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Solved Problems

Problem 1: Which of the following give(s) canary yellow ppt. with ammonium
(a) PO34 (b) As3+
(c) Both (a) and (b) (d) None of these

Solution: (c) Na 2 HPO 4  12(NH 4 ) 2 MoO 4  23HNO3 

(NH 3 )3 PO 4 12MoO3  2NaNO3  12H 2 O  21NH 4 NO3
canary yellow ppt.

H3 AsO 4  21HNO3  12(NH 4 ) 2 MoO 4  

(NH 4 )3 AsO 4 12MoO3  12H 2 O  21NH 4 NO3
canary yellow ppt.

Thus both PO34 and As3+ give canary yellow ppt.

Problem 2: An inorganic salt, when treated with conc. H2SO4 produced oily drops. The
probable salt is
(a) an oxalate (b) a fluoride
(c) a nitrite (d) an iodide

Solution: (b) When a fluoride is heated with conc. H2SO4 corrosive HF gas is evolved.
This gas reacts with silica of glass to form SiF4 and due to corrosive action
of HF, the test tube becomes greasy (oily)
NaF + H2SO4  NaHSO4 + HF
SiO2 + 4HF  SiF4 + 2H2O
Problem 3: An inorganic mixture was treated with excess of dil. H2SO4. Effervescences
were produced. The solution was heated till effervescences ceased. After this a
small pinch of MnO2 was added. Fresh effervescence was produced. Seelct the
correct statements:
(a) Mixture contains CO32 ions (b) Mixture contains C2 O 24 ions
(c) Mixture contains SO32 ions (d) Mixture contains both CO32 and C2 O 24 ions

Solution: (d) Effervescence on heating the mixture with dil. H2SO4 is due to
decomposition of carbonate.
Na2CO3 + H2O4  Na2SO4 + CO2 + H2O
When evolution of CO2 occurs again after adding MnO2, it is due to
decomposition of oxalate.
Na2C2O4 + 2H2SO4 + MnO2  Na2SO4 + MnSO4 + 2H2O + 2CO2
Problem 4: In third group of qualitative analysis, the precipitate employed is a mixture of
NH4Cl and NH4OH. If NH4Cl is not available in the laboratory and the
mixture does not contain Mn2+, we can use
(a) (NH4)2SO4 (b) (NH4)2CO3
(c) NH4NO3 (d) all of these
Solution: (c) (NH4SO4 will give white ppt. in presence of Ba2+ and Sr2+. (NH4)2CO3 will
give white ppt., in presence of Ba2+, Sr2+ and Ca2+. To produce common
ion (NH4+) and to suppress the ionization of NH4OH, NH4NO3 can be used
in absence of Mn2+.

Problem 5: Which of the following pairs of ions cannot be separated by H2S in dil. HCl?
(a) Bi3+, Sn4+ (b) Al3+, Hg2+
2+ 2+
(c) Zn , Cu (d) Ni2+, Cu2+

Solution: (a) Bi3+ and Sn4+ both will form ppt., with H2S.
Bi3+ + S2–  Bi2S3 (brown black ppt.)
Sn4+ + S2–  SnS2 (dirty yellow ppt.)
Al3+, Zn2+ and Ni3+ will not form ppt. with H2S in acidic medium.

Problem 6: Na2CO3 cannot be used in place of (NH4)2CO3 for the precipitation of fifth
group radicals, since:
(a) magnesium will be precipitated
(b) concentration of carbonate ions is very low
(c) sodium ions will react with acidic radicals
(d) Na+ ions interfere with the detection of fifth group

Solution: (a) Na2CO3 will yield large concentration of CO32 ions to exceed the
solubility product of MgCO3 and it will be precipitated along with
carbonates of Ca2+, Sr2+ and Ba2+ in fifth group. Further, in absence of
common ion NH4OH will ionize more to give sufficient [OH–] to exceed
the solubility product of Mg(OH)2 and its ppt.

Problem 7: A compound produced blue mass in cobalt nitrate test and formed a brown
ring with FeSO4 and conc.H2SO4. The probable compound is:
(a) Al(NO3)3 (b) Zn(NO3)2
(c) Cu(NO3)2 (d) MgCl2

Solution: (a) Al(NO3)3 decomposes to Al2O3 which forms a blue mass (Thenard blue)
with cobalt oxide obtained from decomposition of Co(NO3)2.
Al2 O3  CoO   CoO  Al 2O3 or Co(AlO 2 ) 2 NO3
Blue mass

Problem 8: A solution of Na2C2O4, when added to a solution containing Ba2+, Sr2+ and
Ca2+ ions, will precipitate
(a) Ca2+ ions (b) Ca2+ and Sn2+ ions
2+ 2+ 2+
(c) Ba , Sr and Ca ions (d) none of these

Solution: (c) Ba(CH 3COO) 2  (NH 4 ) 2 C2 O 4 

 BaC2 O 4  2CH 3COONH 4
white ppt.

Sn(CH 3COO) 2  (NH 4 )2 C2 O 4 

 SrC2 O4  2CH3COONH 4
white ppt.

Ca(CH 3COO) 2  (NH 4 ) 2 C2 O 4 

 CaC2 O 4  2CH 3COONH 4
white ppt.

Problem 9: An inorganic salt in its aqueous solution produced a white ppt. with NaOH
which dissolves in excess of NaOH. Also its aqueous solution produced light
yellow ppt., with AgNO3 sparingly soluble in NH4OH. The probable salt is
(a) AlBr3 (b) AlI3
(c) AlCl3 (d) ZnCl2

Solution: (a) AlBr3  3NaOH 

 Al(OH)3  3NaBr
white ppt.

Al(OH)3  NaOH 
 NaAlO 2  2H 2 O

3AgNO3  AlBr3 
 3AgBr  Al(NO3 ) 3
light yellow ppt.

Problem 10: A compound (A) forms a unstable pale blue colour solution in water. The
solution decolourised Br3 water and an acidified solution of KMnO4. The
possible compound (A) is:
(a) HNO2 (b) HNO3
(c) N2O5 (d) None of these

Solution: (a) HNO2 is pale blue in colour due to dissolution of N2O3. In concentrated
solution it decomposes as:
2HNO 2   NO NO 2  H 2 O
and in dilute solution is
3HNO3   HNO3  H 2 O  2NO
Reaction with:
a) Br2 water
HNO 2  H 2 O  Br2   HNO3  2HBr
b) KMnO4
2KMnO 4  3H 2SO 4  5HNO 2  
K 2SO 4  2MnSO 4  3H 2 O  5HNO3
Problem 1: i) An ore (A) on roasting with sodium carbonate and lime in the presence of
air gives two compounds, (B) and (C).
ii) The solution of (B) in conc. HCl on treatment with potassium ferrocyanide
gives a blue colour or precipitate of compound (D).
iii) The aqueous solution of (C) on treatment with conc. H2SO4 gives a yellow
coloured compound (E).
iv) Compound (E) when treated with KCl gives an orange-red compound (F)
which is used as an oxidizing reagent.
v) The solution of (F) on treatment with oxalic acid and then with an excess
of potassium oxalate gives blue crystals of compound (G).
Identify (A) to (G) and give balanced chemical equations for reactions at steps
(i) to (v)

Solution: a) Reaction (i) suggests that the ore contains Fe.

b) Reaction (ii) and (iv) suggest that the ore also contains chromium.
In fact, if we review our memory, we will remember that the reaction
sequence (i), (iii) and (iv) are involved in the preparation of K2Cr2O7 from
chromite ore, FeOCr2O3.
Hence the given reactions can be written as below
i) 4FeO  Cr2 O3  8Na 2 CO3  7O 2  lime
 2Fe 2 O3  8Na 2 CrO 4  8CO 2 
Chromite ore (A) (B) (C)

ii) Fe2 O3  6HCl 

 2FeCl3  3H 2 O
4FeCl3  3K 4 [Fe(CN)6 ] 
 Fe4 [Fe(CN)6 ]3  12KCl
Blue (D)

iii) 2Na 2 CrO 4  H 2SO 4 

 Na 2 Cr2 O7  Na 2SO 4  H 2 O
So luble (C) Yellow colour (E)

iv) Na 2 Cr2 O7  2KCl 

 K 2 Cr2 O7  2NaCl
(E) (F)

K2Cr2O7 (F) is well known oxidizing agent

v) K 2 Cr2 O7  7H 2 C2 O 4 
 K 2 C2 O 4  Cr2 (C2 O 4 )3  6CO 2  7H 2 O
oxalic acid

Cr2 (C2 O 4 )3  3K 2 C2 O 4 
 2K 3 [Cr(C2 O 4 )3 ]
Potassium oxalate Potassium trioxalatochromium
Blue crystals (G)

Problem 2: i) A black mineral (A) on heating in presence of air gives a gas (B).
ii) The mineral (A) on reaction with dilute H2SO4 gives a gas (C) and solution
of a compound (D).
iii) On passing gas (C) into an aqueous solution of (B) a white turbidity is
iv) The aqueous solution of compound (D) on reaction with potassium
ferricyanide gives a blue compound (E).
Identify (A) to (E) and give chemical equations for reactions at steps
(i) to (iv).
Solution: Let us summarise the given statements.
Gas C +Solution of D 
dil. H 2SO4
 Black mineral A 
 Gas B 
i) H 2 O
ii) gas C

 White turbidity
K 3[Fe(CN)6 ]

Blue compound E
Formation of blue coloured compound E by treating solution of compound D
with potassium ferricyanide indicates that compound D contains Fe2+ ion
which is also the constituent ion of the compound A. Further A, is a black
mineral of Fe2+ion, it should be ferrous sulphide (FeS) which is confirmed by
the various given reactions.
i) 4FeS 7O 2   2Fe 2 O3  4SO 2
(A) (B)

ii) FeS  H 2SO 4 

 FeSO 4  H 2S S
(A) (D) (C)

iii) a) SO 2  H 2 O 
 H 2SO3

b) 2H 2S H 2SO3 
 3S  3H 2 O
(C) Turbidity

iv) FeSO 4  K 3 [Fe(CN)6 ] 

 KFe[Fe(CN)6 ] K 2SO 4
(D) (E)

Problem 3: A white substance A reacts with dilute H2SO4 to produce a colourless gas B
and a colourless solution C. The reaction between B and acidified K2Cr2O7
solution produces a green solution and a slightly coloured precipitate D. The
substance D burns in air to produce a gas E which reacts with B to yield D and
a colourless liquid. Anhydrous copper sulphate is turned blue on addition of
this colourless liquid. Addition of aqueous NH3 or NaOH to C produces first a
precipitate which dissolves in the excess of the respective reagent to produce a
clear solution in each case. Identify A, B, C, D and E. Write the equation of
the reactions involved.

Solution: A 
dil. H 2SO 4
 B  C
(white) (colourless) (colourless solution)

K 2 Cr2 O7 / H 

Green solution + D  (burns in air to form E)


E   B    D  colourless liquid  

anhy. CuSO 4
 Blue
C 
aq. NH3
or NaOH
 Precipitate 
excess of
 Clear solution
The above set leads to following conclusions.
i) Since the gas (B) is colourless and turns acidified K2Cr2O7 solution green,
it should be H2S.
ii) Since H2S gas is obtained by the reaction of dil. H2SO4 on A, the latter
must be sulphide.
iii) The white colour of the sulphide (A) points out towards ZnS.
Thus the various reactions can be written as below.
ZnS H 2SO 4 (dil)   ZnSO 4  H 2S 
(A) (C) (B)

3H 2S K 2 Cr2 O7  4H 2SO 4 

 K 2SO 4  Cr2 (SO 4 )3  7H 2 O  3S
(B) (green ) (D)

S  O 2 
 SO 2  
 2H 2 O  3S 
2H 2S(B)
(D) (E) (colourless liq) (D)

CuSO 4 (white)
CuSO 4  5H 2 O

ZnSO 4  2NaOH 
 Zn(OH) 2  
2 NaOH
 Na 2 ZnO 2  2H 2 O
(C) (so lub le0)

Problem 4: A black coloured compound (A) on reaction with dilute sulphuric acid gives a
gas (B) which on passing in a solution of an acid (C) gives a white turbidity
(D). Gas (B) when passed in acidified solution of a compound (E) gives a
precipitate (F) soluble in dilute nitric aid. After boiling this solution when an
excess of ammonium hydroxide is added, a blue coloured compound (G) is
formed. To this solution on addition of acetic acid and aqueous potassium
ferrocyanide a chocolate precipitate (H) is obtained. On addition of an aqueous
solution of barium chloride to an aqueous solution (E), a white precipitate
insoluble in HNO3 is obtained. Identify from (A) to (H).
Solution: Black compound 
dil. H SO
 Gas 
acid (C)
White turbidity

(A) (B) (D)

(E)  Acid

Solution  dil

 Precipitate (soluble in dil. HNO3 )
i) boil
ii) NH 4 OH
Blue compound 
aq. K 4 [Fe(CN)6 ]
 Chocolate ppt.
(G ) (H)

E (aq. solution)   White precipitate (insouble in HNO3 )


Let us draw important conclusion from the given summary

i) Reaction in aqueous solution of the compound E with BaCl2 to give white
precipitate insoluble in nitric acid indicates that the salt (E) contains SO42–
ii) Reaction of compound (G) with potassium ferrocyanide in presence of
acetic acid to give chcoclate precipitate (H) indicates that (G) must contain
Cu2+ and hence (H) must be cupric ferrocyanide, Cu2[Fe(CN)6].
iii) Since compound (G) is derived from (F), compound (F) also contains
Cu2+. Further since (F) is derived from the reaction of the gas (B) and
compound (E), (E) must contain Cu2 ion. Precipitate of Cu2+ ion soluble in
dil. nitric acid should be CuS; hence (F) must be CuS and thus (B) is H2S.
iv) According to point (i), compound (E) contains SO42– hence (E) must be
v) Gas (B) which has now been identified as H2S is obtained by the
decomposition of black coloured compound (A) with dil. H2SO4. Hence
(A) must be sulphide of Cu, Pb, Hg, Fe, Co, Ni, etc.
Thus the various compounds from (A) to (H) and their reactions can be written
as below.
FeS  H 2SO 4 (dil)   FeSO 4  H 2S 
Ferrous sulphide (A) Hydrogen sulphide (B)

HS2  HNO3 
 2H 2 O  2NO 2  S
Hydrogen sulphide (B) Nitric acid (C) Sulphur (turbidity, D)

CuSO 4  H 2S 
in presence
of dil. HCl
 CuS   H 2SO 4
Copper sulphide (E) (B) Copper sulphide (F)

3CuS 8HNO3 
 3Cu(NO3 ) 2  2NO  3S  4H 2 O

Cu(NO3 ) 2  H 2SO 4 
 CuSO 4  2HNO3
CuSO 4  4NH 4 OH 
 [Cu(NH 3 ) 4 ]SO 4  4H 2 O
Solution Cupric ammonium sulphate
(blue compound (G))

[Cu(NH 3 ) 4 ]SO 4  4CH 3COOH 

 CuSO 4  4CH 3COONH 4
(G )

2CuSO 4  K 4 [Fe(CN)6 ] 
 Cu 2 [Fe(C)6 ]   2K 2SO 4
Potassium ferrocyanide Cupric ferrocyanide
(Chocolate precipitate, H)

CuSO 4  BaCl2 
 BaSO 4   CuCl2
(E) Barium sulphate
(insoluble in HNO3 )

Thus the compounds (A) to (H) are

A = Ferrous sulphide, FeS, B = Hydrogen sulphide, H2S, C = Nitric acid,
HNO3, D = Sulphur S, E = Copper sulphate, CuSO4, F = Copper sulphide,
CuS, G = Cupric ammonium sulphate, [Cu(NH3)4]SO4, H = Cupric
ferrocyanide, Cu2[Fe(CN)6].

Problem 5: i) A black coloured compound (B) is formed on passing hydrogen sulphide

through the solution of a compound (A) in NH4OH.
ii) (B) on treatment with hydrochloric acid and potassium chlorate gives (A).
iii) (A) on treatment with potassium cyanide gives a buff coloured precipitate
which dissolves in excess of this reagent forming a compound (C).
iv) The compound (C) is changed into a compound (D) when its aqueous
solution is boiled.
v) The solution of (A) was treated with excess of sodium bicarbonate and
then with bromine water. On cooling and shaking for some time, a green
colour of compound (E) is formed. No change is observed on heating.
Identify (A) to (E) and give chemical equations for the reactions at steps
(i) to (v).

Solution: The formation of black coloured compound (B) by passing H2S through the
alkaline solution of the compound (A) indicate that (A) is a salt of the IV
group radicals (Co2+, Ni2+ or Zn2+). However, the given reactions especially
reaction (iii) indicates what compound (A) is a cobalt salt (CoCl2) which
explains all the given reactions.
i) CoCl2  2NH 4 OH  H 2S   CoS 2NH 4 Cl  2H 2 O
(A) (B)

ii) CoS  2HCl  O 

CoCl2  H 2 O  S
(from KClO3 )

2KClO3 
 2KCl  3O 2
iii) CoCl2  2KCN 
 Co(CN) 2  2KCl
buff coloured

Co(CN) 2  4KCN 
 K 4 [Co(CN)6 ]
iv) 2K 4 [Co(CN)6 ]  O  H 2 O 
 2K 3 [Co(CN)6 ] 2KOH

v) CoCl2  6NaHCO3 
 Na 4 [Co(CO3 )3 ]  2NaCl  3CO2  3H 2 O
2Na 4 [Co(CO3 )3 ]  2NaHCO3  O 
 2Na 3 [Co(CO3 )3 ] 2Na 2 CO3  H 2 O
Problem 6: A substance X dissolves in hot conc. HCl to give solution which when treated
with caustic soda solution gives a white precipitate which however dissolves
in excess of caustic soda solution giving a strongly solution.

On heating X with sulphur, a brown powder Y is formed which dissolved on

warming with yellow ammonium sulphide solution. The solution gives a grey
precipitate with HCl.
When Xis heated in air, a white powder Z is obtained which can be dissolved
only in conc. H2SO4. When Z is fused with NaOH, extracted with hot water,
then treated with mineral acid, white gelatinous precipitate is obtained.
Identify X, Y, Z and give the reactions involved.

Solution: X 
conc. HCl
 Solution 
 White ppt. 
 Solution
(Strongly reducing)

X 
 Brown powder 
 Solution  Grey ppt.
(NH 4 ) 2 Sx HCl

X  White powder 

i) NaOH fuse

ii) Hot water
 Solution 
Gelatinous 
Z (White)
(soluble only in
conc. H 2SO 4 )

i) Reaction of the HCl solution of X with NaOH first forms white ppt. which
dissolves in excess of NaOH to give solution. The strongly reducing
properties of this solution points out that the solution might be containing
sodium stannite and hence X must be tin which explains all the given
reactions of this step.
ii) The nature of X as tin is confirmed by its reaction with S forming SnS2
which dissolves in yellow ammonium sulphide but regenerates in presence
of HCl.
Thus the various reactions and nature of X, Y and Z can be written as below.
i) Sn  2HCl   SnCl2  H 2

SnCl2  2NaOH 
 Sn(OH) 2  2NaCl
Sn(OH) 2  2NaOH 
 Na 2SnO 2  2H 2 O
Sodium stannite
(strongly reducing)

ii) Sn  2S 
 SnS2
SnS2  (NH 4 ) 2 S 
(NH 4 ) 2 SnS3
(NH 4 ) 2 SnS3  2HCl 
 SnS2  2NH 4 Cl  H 2S
iii) Sn  O 2 
 SnO 2 (soluble only in conc. H 2SO 4 )

SnO 2  2NaOH 
 Na 2SnO3  H 2 O
Na 2SnO3  2HCl 
 H 2SnO3  2NaCl
Stannic acid

Problem 7: A coloulress solid A on heating gives a white solid B and a coloulress gas, C;
B gives off reddish brown fumes on treatment with dilute acids. On heating
with NH4Cl, B gives a colourless gas D and a residue E.

The compound a also gives a coloulress gas F on heating with ammonium

sulphide and white residue G. Both E and G impart bright yellow colour to
Bunsen fumes. The gas C forms white powder with strongly heated
magnesium metal. The white powder forms magnesium hydroxide with water.
The gas D, on the other hand, is absorbed by heated calcium which gives off
ammonia on hydrolysis.

Identify the substance A to G and gives reactions for the changes involved.

Solution: It is advisable to summarise the given facts in the form of a chart.

G  F 
( NH 4 )2 SO 4
A 
B  C
colourless residue colourless gas colourless solid colourless solid colourless gas

D  E  B 
 Reddish brown fumes
NH 4 Cl
colourless residue residue

C  Mg 
 White powder 
H 2O
 Mg(OH) 2
colourless residue

D  Ca(heated) 
 NH 3
colourless residue

The above reactions lead to the following conclusions.

(A) and (D) reacts with calcium forming a compound which on hydrolysis
gives ammonia indicating that D must be nitrogen.
(B) Residues E and G give yellow flame on burning indicating that these are
sodium salts. Hence compounds B (which give E) and A (which give G) must
be sodium salts.
(C) The colourless solid B gives reddish brown fumes with dilute acids, the
reddish brown fumes are probably of NO2. Hence compound B must be nitrite
(recall that NO3– ions are not attacked by dil. Acids). Consequently, A must be
NO3– which can give NO2– (B) on heating.
Thus compound A is NaNO3 which explains all the given reactions as below.
i) 2NaNO3   2NaNO 2  O 2 
(A) (B) (C)

ii) 2NaNO2  H 2SO4 (dil.) 

 NaSO 4  2HNO 2

3HNO 2 
 HNO3  H 2 O  2NO
2NO  O 2 
 2NO  2
Reddish brown fumes

iii) NaNO 2  NH 4 Cl  NaCl N 2  2H 2O


(A) (E) (D)

iv) 2NaNO3  (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 

 Na 2SO 4  2NH 3  2HNO3
(A) (G ) (F)

v) 2Mg  O 2 
 2MgO
(C) white powder

MgO  H 2 O 
 Mg(OH) 2
vi) 3Ca  N 2 
 Ca 3 N 2

Ca 3 N 2  6H 2 O 
 3Ca(OH) 2  2NH 3 
Thus substance (A) to (G) can be represented as
(A) NaNO3 (B) NaNO2

(C) O2 (D) N2
(E) NaCl (F) NH3 (G) Na2SO4

Problem 8: An inorganic compound (A) shows the following reactions.

i) It is white solid and exists as dimmer; gives fumes of (B) with wet air.
ii) It sublimes on 180°C and forms monomer if heated to 400°C.
iii) Its aqueous solution turns blue litmus to red.
iv) Addition of NH4OH and NaOH separately to a solution of (A) gives white
precipitate which is however soluble in excess of NaOH.
Solution: i) (A) is a characteristic dimerized compound which sublimes on 180°C and
forms monomer if heated to 400°C and thus, (A) is (AlCl3)2 or Al2Cl6.
180 C 400 C
Al2 Cl6(s)   Al2 Cl6(v)   2AlCl3
ii) It fumes with wet air
Al2 Cl6  6H 2 O   2Al(OH)3  6HCl 
Fumes (B)

iii) Its solution in water is acidic due to hydrolysis

2AlCl3  6H 2 O   2Al(OH)3  6HCl(aq)
iv) (A) gives white ppt. with NH4OH and NaOH, soluble in excess of NaOH.
Al2 Cl6  6NH 4 OH   2Al(OH)3  6NH 4 Cl
Al2 Cl6  6NaOH 
 2AlOH  6NaCl
Excess of NaOH

2NaAlO 2  2H 2 O

Problem 9: i) Solution salt of an acid (A) is formed on boiling white phosphorus with
NaOH solution.
ii) On passing chlorine through phosphorus kept fused under water, another
acid (B) is formed which on strong heating gives metaphosphorus acid.
iii) Phosphorus on treatment with conc. HNO3 gives an acid (C) which is also
formed by the action of dilute H2SO4 on powdered phosphorite rock.
iv) (A) on treatment with a solution of HgCl2 first gives a white precipitate of
compound (D) and then a grey precipitate (E).
Identify (A) to (E) and write balanced chemical equations for the reactions at
step (i) to (iv)

Solution: i) P4  3NaOH  3H 2 O 
 3NaH 2 PO 2  PH 3
(sodium hypophosphate)

Thus, acid (A) is H3PO2, i.e., hypophosphorus acid

ii) 2P  3Cl2  6H 2 O  2H 3 PO3  6HCl
(Phosphorus acid)

Thus, acid (B) is H3PO3

H 3 PO3  HPO 2  H 2 O
iii) P4  20HNO3 
 4H 3PO 4  20NO 2  4H 2 O

P4  10HNO3 
 4H 3PO 4  10NO 2  4H 2 O
Phosphoric acid (C)
Thus, acid (C) is H3PO4
iv) H 3 PO 2  2H 2 O 
 H 3PO 4  4H
HgCl2  2H 
 Hg 2 Cl2  2HCl

Hg 2 Cl2  2H 
 2Hg  2HCl

Problem 10: A gaseous mixture containing (X), (Y) and (Z) gases, when passed into
acidified K2Cr2O7 solution, gas (X) was absorbed and the solution was turned
green. The remainder gas mixture was then pass through lime water, which
turns milky by absorbing gas (Y). The residual gas when passed through
alkaline pyrogallol solution, it turned black. Identify gas (X), (Y) and (Z) and
explain the reaction involved.

Solution: i) Gas (X) is absorbed in acidified K2Cr2O7 and the solution turns green. So
(X) is SO2.
ii) Gas (Y) is absorbed in lime water turning it white so (Y) is CO2.
iii) Gas (Z) is absorbed in pyrogallol so (Z) is O2.
i) 3SO 2  K 2 Cr2 O7  H 2SO 4 
 H 2SO 4  Cr2 (SO 4 )3  H 2 O
(X) Green

ii) Ca(OH) 2  CO 2 
 CaCO3  H 2 O
(Y) White

iii) O 2  Pyrogallol 
 Absorbed

Assignments (New Pattern)

SECTION – I Single Choice Questions
1. Bromine vapours turn starch iodide paper
(a) violet (b) blue
(c) yellow (d) red

2. A mixture when heated with dil. H2SO4 does not evolve brown vapours but when heated
with conc. H2SO4, brown vapours are obtained. The vapours when brought in contact
with silver nitrate solution do not give any precipitate. The mixture contains
(a) NO 2 (b) NO 3
(c) Cr (d) Br–

3. Ammonium dichromate is used in some fireworks. The green coloured powder blown in
air is due to
(a) CrO3 (b) Cr2O3
(c) Cr (D) CrO(O2)

4. A mixture, on heating with conc. H2SO4 and MnO2, liberates brown vapours of
(a) Br2 (b) NO2
(c) HBr (d) I2

5. A white solid is first heated with dil. H2SO4 and then with conc.H2SO4. No action was
observed in either case. The solid salt contains
(a) sulphide (b) sulphite
(c) thiosulphate (d) sulphate
6. An inorganic salt when heated evolves a coloured gas which bleaches moist litmus paper.
The evolved gas is
(a) NO2 (b) Cl2
(c) Br2 (d) I2
7. Which of the following metal oxides is white in colour but becomes yellow in heating?
(a) AgO (b) Ag2O
(c) FeO (d) ZnO

8. A white precipitate obtained in the analysis of a mixture becomes black on treatment with
NH4OH. It may be
(a) PbCl2 (b) AgCl
(c) HgCl2 (d) Hg2Cl2
9. Which compound does not dissolve in hot dil. HNO3?
(a) HgS (b) PbS
(c) CuS (d) Cds
10. An aqueous solution of FeSO4.Al2(SO4)3 and chrome alum is heated with excess of
Na2SO3 and filtered. The materials obtained are
(a) a colourless filtrate and a green residue (b) a yellow filtrate and a green residue
(c) a yellow filtrate and a brown residue (d) a green filtrate and a brown residue
11. Magnesium carbonate does not precipitate with the carbonates of group V radicals in
presence of NH4OH and NH4Cl because
(a) MgCO3 is soluble in water (b) MgCO3 is soluble in NH4OH
(c) MgCO3 is soluble in NH4Cl (d) MgCO3 is soluble in (NH4)2CO3

12. One of the following compounds gives a white precipitate with aqueous AgNO3 and a
green flame test. The compound is
(a) NaCl (b) KCl
(c) BaCl2 (d) CaCl2

13. Which one among the following pairs of ions cannot be separated by H2S in dilute
hydrochloric acid?
(a) Bi3+, Sn4+ (b) Al3+, Hg2+
2+ 2+
(c) Zn , Cu (d) Ni2+, Cu2+

14. When H2S is passed through an ammonia salt solution X, a white precipitate is obtained.
The X can be
(a) cobalt salt (b) nickel salt
(c) manganese salt (d) zinc salt

15. The best explanation for the solubility of MnS in dil. HCl in salt
(a) solubility product of MnCl2 is less than that of MnS
(b) concentration of Mn2+ is lowered by the formation of complex ions with chloride ions.
(c) concentration of sulphide ions is lowered by oxidation to free sulphur.
(d) concentration of sulphide ions is lowered by formation of the weak acid H2S.
16. Potassium ferricyanide [potassium hexacyanoferrate (III)] has
(a) Fe (II)_ (b) Fe(III)
(c) Cu(II) (d) Cd(II)
17. The salt used for performing ‘bead test’ in qualitative inorganic analysis is
(a) K2SO4.Al2(SO4)3.24H2O (b) FeSO4.(NH4)2SO4.6H2O
(c) Na(NH4)HPO4.4H2O (d) CaSO4.2H2O
18. Which of the following sulphate is insoluble in water?
(a) CuSO4 (b) CdSO4
(c) PbSO4 (d) Bi2(SO4)3
19. Calcium burns in nitrogen to produce a white powder which dissolves in sufficient water
to produce a gas (A) and an alkaline solution. The solution on exposure to air produces a
thin solid layer of (B) on the surface. Identify the compounds A and B.
(a) C2H2, CaCO3 (b) NH3, CaCO3
(c) NH3, Ca(OH)2 (d) CH4, CaCO3
20. A gas ‘X’ is passed through water to form a saturated solution. The aqueous solution on
treatment with silver nitrate gives a white precipitate. The saturated aqueous solution also
dissolves magnesium ribbon with the evolution of a colourless gas ‘Y’. Identify ‘X’
and ‘Y’.
(a) X = CO2, Y = Cl2 (b) X = Cl2, Y = CO2
(c) X = Cl2, Y = H2 (d) X2 = H2, Y = Cl2
21. Chromyl ion is :
(a) CrO2 (b) CrO22 
(c) CrO 2  (d) CrO23

22. H2S gas is passed into aqueous solution of Zn(CH3COO)2 and ZnCl2 in test tubes I and II
separately. Then ZnS is precipitated :
(a) in I (b) in II
(c) in both (d) in none of these

23. An inorganic salt is heated with ethyl alcohol and conc. H2SO4; vapours evolved produces
green-edged flame on ignition; it indicates the presence of :
(a) F (b) C2O42 
(c) BO33 (d) ClO3

24. A solution of the given mixture was prepared in conc. HCl. On diluting this solution with
water, a turbidity appears. This indicates the presence of :
(a) As 3 (b) Hg 2 
(c) Sb3 (d) Cu 2 

25. Which reagent is used to remove SO42  and Cl :

(a) NaOH (b) Pb(NO3)2
(c) BaSO4 (d) KOH

SECTION – II May be more than one choice

1. Which of the following metals can liberate hydrogen on reacting with dilute hydrochloric
acid :
(a) Cu (b) Zn
(c) Mg (d) Fe

2. Nitrogen dioxide can be obtained by heating :

(a) KNO3 (b) Pb(NO3)2
(c) LiNO3 (d) AgNO3

3. The cation which gives yellow ppt. with K2CrO4 in acetic acid is:
(a) Ba2+ (b) Pb2+
(c) Ca2+ (d) K+

4. Which salt on heating gives a mixture of two gases :

(a) RbNO3 (b) NaNO3
(c) Ca(NO3)2 (d) Mg(NO3)2

5. Which one of the following pairs of ions can be separated by H2S in dilute HCl acid :
(a) Bi3+, Sn4+ (b) Al3+, Hg2+
2+ 2+
(c) Zn , Cu (d) Ni2+, Cu2+
6. Which of the following anions is not easily removed by precipitation from its aqueous
solution :
(a) NO3 (b) CH3COO
(c) SO42  (d) I

7. When oxalic acid is heated with conc. H2SO4, it produces:

(a) CO (b) CO2
(c) SO2 (d) SO3

8. Iodine imparts brown colour to :

(a) Water (b) Ether
(c) Alcohol (d) Chloroform

9. Hydrogen iodide cannot be made by the action of concentrated sulphuric acid on

potassium iodide because :
(a) H2SO4 in an oxidizing agent (b) HI is stronger acid than H2SO4
(c) HI is strong reducing agent (d) H2SO4 is stronger acid then HI

10. When chlorine gas is passed through hot concentrated caustic soda solution, the
compound formed are :
(a) NaCl (b) Cl2
(c) NaClO3 (d) NaClO4

11. A solution giving yellow ppt. with ammonium molybdate contains :

(a) PO43 (b) As 3
(c) Bi3+ (d) none of these

12. Addition of FeCl3 to K4[Fe(CN)6]3 gives :

(a) Prussian blue (b) Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3
(c) Ferri-ferrocyanide (d) none of these

13. Removal of PO43 made in presence of acetic acid and sod. Acetate, is based on :
(a) common ion effect (b) Buffer solution
(c) Solubility product (d) None of these

14. Which are interfering radicals :

(a) PO43 (b) C2O42 
(c) BO33 (d) F

15. KCN is used for separating :

(a) Co2+ and Ni2+ (b) Mn2+ and Zn2+
(c) Ba2+ and Ca2+ (d) Cu2+ and Cd2+

16. Which is following is/are insoluble in yellow ammonium sulphide

(a) CuS (b) SnS
(c) HgS (d) Sb2S3
17. Fe(OH)3 can be separated from Al(OH)3 by addition of :
(a) dil. HCl (b) NaCl solution
(c) NaOH solution (d) NH4Cl and NH4OH

18. A light green coloured salt soluble in water gives black precipitate on passing H2S which
dissolves readily in HCl. The metal ion present is:
(a) Co2+ (b) Fe2+
(c) Ni2+ (d) Mn2+

19. An aqueous solution contains Hg2+, Hg22  , Pb2+ and Cd2+. The addition of HCl(6N) will
precipitate :
(a) Hg2Cl2 only (b) PbCl2 only
(c) PbCl2 and Hg2Cl2 (d) PbCl2 and HgCl2

20. Two test tubes containing a nitrate and a bromides are treated separately with H2SO4 ;
brown fumes evolved are passed in water. The water will be coloured by vapours
evolved from the test tube containing.
(a) Nitrate (b) Bromide
(c) both (a) and (b) (d) none of these

21. A white salt is insoluble in cold water but soluble in boiling water. Its solution when
treated with potassium chromate solution gives yellow precipitate. The salt may be :
(a) BaCl2 (b) SrCl2
(c) PbCl2 (d) Hg(NO3)2

22. A white powder when strongly heated gives off brown fumes. a solution of this powder
gives as yellow precipitate with a solution of KI. When a solution of barium chloride is
added to a solution of powder, a white precipitate results. This white powder may be :
(a) A soluble sulphate (b) KBr and NaBr
(c) Ba(NO3)2 (d) AgNO3

23. A reddish-pink substance on heating gives off a vapour which condenses on the sides of
the test tube and the substance turns blue. If on cooling water is added to the residue it
turns to its original colour. The substance is :
(a) Iodine crystals (b) Copper sulphate crystals
(c) Cobalt chloride crystals (d) Zinc oxide
24. A solution of white crystals gives a precipitate with AgNO3 but no precipitate with
solution of Na2CO3. The action of conc. H2SO4 on the crystal yields a brown gas. The
crystals are of :
(a) NaNO3 (b) KCl
(c) Ca(NO3)2 (d) NaBr

25. The solution of a chemical compound X reacts with AgNO3 solution to from a white
precipitate of Y which dissolves in NH4OH to give a complex Z. When Z is treated with
dilute HNO3, Y reappears. The chemical compound X can be :
(a) NaCl (b) CH3Cl
(c) NaBr (d) NaI

SECTION – III Comprehension Type Questions

 Write-up I
A compound (A) is greenish crystalline salt, which gave the following results.
i) Addition of BaCl2 solution to the solution of (A) results in the formation of white ppt.
(B). which is insoluble in dil HCl.
ii) On heating (A), water vapours and two oxides of sulphur, (C) and (D) are liberated
leaving a red brown residue (E).
iii) (E) dissolves in warm conc. HCl to give a yellow solution (F).
iv) With H2S, the solution (F) yields a pale yellow ppt. (G), which when filtered, leaves a
greenish filtrate (H).
v) Solution (F) on treatment with thiocynate ions gives blood red coloured compound (I).

1. Compound (A) is
(a) CuSO4 (b) MnSO4
(c) FeSO4 (d) Na2SO4

2. White ppt (B) is of

(a) K2SO4 (b) BaSO4
(c) FeSO4 (d) CuSO4

3. The yellow solution is of

(a) FeCl3 (b) CuCl2
(c) PbCl2 (d) MnCl2

4. The pale yellow ppt (G) is

(a) BaSO4 (b) PbCl2
(c) FeSO4 (d) S

 Write-up II
A black coloured compound (A) on reaction with dil. H2SO4 gives a gas (B) which on
passing in a solution of an acid (C) gives a white turbidity (D). Gas (B) when passed in an
acidified solution of a compound (E) gives a ppt. (F) soluble in dil. HNO3. After boiling
this solution when an excess of NH4OH is added, a blue coloured compound (G) is
formed. To this solution on addition of acetic acid and aq. K4Fe(CN)6, a chocolate
precipitate (H) is obtained. On addition of an aqueous solution ofBaCl2 to an aqueous
solution of (E), a white ppt. insoluble in HNO3 is obtained.

5. The white turbidity (D) is due to

(a) H2S (b) CuS
(c) S (d) SO2

6. The PPT. (F) is

(a) FeSO4 (b) PbSO4
(c) CoSO4 (d) CuSO4

7. The chocolate coloured ppt (H) is

(a) K2Cr[Fe(CN)6] (b) Cu4[Fe(CN)6]
(c) K2Cu2 [Fe(CN)6] (d) K3Cu [Fe(CN4)4]
8. The gas (B) is
(a) SO2 (b) CO2
(c) S (d) NH3

 Write-up III
A well known orange crystalline compound (A) when burnt imparts violet colour to
flame. (A) on treating with (B) and cone. H2SO4 gives red gas (C) which gives red yellow
solution (D) with alkaline water. (D) on treating with acetic acid and lead acetate gives
yellow precipitate (E). (B) sublimes on heating. Also on heating (B) with NaOH, gas (F)
is formed which gives white fumes with HCl.

9. The red gas (C) would be

(a) Br2 (b) Cl2
(c) CrO2Cl2 (d) Cr(OCl)Cl

10. Yellow solution (D) is

(a) Na2CrO4 (b) Cr2O3
(c) PbCrO4 (d) Na2Cr2O7

11. The yellow ppt (E) is of

(a) Na2CrO4 (b) PbCrO4
(c) PbCr2O7 (d) K2Cr2O7

12. The compounds (A) and (B) are

(a) Na2CrO4 and NH4Cl (b) Na2Cr2O7 & NH4Cl
(c) K2Cr2O7 and NaCl (d) NH4Cl, Na2CrO4

 Write-up IV
Colourless salt (A) on heating with NaOH gives gas (B). When reaction of (A) with
NaOH was complete, solution obtained on reacting FeSO4 and conc. H2SO4 gave a brown
coloured ring (C) between two layers (A) on heating strongly forms (D) and (E).
Compound (E) is neutral oxide of a dibasic acid (F).

13. What is compound (A)


(a) NH4NO3 (b) NaNO3

(c) KNO3 (d) None of these

14. What is compound (C)

(a) [Fe(H2O)4.NO]SO4 (b) [Fe(H2O)5NO]SO4
(c) [Fe(H2O)4]SO4 (d) None of these

15. Compound (F) is what

(a) cis, trans N2H2O2 (b) cis N2H2O2
(c) trans N2H2O2 (d) None of these

16. What is compound (D)

(a) NO2 (b) NO
(c) N2O (d) None of these

 Write-up V
i) A black mineral (A) on treatment with dilute sodium cyanide solution in presence of
air gives a clear solution of (B) and (C).
ii) The solution of (B) on reaction with zinc gives precipitate of a metal (D).
iii) (D) is dissolved in dil. HNO3 and the resulting solution gives a white precipitate (E)
with dil. HCl.
iv) (E) on fusion with sodium carbonate gives (D). (v) (E) dissolves in aqueous solution
ammonia giving a colourless solution (F).

17. The black mineral (A) is

(a) Ag2S (b) PbS
(c) CuS (d) HgS

18. The solution (B) is of

(a) NaCN (b) NaAg(CN)2
(c) AgCN 4
(d) Na2Zn(CN)4

19. The colourless solution of (F) is

(a) Ag(NH3)Cl (b) AgCl.2NH3
(c) [Ag(NH3)2 ]+ (d) Ag(NH3)4Cl

20. White ppt (E) is of

(a) CuCl (b) MnCl2
(c) AgCl (d) ZnCl2

SECTION – IV Subjective Questions


1. A certain inorganic compound (X) shows the following reactions:

i) On passing H2S through an acidified solution of (X) a brown precipitate is obtained.
ii) The precipitate obtained at step (i) dissolves in excess of yellow ammonium sulphide.
iii) On adding an aqueous solution of NaOH to a solution of (X), first a white precipitate
is obtained which dissolves in excess of NaOH.
iv) The aqueous solution of (X) reduces ferric chloride.
Identify the cation of (X) and give chemical equations for reactions at steps (i), (iii)
and (iv)

2. A mixture of the three gases A, B and C is passed first into an acidified dichromate
solution when A is absorbed turning the solution green. The remainder of the gas is
passed through an excess of lime water which turns milky, resulting in the absorption of
B. The residual gas C is absorbed by an alkaline pyrogallol solution. However, the
original gaseous mixture does not turn lead acetate paper black. Identify A, B and C.

3. Identify compounds A to G from the following reactions

A (white crystals) 
B  C; C  KI
I2 A
solid gas

B 
 Solution D 
 E  
 Solution F 
 Black precipitate

4. Complete the following

i) PbS  Acid   Gas 
 Yellow ppt.
(A) (B) (D)

ii) A  H 2S  White ppt.  2HCl



A  NaOH 
ppt. 
 solution

iii) PbS 

 A  PbS 
heat in air
 Pb  SO 2 B

5. Explain the following:

i) Lead (Pb2+) is placed in the first as well as second group of qualitative analysis.
ii) The colour of mercurous chloride, Hg2Cl2, changes from white to black when treated
with ammonia.
iii) During the qualitative analysis of a mixture containing Cu2+ and Zn2+ ions, H2S gas is
passed through an acidified solution containing these ions in order to test Cu2+ alone.
Explain briefly.

6. A compound on heating with an excess of caustic soda solution liberates a gas (B), which
gives white fumes on exposure to HCl. Heating is continued to expel the gas completely.
The resultant alkaline solution again liberates the same gas (B), when heated with zinc
powder. However, the compound (A), when heated alone, does not give nitrogen. Identify
(A) and (B).

7. A certain metal (A) is boiled in dilute nitric acid to give a salt (B) and an oxide of
nitrogen (C). An aqueous solution of (B) with brine gives a precipitate (D) which is
soluble in ammonium hydroxide. On adding aqueous solution of (B) to hypo solution, a
white precipitate (E) is obtained. (E) on standing turns to a black compound (F). Identify
(A) to (F).

8. A certain salt (X) gives the following tests:

i) Its aqueous solution is alkaline to litmus
ii) On strongly heating it swells to give glassy material
iii) When concentrated H2SO4 is added to a hot concentrated solution.
Identify the salt (X) and give the equations for the reaction.
9. An aqueous solution of a gas (X) shows the following reactions.
i) It turns red litmus blue.
ii) When added in excess to copper sulphate solution deep blue colour is obtained.
iii) On addition to a ferric chloride solution a brown precipitate soluble in dilute nitric
acid is obtained.
Identify (X) and give equations for the reactions at steps (ii) and (iii).
10. An inorganic Lewis acid (X) shows the following reactions:
i) It fumes in moist air.
ii) The intensity of fumes increases when a rod dipped in NH4OH is brought near to it.
iii) An acidic solution of (X) on addition of NH4Cl and NH4OH gives a precipitate which
dissolves in NaOH solution.
iv) An acidic solution of (X) does not give a precipitate with H2S. Identify (X) and give
chemical equations for reactions at steps (i) to (iii).
1. An unknown inorganic compound (X) loses its water of crystallization on heating and its
aqueous solution gives the following reactions.
i) It gives a white turbidity with dilute hydrochloric acid solution.
ii) It decolourises a solution of iodine in potassium iodide.
iii) It gives a white precipitate with silver nitrate solution which turns black on standing.
Identify the compound (X) and give chemical equations for the reactions at steps (i), (ii)
and (iii).

2. A certain compound (X) shows the following reactions.

i) When KI is added to an aqueous suspension of (X) containing acetic acid, iodine, is
ii) When CO2 is passed through an aqueous suspension of (X) the turbidity transforms to
a precipitate.
iii) When a paste of (X) in water is heated with ethyl alcohol a product of anesthetic use
is obtained.
Identify (X) and write down chemical equation for reactions at steps (i), (ii) and (iii).

3. Identify the unknown species and complete the following

i) (A) + dil.H2SO4 + K2Cr2O7  (B) green coloured
(A) + dil. H2SO4 + (C)  MnSO4
(A)  O 2 
(D) + BaCl2  White ppt.
ii) (A)aq.  Zn  heat
(A)aq  (C)  heat
PH 3
(A)aq  NH 4 Cl 

4. Identify the unknown species and complete the following

i) (A)  NaOH  heat
NaCl  NH 3  H 2 O

ii) NH3 + CO2 + H2O  (B)

iii) (B) + NaCl  (C) + NH4Cl
iv) (C) heat
Na2CO3 + H2O + (D)

5. Element A burns in nitrogen to give an ionic compound B. Compound B reacts with

water to give C and D. A solution of C becomes ‘milky’ on bubbling carbon dioxide.
Identify A, B, C and D.

6. i) An aqueous solution of a compound (A) is acidic towards litmus and (A) is sublimed
at about 300°C.
ii) (A) on treatment with an excess of NH4SNC gives a red coloured compound (B) and
on treatment with a solution of K4[Fe(CN)6] gives a blue coloured compound (C).
iii) (A) on heating with excess of K2Cr2O7- in presence of concentrated H2SO4 evolves
deep red vapours of (D).
iv) On passing the vapours of (D) into a solution of NaOH and then adding the solutions
of acetic acid and lead acetate, a yellow precipitate of compound (E) is obtained.
Identify (A) to (E) and give chemical equations for the reactions at steps (ii) to (iv).

7. An aqueous solution of gas (X) gives the following reactions.

i) It decolourizes on acidified K2Cr2O7 solution
ii) On boiling it with H2O2, cooling it and then adding an aqueous solution of BaCl2 a
precipitate insoluble in dilute hydrochloric acid is obtained.
iii) On passing H2S in the solution, a white turbidity is obtained.
Identify (X) and give equations for the reactions at steps (i), (ii) and (iii)

8. A coloulress solid A, when placed into water, produces a heavy white precipitate B. Solid
A gives a clear solution in conc. HCl; however when added to large amount of water, it
again gives precipitate of B which dissolves in dilute HCl. When H2S is passed through a
suspension of A or B, a brown black precipitate (C) is obtained. Compound A liberates a
gas D with conc. H2SO4. the gas D is water soluble and gives white precipitate E with
solution of mercurous salts but not with mercuric salts. Identify A to E.
9. i) A blue coloured compound (A) on heating gives two products, (B) and (C).
ii) A metal (D) is deposited on passing hydrogen through heated (B).
iii) The solution of (B) in HCl on treatment with K4Fe(CN)6 gives a chocolate brown
coloured precipitate of compound (E).
iv) (C) turns lime water milky which disappears on continuous passage of (C) forming a
compound (F).
Identify (A) to (F) and give chemical equations for the reactions at steps (i) to (iv)
10. i) An inorganic compound (A) is formed on passing a gas (B) through a concentrated
liquor containing sodium sulphide and sodium sulphite.
ii) On adding (A) into a dilute solution of silver nitrate, a white precipitate appears which
quickly changes into a black coloured compound (C).
iii) On adding two or three drops of ferric chloride into the excess of solution of (A), a
violet coloured compound (D) is formed. This colour disappears quickly.
iv) On adding a solution of (A) into the solution of cupric chloride, a white precipitate is
first formed which dissolves on adding excess of (A) forming a compound (E).
Identify (A) to (E) and give chemical equations for the reactions at steps (i) to (iv).
LEVEL – III (Judge yourself at JEE level)

1. A coloulress solid A liberates a brown gas B on acidification, a colourless alkaline gas

Con treatment with NaOH, and a colourless non-reactive gas D on heating. If heating of
the solid A is continued, it completely disappears. Identify A to D. [IIT 1982]
2. A colour inorganic salt (A) decomposes completely at about 250°C to give only two
products, (B) and (C), leaving no residue. The oxide (C) is a liquid at room temperature
and neutral to moist litmus paper while the gas (B) is a neutral oxide. White phosphorus
burns in excess of (B) to produce a strong white dehydrating agent. Write balanced
equations for the reactions involved in the above process. [IIT 1996]

3. When gas A is passed through dry KOH at low temperature, a deep red coloured
compound, B and a gas C are obtained. The gas A, on reaction with but-2-ene, followed
by treatment with Zn/H2O yields acetaldehyde. Identify A, B and C. [IIT 1994]
4. An unknown solid mixture contains one or two of the following: CaCO3, BaCl2, AgNO3,
Na2SO4, ZnSO4 and NaOH. The mixture is completely soluble in water and solution gives
pink colour with phenolphthalein. When dilute hydrochloric acid is gradually added to the
above solution a precipitate is formed which dissolves with further addition of the acid.
What is/are present in the solid? Give equation to explain the appearance of the
precipitate and its dissolution. [IIT 1984]

5. An aqueous blue coloured solution of a transition metal sulphate reacts with H2S in acidic
medium to give a black precipitate A, which is insoluble in warm aqueous solution of
KOH. The blue solution on treatment with KI in weakly acidic medium, turns yellow and
produces a white precipitate B. Identify the transition metal ion. Write the chemical
reactions involved in the formation of A and B. [IIT 2000]

6. A certain inorganic compound (A) on heating loses its water of crystallization. On further
heating, a blackish brown powder (B) and two oxides of sulphur (C) and (D) are obtained.
The powder (B) on boiling with hydrochloric acid gives a yellow solution (E). When H2S
is passed in (E) a white turbidity (F) and an apple green solution (G) are obtained. The
solution (E) on treatment with thiocyanate ions a blood red coloured compound (H).
Identify compounds from (A) to (H). [IIT 1978]

7. The gas liberated, on heating a mixture of two salts with NaOH, gives a reddish brown
precipitate with an alkaline solution of K2HgI4. The aqueous solution of the mixture on
treatment with BaCl2 gives a white precipitate which is sparingly soluble in conc. HCl.
On heating the mixture with K2Cr2O7 and conc. H2SO4 red vapours A are produced. The
aqueous solution of the mixture gives a deep blue colouration B with potassium
ferricyanide solution. Identify the radicals in the given mixture and write the balanced
equations for the formation of A and B. [IIT 1991]

8. An orange solid (A) on heating gave a green residue (B), a colourless gas (C) and water
vapour. The dry gas (C) on passing over heated Mg gave a white solid (D). (D) on
reaction with water gave a gas (E) which formed dense white fumes with HCl. Identify
(A) to (E) and give the reactions involved. [IIT 1992]
9. When 16.8g of white solid X were heated, 4.4g of acid gas A that turned lime water milky
was driven off together with 1.8g of a gas B which condensed to a coloulress liquid. The
solid that remained, Y, dissolved in water to give an alkaline solution, which with excess
of barium chloride solution gave a white precipitate Z. The precipitate effervesced with
acid giving off carbon dioxide. Identify A, B and Y and write down the equation for the
thermal decomposition of X. [IIT 1984]

10. A scarlet compound (A) is treated with conc. HNO3 to give a chocolate brown precipitate
(B). The precipitate is filtered and the filtrate is neutralized with NaOH. Addition of KI to
the resulting solution gives a yellow precipitate (C). The precipitate (B) on warming with
conc. HNO3 in the presence of Mn(NO3)2 produces a pink coloured solution due to the
formation of (D). Identify (A), (B), (C) and (D). Write the reaction sequence. [IIT 1995]

SECTION – V Miscellaneous Questions

Match the following :

1. List – I (Compounds) List – II (Precipitate colour)

(A) Bi2S3 (i) yellow
(B) SnS2 (ii) Red
(C) CdS (iii) Brown
(D) CuS (iv) Black
(a) A – iv, B – i, C – iii, D – ii (b) A – ii, B – iii, C – iv, D – I
(c) A – iii, B – iv, C – i, D – ii (d) A – iii, B – i, C – i, D – iv

2. List – I (Ions) List – II (Group reagent)

(A) Bi3+ (i) dil. HCl
(B) Al3+ (ii) H2S with dil HCl
(C)Ca2+ (iii) NH4OH with NH4Cl
(D) Hg2+ (iv) (NH4)2CO3 with NH4OH and NH4Cl
(a) A – i, B – ii, C – iii, D – iv (b) A – iv, B – iii, C – ii, D – i
(c) A – ii, B – iii, C – iv, D – i (d) A – iii, B – ii, C – i, D – iv

3. List – I (Metals) List – II (Flame Colouration)

(A) Ba (i) Golden yellow
(B) Ca (ii) Apple green
(C) Na (iii) Brick Red
(D) Rb (iv) Violet
(a) A – iv, B – iii, C – i, D – ii (b) A – iv, B – iii, C – ii, D – i
(c) A – ii, B – iii, C – i, D – iv (d) A – iii, B – ii, C – i, D – iv

4. List – I (Reagent) List – II (Formula)

(A) Nesseler’s Reagent (i) Na(NH4) HPO4. 4H2O
(B) Microcosmic salt (ii) K2HgI4 + KOH
(C)Iodide of millon’s base (iii) [Fe(NO)(H2O)5]2+
(D) Brown ring complex (iv) H2N.Hg.O.HgI
(a) A – iv, B – iii, C – i, D – ii (b) A – iv, B – iii, C – ii, D – i
(c) A – ii, B – iii, C – i, D – iv (d) A – ii, B – i, C – iv, D – iii

In each of the following questions two statements are given as Assertion. A and Reason R.
Examine the statements carefully and answer the questions according to the instructions given
Mark a if both A and R are correct and R is the correct reason of A.
Mark b if both A and R are correct and R is not the correct reason of A.
Mark c if A is correct and R is wrong.
Mark d if A is wrong and R is correct.
Assertion (A) Reason (R)
5. SO42  ions in the salt are not Conc. H2SO4 decompose sulphates to given
decomposed by dil. H2SO4. SO2 gas.

6. Ring test for nitrates is performed from All nitrates are generally soluble in water.
the water extract of the salt.

7. In charcoal cavity test in intimate Charcoal cavity test is meant only for
mixture of salt and Na2CO3 is heated coloured salts.
on a charcoal block

8. CdS and As2S3 both have yellow CdS and As2S3 can be separated by yellow
colour. ammonium sulphides.

9. Ammonium phosphomolybdate is a Yellow colour of compound is due to

yellow coloured precipitate. ammonium ions

10. Ring test fails if NO3 and Br ions are Br ions are not decomposed by dil. H2SO4.
present together.

Answers to Assignments

1. (b) 6. (a) 11. (c) 16. (a) 21. (b)

2. (b) 7. (d) 12. (c) 17. (c) 22. (a)
3. (b) 8. (d) 13. (a) 18. (c) 23. (c)
4. (a) 9. (a) 14. (d) 19. (b) 24. (c)
5. (d) 10. (c) 15. (d) 20. (c) 25. (b)


1. (b), (c), (d) 8. (b), (c) 15. (a), (d) 22. (d)
2. (b), (c), (d) 9. (a), (c) 16. (a), (c) 23. (c)
3. (a), (b) 10. (a), (c) 17. (c) 24. (d)
4. (c), (d) 11. (a), (b) 18. (b) 25. (a)
5. (b), (c), (d) 12. (a), (b), (c) 19. (c)
6. (a), (b) 13. (a), (b) 20. (b)
7. (a), (b) 14. (a), (b), (c), (d) 21. (c)


1. (c) 6. (d) 11. (b) 16. (c)

2. (b) 7. (b) 12. (b) 17. (a)
3. (a) 8. (a) 13. (a 18. (c)
4. (d) 9. (c) 14. (b) 19. (c)
5. (c) 10. (a) 15. (a) 20. (c)

1. Acidified solution of (X) gives brown precipitate with H2S, soluble in yellow ammonium
sulphide, indicates that (X) should be a salt of Sn2+. The given reactions of the cation of
X, i.e., Sn2 can be written as below.
i) Sn 2   H 2S 
 SnS  2H 
iii) Sn 2  2NaOH 
 Sn(OH) 2  2Na 
Sn(OH) 2  2NaOH 
 Na 2SnO 2  2H 2 O
iv) Sn 2   2FeCl3 
 Sn 4  2FeCl 2

2. A = SO2, B = CO2, C = O2
3. A = AgNO3, B = Ag, C = NO2 + O2, D = AgNO3, E = Ag2O, F = [Ag(NH3)2OH
4. i) A = dil. HCl or H2SO4, B = H2S, C = HNO3, D = S
ii) A = ZnCl2, B = ZnS, C = Zn(OH)2, D = Na2ZnO2
iii) 3PbS  2PbO PbS  heat
3Pb  SO 2

5. i) PbCl2 is partly soluble in water and hence Pb2+ ions pass to the first group filtrate, i.e.
to the II group.
ii) Due to the formation of finely divided mercury.
iii) a) Ksp (CuS) is less than Ksp (CdS)
b) Ionization of H2S is further suppressed in presence of acid (common ion effect)
H 2S 2H   S2
So, when H2S gas is passed through acidified solution containing Cu2+ and Zn2+, only
Cu2+ ions will be precipitated due to low concentration of S2– ions.

6. A = NH4NO3 B = NH3
7. A = Ag B = AgNO3 C = NO
D = AgCl, E = Ag2S2O3 F = Ag2S
8. i) Aqueous solution of (X) is alkaline, so (X) may be an alkali metal salt.
ii) On strong heating, (X) swells up to give a glassy mass, it may be borax.
iii) This is further supported by the fact that its concentrated solution on treatment with
concentrated solution of H2SO4 yields crystals of boric acid (a weak monobasic acid).
iv) Hence, (X) is borax (Na2B4O7.10H2O)
i) Na 2 B4O7  7H 2O   2NaOH  4H3BO3

ii) Na 2 B4 O 7 10H 2 O  Na 2 B4 O 7  10H 2 O


Na 2 B4 O7 
2NaBO 2  B2 O3
Glassy mass

iii) Na 2 B 4 O7  H 2SO4  5H 2 O 
 Na 2SO 4  4H 3BO3
Weak acid
9. i) Aqueous solution of the gas X turns red litmus blue indicating the basic nature of the
ii) The fact that the aqueous solution of X gives deep blue colour with copper sulphate
solution indicates the gas X is ammonia NH3.
CuSO 4  4NH3(aq)   Cu(OH)3  3NH 4Cl
iii) The nature of the gas X as ammonia is in accordance with the given fact that its
aqueous solution gives brown precipitate with ferric chloride. The precipitate is
soluble in dilute nitric acid.
3NH 3  3H 2 O  FeCl3   Fe(OH)3  3NH 4 Cl
 
aq. solution of X

Fe(OH)3  3HNO3 
 Fe(NO3 )3  3H 2 O

10. The inorganic Lewis acid (X) which fumes in moist air is probably anhydrous aluminium
chloride, AlCl3 which is in accordance with the fact that its acidic solution does not give a
precipitate with H2S. Thus the given reactions of compound (X) can be written as below.
i) AlCl3  3H 2 O   Al(OH)3  3HCl 
ii) HCl  NH 4 OH 
 NH 4 Cl   H 2 O
iii) AlCl3  3NH 4 OH 
 Al(OH)3  3NH 4 Cl
Al(OH)3  NaOH 
 NaAlO 2  2H 2 O

1. Since the compound X decolourises a solution of iodine in potassium iodide, it should
contain ion, S2 O32 which also coincides with the two other given facts, i.e., (i) and (iii).
Hence the compound is sodium thiosulphate, Na2S2O3(5H2O which explains the given
reactions as below.
Na 2S2 O3  5H 2 O 
Na 2S2 O3  5H 2 O 
i) Na 2S2 O3  2HCl 
 2NaCl  H 2 O  SO 2  S
(white turbidity)

ii) 2Na S O  I 2 
2 2 3  Na 2S4 O6  2NaI
Sodium thiosulphate Sodium tetrathionate

iii) Na 2S2 O3  2AgNO3 

 Ag 2S2 O3  2NaNO3
Silver thiosulphate
(white ppt.)

Ag 2S2 O3  H 2 O 
 As 2S  H 2SO 4
(black ppt.)

2. The given reactions indicate that the compound (X) is CaOCl2 (bleaching powder). Its
various reactions may be written as below.
i) CaOCl 2  CH 3COOH  (CH 3COO) 2 Ca  Cl 2  H 2 O
2KI  Cl 2 
 2KCl  I 2
ii) CaOCl2  CO 2 
 CaCO3  Cl 2
iii) CaOCl 2  H 2 O 
 Ca(OH) 2  Cl 2
C 2 H 5 OH  Cl 2 
 CH 3CHO  2HCl
CH 3CHO  3Cl 2 
 CCl3CHO  3HCl

CCl3CHO  2Ca(OH) 2 
 CHCl3  (HCOO) 2 Ca
3. i) A = SO2; B = Cr2(SO4)3 C = KMnO4 D = H2SO4
ii) A = NaOH/KOH B = H2 C = P4 D = PH3

4. A = NH4Cl B = NH4HCO3 C = NaHCO3 D = CO2

5. A = Ca B = Ca3N2 C = Ca(OH)2 D = NH3

6. A = FeCl3 B = Fe(SCN)3 C = Fe4(Fe(CN)6]3 D = 2CrO2Cl2

E = PbCrO4
7. The given reactions (i) to (iii) of the compound (X) points out that (X) is sulphur dioxide,
SO2. The given reactions of (SO2) can be represented as below.
i) K 2 Cr2 O 7  4H 2SO 4  K 2SO 4  Cr2 (SO 4 )3  4H 2 O  3O
H 2 O  SO 2  O 
 H 2SO 4
ii) H 2 O 2 
 H 2O  O
H 2 O  SO 2  O 
 H 2SO 4
BaCl 2  H 2SO 4 
 BaSO 4  2HCl
iii) 2H 2S  SO 2 
 3S  2H 2 O
8. A = BiCl3 B = BiOCl
C = Bi2S3 (Brown Black) D = HCl
E = Hg2Cl (white)
9. A = CuSO4 B = CuO
C = SO2 D = Cu
10. A = Na2S2O3 B = SO2
C = Ag2S (black) D = Fe2(S2O3)3
E = NH4[Cu6(S2O3)5]

1. A = NH4NO2 B = N2O C = NH3
2. A = NH4NO3 B = N2O C = H2O
3. A = O3 B = KO3

4. i) Since the mixture is soluble in water to give strongly alkaline solution, it must contain
NaOH as one of the constituents.
ii) Since the aqueous solution gives precipitate with dil. HCl, which dissolves in excess
of dil. HCl, it must contain zinc salt.
Thus the mixture consists of ZnSO4 and NaOH which explains all the given reactions.
i) SnSO 4  4NaOH   Na 2 ZnO 2  Na 2SO 4  2H 2 O
So lub le

ii) Na 2 ZnO 2  2HCl 

 2NaCl  Zn(OH) 2 

Zn(OH)2  2HCl 
 ZnCl2  2H 2O

5. A = CuS B = Cu2I2 (white)

6. A = FeSO47H2O B = Fe2O3 C = SO2
D = SO3 E = FeCl3 F = S
G = FeCl2 H = Fe(CNS)3
7. A = CrO2Cl2 B = Fe3[Fe(CN)6]2
8. A = (NH4)2Cr2O7 B = Cr2O3 C = N2
D = Mg3N2 E = NH3

9. X = NaHCO3 A = CO2
B = H2O Y = Na2CO3
10. A = Pb3O4 B = PbO2 C = PbI2


1. (d) 3. (c) 5. (c) 7. (c) 9. (c)

2. (c) 4. (d) 6. (a) 8. (b) 10. (b)