But do multiple cell
stacks heat the water faster? The answer is yes and no. Lets say one stack is producing 1
LPM @ 16 amps and we add a second stack that also produces 1 LPM @ 16 amps. Both
cell stacks are heating the water they share, so yes the water will heat twice as fast. But a
cell stack that produces 2 LPM @ 32 amps will create the same amount of heat as 2 stacks
that use 16 amps each. Perhaps someone smarter than me will create a calculator for
predicting the length of time a cells stack can operate without overheating the water.

Almost all HHO Companies over estimate the maximum amperage of their cell stacks
because they don't know how to properly calculate it. For more details on Current
Density , read my article.

Improving MMW
Some companies use MMW to calculate the efficiency of their cell stacks. MMW is the
milliliters produced per watt of power, in a minutes time. Volts time Amps = Watts. I have
already shown you that adding more plates in series increases the HHO production
without increasing the amperage. The MMW of the 7 plate Series cell, using 12 volts and 16
amps, has a base MMW of 5.208; not accounting for temperature variations or loses. By
adding one more plate in series, MMW would increase to 6.088. It does so because LPM
increases by 167 MLPM while voltage and amperage remain the same. But you will find
that adding that 8th plate in series increases the resistance between positive and negative
and makes it harder for electrolysis to produce the gas. The electrolyte mix concentration
must be increased in order to achieve that same amperage. The plate voltage decreases to
1.71 vdc because another water compartment has formed. If you are using KOH or NaOH
electrolyte, their minimum operating voltage, between the plates, is 1.67 and 1.69 volts
respectively. That is barely enough electrical pressure for electrolysis to take place. That
is going to cause a very slow warm up period. It may take hours for the cell to create
enough heat to conduct well enough to pass 16 amps. That is very very heat efficient, but
it does not make good quantities of HHO on Startup. We have found that maintaining 2
volts or close to 2 vdc for plate voltage is the best for long operating times along with
good HHO production. As plate voltage exceeds 2.25 volts, cell operating time decreases.
That is why a 7 plate cell operates 40% longer than a 6 plate cell.

The MMW of a cell stack is affected by voltage changes. Some companies lower the
Operating Voltage from 12 volts and 10 amps, to 10 volts and 10 amps. They then calculate
the MMW and tell you it is over unity. Leave their web site. They are trying to scam you
into believing their product has superior MMW efficiency. You are not going to operate
your cell at 10 volts.

The MMW of a cell stack is also affected by temperature changes in the gas output. As
temperature increases, MMW efficiency decreases. The temperature of the gas is directly
affected by the temperature of the plates, which affects the temperature of the water. And
what most companies that use MMW as the measuring stick do not realize, is that MMW
decreases, the longer the Cell Stack operates. Current Density has more influence on heat
than plate voltage. I encourage you to study my articles on MMW andCurrent Density.

HHO Generators come in various shapes and sizes. Most companies started their
business by building a single small Cell Stack, using small electrode plates; they fit into
smaller places. As demand for more HHO increased, they started adding multiple
individual Cell Stacks in order to make more gas. Someone eventually came up with the
idea of combining Cell Stacks; by sharing common electrodes and sharing the same
water and bubbler. Most companies still use a single plate size and design. It lowers
their cost of production. They only need one size of plates, and one size of gaskets.
They only have to change the length of the bolts and sometimes the size and shape of
the end plates. So before you invest in an HHO Generator, make sure the Cell's
dimensions will fit your application. If you need a lot of HHO gas, use as few Cell Stacks
as you reasonably can. 6x6 inch plates can handle about 16 amps. 7 plates in Series can
produce 1 LPM @ 16 amps; and do it efficiently. 4x4 inch plates needs 4 Cell Stacks of 7
plates in series in order to make 1 LPM @ 16 amps. 4x6 inch plates need 2 Cell Stacks of
7 plates in Series to produce 1 LPM @ 16 amps. Don't forget we calculate current density
by the size of the space inside the plate gasket. Something to think about.

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