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in local area networks

Network technology and system administration

Lesson No. 1

Switching in local area networks. Basics

Contents

1. Introduction

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2. Fundamentals of number systems and mental calculation

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3. Network-related problems

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4. The model OSI

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5. Networks classifications

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6. Home assessment

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Dear students!

We start a new course «Switching in local area networks. Basics». This course is the first in a large unit of courses that focus on the study of modern network technology. When studying the unit of courses, we will actively use materials on the authorized courses CCNA and CCNP, Cisco Academy. Today we begin to study materials of the authorized course CCNA R & S «Introduction to Networks». Your lecturer will provide you access to the corresponding training class on the portal netacad.com.

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1. Introduction

Modern data store, processing and transfer technologies widely use data digital representation. Not only conventional computerized information appears digitally but analog information as well, for example, video or audio. The reasons for digital representation of the analog information are different:

for more effective further processing, for long-term storage and use on digital media without quality loss, and, finally, for data transmission over various networks (computer, telephone, cable TV). From user’s point of view, digital representation of information practically does not complicate its application, and sometimes it even simplifies and provides more options, without requiring an understanding of digital technology from within. However, digital technology requires understanding of the processes as well as the ways of digital representation of the information (for example, binary system or physical phenomena occurring during cable data transmission) of IT-specialist. We can say that IT-specialist needs to have the skill, for example, to freely operate with different number systems (binary, octal, hexadecimal) not less than professional composer needs to know musical notation. It primarily depends to the fact that IT-specialist must know not only what equipment or software is to be used for specific tasks, but how to set up (configure) this equipment or software. It requires a complete understanding of the methods of representation and conversion of the digital information because equipment and software work with the information provided

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in digital form. Comprehension (and not the memorization) of some of the features of digital technology is impossible without it. It is well known that knowing a set of facts without complete understanding does not always lead to success. The course, which we will study, is mainly theoretical. In addition, this course will not be related to the previous experience of most of you most likely. Thus, all studying material may seem uninteresting and not demanding practical application at first sight. However, the things are not like that: all that you will learn in this course, you will certainly — and more than once! — need in the future. Therefore, you need to make as much effort as possible to understand the material, which will be filled with practical content in the future, and help you get started in the world of network and information technology.

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2. Fundamentals of number systems and mental calculation

Let us remember how to represent numbers in different number systems and convert a number from one system to another. Of course, there are different ways to convert a number from one system to another — from manual (to do long calculation) to electronic (on a calculator or computer). However, both options require auxiliary means (pen, paper, calculator, etc.), which are not always available or, to put it more precisely, not always available at the proper time. Spending your time looking for a piece of paper or launching a calculator only to convert a number, say, in the binary system is not always effective. You can do it in your mind rather faster. Of course, we do not discuss arbitrary numbers. In most cases, when studying different technologies, we have to do with the byte representation of the information, so it is enough to learn how to convert numbers of not arbitrary values but within a single byte only. You know the basic units of information: bit (0 or 1), nibble (4 bits), byte (2 nibbles or 8 bits). In some cases, we will meet the unit of measurement as «word» or «double word». One word is equal to two bytes, and double-word is equal to four bytes correspondingly (sometimes double word is called a four-byte word). We should not be cconfused with the units of information. It is no more difficult than measuring the weight in grams or kilograms. There is no difference between the four-byte word and 32 bits. However, as is customary to define weight in grams,

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milligrams, micrograms (e.g., at a dosage of medication) in some cases, and use such units as tons, kilotons, megatons in other cases, the amount of information is generally measured in bits, nibbles, bytes , words, etc. depending on the amount of information or the destination of the information. Let us look at some number (for example, 123), presented in the different number systems:

123

decimal representation, using the numbers 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

01111011

binary representation, using the numbers 0 and 1

173

octal representation, using the numbers 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

78

hexadecimal representationб using the numbers 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F. Note that A, B, C, D, E, F represent numbers in this case; the writing is similar to the writing letters, just as writing the letter Z is similar to the writing number 3.

We factor the decimal number 123 to the sum of powers:

123=1*102+2*101+3*10⁰

Powers of the number 10 correspond to the positions of numbers (we use the numbers as a multiplier) in the original decimal number. Positions are numbered from right to left, numbering starts from zero. Each number position is called a digit position. The number 123 is a three-digit number. Now we factor the binary number 01111011 (note that its length makes up one byte or eight bits) to the sum of powers of 2:

01111011=0*2⁷+1*2⁶+1*2⁵+1*2⁴+1*23+0*2^2+1*21+1*2⁰

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Powers of the number 2 correspond to the positions of numbers (we use the numbers as a multiplier) in the original binary number. Positions are numbered from right to left, numbering starts from zero. Each number position is called a digit position. The number 01111011 is an eight-bit number. We factor the octal number 173 to the sum of powers of 8:

173=1*82+7*81+3*8⁰

Powers of the number 8 correspond to the positions of numbers (we use the numbers as a multiplier) in the original decimal number. Positions are numbered from right to left, numbering starts from zero. Each number position is called a digit position. The number 173 is a three-digit number. We factor the hexadecimal number 78 to the sum of powers of 16: 78=7*161+8*16⁰ Powers of the number 16 correspond to the positions of numbers (we use the numbers as a multiplier) in the original decimal number. Positions are numbered from right to left, numbering starts from zero. Each number position is called a digit position. The number 78 is a two-digit number. We will work with three number systems: binary, decimal and hexadecimal. Why are these number systems so important? As you may know, computer operates in the binary system, thus, many values are represented in this system. The binary system is inconvenient for people because they are used to the decimal system. The hexadecimal system is the most space- saving for writing and allows to represent a single byte in the form of two numbers. Let us look at a series of algorithms that simplify the conversion of numbers from one system to another.

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We will start with the conversion of numbers from binary to decimal system. To facilitate this conversion, we need to remember only eight positional values of bits. Bits are numbered from the youngest, right position up to the senior (left) position, starting at zero:

Bit number

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

Power of number 2

2⁷

2⁶

2⁵

2⁴

23

22

21

2⁰

Power value

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

For now, it is enough to remember the simple rule of conversion of a number from binary to decimal system. If the bit value is 1 in some position (it is said that the bit is «set» in this position), we add the value of the number 2 to the corresponding position number power to the decimal value. Here is an example. Convert the number 10110011 into the decimal system. We consider the number from left to right. The bit is set in the 7th position. The decimal value of the bit in that position is 128. The bit is not set in the 6th position; therefore, its decimal value is 0. The bit is set in the 5th position. The decimal value is 32. The bit is set in the 4th position. The decimal value is 16. The bit is not set in the 3rd position. The decimal value is 0. The bit is not set in the 2nd position. The decimal value is 0. The bit is set in the 1st position. The decimal value is 2. The bit is set in the zero position. The decimal value is 1. We summarize:

128 + 0 + 32 + 16 + 0 + 0 + 2 + 1 = 179.

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The second example is less detailed. A binary number is 11000101. The corresponding decimal values of the set and null bits:

128 + 64 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 4 + 0 + 1 = 197. The third example. All bits are set: 11111111 The corresponding decimal number is: 128+64+32+16+8+4+2+1=255, as was expected. As you can see, the algorithm of byte conversion from the binary to decimal system is quite simple. However, you need a certain amount of training to perform this conversion, as they say, at writing speed — without pausing made to recall the decimal value of the number position and the summation. Therefore, it is necessary to do your home assessment and practice without using a calculator. However, this requirement refers to the practice of any conversion of numbers between numeral systems. Let us turn to the inverse procedure — the conversion of numbers from the decimal to binary system. First, this algorithm may seem more complicated but it is of no difficulty and also needs practical work to practice the skills for second-nature. As we know, the maximum value of the byte is equal to 255 and the maximum value of a single bit in the high-order position is 128. Therefore, we will not have to deal with something more complex. All that we should figure out is whether the number, which does not exceed 255, can be divided by the number, which does not exceed 128. Well, let us pass on to the examples. We convert the number 217 into the binary digit. First, we determine whether the 7th bit is set. If you divide the number 217 by 128 (the decimal value of the set high-

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order bit), you will obtain nonzero quotient, and, hence, the

bit is set. Since the number 255 is greater than 128, then the quotient is non-zero, and we write that the 7th bit is 1. The set 7th bit means that the remainder for the number

217 after the division is 217–128 = 89.

We check to see if the 6th bit is set. 89 is greater than 64 (the decimal value of the 6th bits), hence, the 6th bit is set (is equal to 1), and the remainder is 89–64 = 25. We check whether the 5th bit is set. 25 is less than 32 (the decimal value of the 5th bit), hence, the 5th bit is 0. We check if the 4th bit is set. 25 is greater than 16 (the decimal value of the 4th bits), hence, the 4th bit is equal to 1, and the remainder is 25–16 = 9. We check whether the 3rd bit is set. 9 is greater than 8 (the decimal value of the 3rd bit), thus, the 3rd bit is 1, and in the remainder is 1. We check to see if the 2nd bit is set. 1 is less than 4 (the decimal value of the 2nd bit), then the 2nd bit is zero. We check to see if the 1st bit is set. 1 is less than 2 (the decimal value of the 1st bit), it means 1st bit is equal to zero. We check if the null bit is set. 1 is 1 (the decimal value of

the 1st bit), then the 1st bit is 1, the remainder is 0, therefore, the conversion of the number is finished and the value of the binary number is 11011001. Let us consider the second example. We convert the number

163 to the binary system. The number 163 is greater than 128.

Hence, the 7th bit is 1, the remainder is 163–128 = 35.

35

(residue) <64. The 6th bit is 0.

35

(residue)> 32. The 5th bit is 1. The remainder is 35–32 = 3.

3 (residue) <16. The 4th bit is 0.

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3

(residue) <8. The 3rd bit is 0.

3

(residue) <4. The 2nd bit is 0.

3> 2. The 1st bit is 1. The remainder is 3-2 = 1

1 (residue) is equal to 1. The null bit is 1. The remainder is

1–1 = 0 — the conversion is completed, the binary number

is 10100011 The third example. We convert the number 79 to the binary system. 79 <128, the 7th bit is 0. 79> 64, the 6th bit is1, the remainder is 15.

15

<32, the 5th bit is 0.

15

<16, the 4th bit is 0.

15> 8, the 3rd bit us 1, the remainder is 7. 7> 4, the 2nd bit is 1, the remainder is 3. 3> 2, the 1st bit is 1, the remainder is 1.

1 = 1, the null bit is 1, the remainder is 0, the conversion is completed, and the binary number is 01001111. As the leading zeros can be dropped, the number is written as 1001111. The fourth example of the visual representation of the algorithm. We convert the number 119. 119 <128 0 119> 64 1 119–64 = 55> 32 1 55–32 = 23> 16 1 23–16 = 7 <8 0 7> 4 1 7–4 = 3> 2 1 3–2 = 1 = 1 1 1–1 = 0 The conversion is completed. Sum: 01110111 = 1110111

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To convert numbers from the hexadecimal to the binary system and back is much easier. To do this, you should remember the following correspondence table:

«2»

«16»

«2»

«16»

«2»

«16»

«2»

«16»

0000

0

0100

4

1000

8

1100

C

0001

1

0101

5

1001

9

1101

D

0010

2

0110

6

1010

A

1110

E

0011

3

0111

7

1011

B

1111

F

We convert numbers from binary to hexadecimal system, using the table. Take the number 10110011. To convert this number, you should split it into groups of four digits, starting from the right: 1011 0011. After that, each group must be written in the hexadecimal format, in accordance with the following table: B3. By analogy: 10010010 = 1001 0010 = 92; 10001110 = 1000 1110 = 8E; 10101101 1010 1101 = = AD. What if the number of numbers is not divisible by four, for example: 101101? In this case, we add zeros to the left so that the division into four groups would be possible: 101101 = 00101101. The number will not be changed, and we will get 00101101 = 0010 1101 = 2D. Another example:

10110 = 00010110 = 0001 0110 = 16. Inverse conversion is just as easy:

7E=0111 1110=1111110 FF=1111 1111=11111111 C0=1100 0000=11000000 DB=1101 1011 and so on.

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Now we will proceed with the conversion of the hexadecimal

numbers to decimal and vice versa. Oddly, sometimes the best way will be to convert them in the binary system first, and then — to the decimal or hexadecimal number systems, depending on the side we make the conversion to. If you want to carry out this conversion without the use of the binary system, try the following algorithm. To convert from the decimal to hexadecimal system, simply divide the decimal number by 16 and write the quotient and remainder in a row in the hexadecimal format (only for numbers up to 255!):

10

= (10/16 = 0, 10 remainder) = 0h0A

37

= (37/16 = 2, 5 remainder) = 0h25

194

= (194/16 = 12, 2 remainder) = 0hS2

255

= (255/16 = 15, 15 remainder) = 0xFF

To inverse the conversion of the first hexadecimal digit, you must represent it in the decimal format, then multiply it by 16 and add the following one, recording the result in decimal format:

0hS0 = 12h16 +0 = 192 0hVE = 11h16 + 14 = 190 and so on. Besides the conversion of numbers between different number systems, we will take a look at one convenient method of approximate calculation of the decimal value of any power of the number 2, using the fact that the approximate value 21⁰ = 1024 ~~ 1000. It is quite easy to calculate, for example, an approximate value of 21⁶ = 21⁰x2⁶ ~~ 1000x64 = 64,000. By analogy, we obtain 22⁰ = 21⁰x21⁰ ~~ 1000x1000 = 1,000,000 (one million); 232 = 22x (21⁰) 3 ~~ 4x10003 = 4000000000 (4 billions).

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3. Network-related problems

Now, when we have brushed up some basic mathematics, let us proceed directly to the network. Computers are connected to the network in the auditorium. Look around and remember what the network in the auditorium looks like and then list its components. We will find cables that connect computers with some intermediate device. Then we will see that those cables are connected to the computers through a physical network adapter interface. Is it enough to speak of a working network? It is certainly not because computers, cables, adapters and other equipment is just hardware, which does not provide network operation without the operating system installed on these computers. Consequently, the operating system is also a component of the network. Is that all? Let us remember, if we have a computer on which the operating system is installed: do we feel comfortable, for example, surfing on the Internet? It becomes soon clear that bare operating system is not enough, and various network applications, which you need for your work, are required: browser, email client or even installed network game client. We can list such applications for quite a long time but the main thing is already clear: network applications also ensure the functioning of the network along with other components. Let us ask an incidental question, which of the solutions would be optimal decision for the cases of network application operation:

to embed the functionality that provides network connectivity for each network application or to provide this functionality through the operating system. The answer is obvious: since the operating

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system still operates computer hardware, including network components of the hardware, it is more convenient and reasonable to implement network functions in the operating system once, and allow application developers use these features, if necessary. Now, we can represent the network connectivity in general terms: first, the application receives some data from the user and prepares the data for transmission to other applications, and then refers to the operating system and transmits it the data. Next, the operating system calls the network adapter, transmits the data to it, and the adapter, in its turn, converts them and transfers to the network. The data are moved across the network to the network adapter of the recipient, where they are converted and transferred to the operating system, which transmits them to the application. Even with such general description of network connectivity, it is easy to see that it involves various components, both hardware and software, and you can figure out that the issue of the network connectivity implementation is rather complicated: the network consists of many components, the very complexity of which is very high. Let us imagine that our challenge is to create a technology, which permits to create computer networks. It is clear that the problem statement «build a network!» will result in nothing. How do we begin? What general objectives may we face? Let us start with the obvious problems: formulate them, resolve and move on further. So, the first task is to connect computers together with some communication lines for data transmission. What are the ways to do it and how many of them are there? The first thought that comes to mind is to connect each computer to a communication line. Is this a single method? Of course,

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no: for example, we may connect all computers with a single central computer and transmit data through it. Another idea is to connect each computer with two neighboring machines to establish loop transition. As we can see, there are many options of network connectivity, they are all different, and, therefore, each has its advantages and disadvantages. Our next task is to find out what the drawbacks are and whether we can get rid of them, as well as to clarify if good solution can be applied in general or for a specific situation. The problem of selecting the appropriate networking method is called the problem of selecting network topology. In this case, the topology means the configuration of the graph (polygon), where computers correspond to the vertexes and connections between them correspond to the edges. Simply put, it is a plan (map) of network connections. So, let us examine different topologies. It is obviously that the most comprehensive topology is the one that contains all possible connections between the computers (we are not going to consider topology with redundant constraints between the two computers, it is too much!).

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Let us draw a symbolical topology. As we can see, each vertex is connected to other vertex with its edge, that is, each pair of computers is connected with a single communication line. This topology is called a mesh topology. Is there any advantage at this topology? Sure, there is:

this topology is the most reliable. Failure of a single communication line will cause communication blackout only between two computers. If the technology enables communication through call, i.e. data transfer via an intermediate computer, and in order to break down the connection with a single computer, it must be isolated from the network! Does it mean that this topology should be used for networking? Before we agree, let us think about the drawbacks. Which one catches the eye? Of course, it is the need of enormous number of connections. We can count 15 connections in the figure that shows 6 nodes!

can count 15 connections in the figure that shows 6 nodes! The number of connections in
can count 15 connections in the figure that shows 6 nodes! The number of connections in

The number of connections in this topology can be calculated as N * (N–1) / 2, where N — the number of computers. It means that the network contained 100 computers will have 4950 connections, and to add another computer, it will be necessary

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to add 100 connections! Can we now recommend a fully meshed topology for networking? No, we cannot because it is not manufacturable at all. Firstly, even a small network will require significant costs on the cable and cabling. Second, even a small expansion of the existing network will be a big question because the cable must be reached from each new computer to all others. Third, none of the existing personal computers has enough expansion slots for network adapters to build even a small network. Therefore, a fully meshed topology can be recommended for networking in a very limited number of cases. Let us review the following topology. To reduce the disadvantages of a fully meshed topology, we will remove a few communication lines from it. This topology is called partial mesh. What can we say about it? It is quite obviously that we have failed to get rid of the disadvantages of the fully meshed topology but the reliability of this topology reduces with each communication line we remove. What if we have stopped too early when removing extra connections? We will move on towards simplifying the topology and remove all internal connections so that each of the nodes will be connected only with two adjacent nodes.

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The resulted topology is called the ring. In this topology, as we can see, adding new nodes is much easier: each new node must be connected with just two other nodes. Accordingly, the cost of purchasing and cabling are considerably lower in this topology. Since it is theoretically possible to introduce two-way movement of data around the ring, this topology may have some redundancy and reliability. Along with these advantages a new drawback becomes apparent: the need of simultaneous transmission of data across multiple nodes may appear. Due to the fact that communication lines are common (shared), it is necessary to think of the method, in which nodes will agree on the sequence of data transmission and / or avoid their distortion through simultaneous transmission. Development of the method of the common communication lines using is a separate problem called multiplexing, and we will pay attention to this problem after we finish studying various topologies. The next topology offers greater simplification of a fully

The next topology offers greater simplification of a fully meshed topology. As you can see, we

meshed topology. As you can see, we have removed one more communication line between the nodes. The resulted topology is called the common bus (sometimes referred to as multi-

line between the nodes. The resulted topology is called the common bus (sometimes referred to as

access).

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The advantages of this topology are the minimum cable flow rate, the maximum ease of new nodes connection, and, as a result of all this, the minimum price. The disadvantages include its low reliability, lack of fail-safety (at best, network breakup would lead to the disintegration of the network into two parts or, at worst, to the unavailability of the entire network), and lack of the simultaneous transmission of two or more stations, which also points to the need to solve the multiplexing problem. Despite these drawbacks, this topology was most common for quite a long time and used until the end of the last century. It seems that no more topologies left, doesn’t it? No, we forget another method to remove unnecessary connections. Let us link all the nodes via a single tandem. The resulted topology is called a star. Naturally, we must note that the center of the star where the rays converge cannot be a computer due to the limited number of the network adapters on a standard PC. It must be an intermediate network device that receives data from all nodes and transmits it to all nodes. An example of such a device is hub — a device in the center of the network, which concentrates the connections of all nodes. This topology provides the maximum simplicity in connecting new nodes, naturally as long as the hub has enough ports for connection. The reliability of such topology is partly higher that the reliability of the

the hub has enough ports for connection. The reliability of such topology is partly higher that

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common bus, as the breakage of one communication line leads to a communication loss with one node only. On the other hand, the star has a single-point failure (SPOF) — the hub, which breaks down the entire network in case of its own failure. The price and consumption of the cable are also insignificant when using this topology, although they are higher than the same rates for the common bus. Besides, the star has the same disadvantage as the shared bus obtains: since the hub transmits and receives data for all stations, the multiplexing problem also takes place. These topologies present all kinds of basic topology. Combining several topologies on the same network, we will get a mixed or combined topology. Take a look at the example. There are three topologies together — the star, bus and ring. Sometimes, small parts of the network are built using a variety of topologies and then connected to the same network of the combined topology. Another example of the combined topology is the

topology. Another example of the combined topology is the hierarchical star . For example: Such topology
topology. Another example of the combined topology is the hierarchical star . For example: Such topology

hierarchical star. For example:

Such topology is obtained when the ray of the star will end not in the node but in the center of the next star in the hierarchy, i.e. a hub.

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Let us introduce another topology classification. So far we have talked about the networking topology implemented by means of the communication lines. However, you may have noticed that communication lines do not always correspond to the direction of the data transmission in the topology. For example, in the star topology, which is implemented on the hub, the data are simultaneously transmitted to all ports and all devices see them in the same way as when using the common bus topology. Moreover, there is a technology (and we will study it further), in which data are loop-transmitted in the topology by kind of a star! We call a topology describing the map of physical communication lines and connection of the devices the physical topology. The topology, which describes the movement of data flows over the communication lines, called the logical topology. Thus, the logical topology is the configuration of the graph (polygon) where the vertexes correspond to the nodes and edges correspond to the data paths between the nodes. With this definition, we can describe the above situation in a different way: in the network with the physical topology «star», the logical topology «common bus» or «ring» are used. Can there be a physical topology «ring», in which the logical topology is the «ring», too? Of course, it can. It turns out that the following options are possible: physical bus — logical bus, physical ring — logical ring, physical star — logical bus, physical star — logical ring. Note that none of the options provides a logical topology «star». It is no coincidence: the logical topology «star» does not exist. This may surprise you but everything is quite simple and logical, if you remember the basics of electricity: only two ways of connecting conductors are possible: parallel (implements a

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common bus) and consistent (implements a ring). That’s all, and the third option, which would implement a logical star, just does not exist. Thus, we can draw some conclusions. When building a network, a star, ring or shared bus is selected as physical topology most often. Either a star or a common bus can be selected as logical topology. Let us recall the general disadvantage of these topologies. This disadvantage (which is peculiar to any non-fully meshed topology) is the need for joint use of the communication lines by several stations. Imagine that you are in the crowded room. If a few people talk at the same time, the voice will impose on each other and no one will clearly understand what is being said. This situation has probably occurred in your life, and each of us certainly knows the ways to get out of it or to prevent it. Let us remember these methods. The first method can be called «intelligent people». In the room, a company of intelligent and educated people is having a talk, and two of them decide to say something. They make sure whether somebody else is talking at that moment. If the room is silent, both start talking at once. What will happen, if the people are really intelligent? they will immediately interrupt their speech, apologize, and decide (with a nod, a gesture, inviting word) who of them will continue to talk and who will wait until another one finishes. The second method. We assume that people are not so educated or rather enthusiastic. In this case, there must be an arbitrator, who would define and specify the speaker, while the others would not have such an opportunity. The role of the arbitrator is very similar to the role of the Speaker, who establishes the

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rules, enables and disables the microphone, so let us call this method the «Parliament». The third method is called the «pipe of peace». Imagine a group of people, sitting around the fire and passing the pipe. Anyone, who takes the pipe, has the right to make a certain number of puffs, and to make a speech, if he wants to say something. Then he must pass the pipe to somebody else. The rest of the people have no right to talk at that moment, otherwise they dig up the hatchet. If the speaker does not want to say anything, he passes the pipe to the next person in the circle. These are, of course, not all the methods; we will talk about other methods of medium separation later, as well as discuss their advantages and disadvantages. Now you should know that each of these methods has its implementation in network engineering. We will suppose that we have resolved two issues — the topology selection and method of medium separation. Can we stop here? Of course, we cannot. We have not discussed the way, in which the information will be transferred over the communication lines, which connect the computers. You know that information is presented as a sequence of bits inside the computer. How can the bits be presented in the form of electrical signals for transmission over communications lines? Is it as simply as it feels? Let us think of some simple way to represent bits and consider the transmission of information by means of our method. Let us choose the encoding method and encode the bit «1» by the potential available in the communication line and the bit «0» by its lack; we depict the way the sequence «10101010» will look then.

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Everything seems okay yet. Next, we reproduce the sequence consisting of unities only.

Next, we reproduce the sequence consisting of unities only. We can see that there is a

We can see that there is a constant high level of potential. What problems may it cause? As rate of clock for each computer is different, the durability of transmission of each bit varies as well. Therefore, when transferring a sufficiently long sequence, only the transmitting computer will know exactly how many bits it has already passed. A problem of extra synchronizing of the transmitter and receiver emerges, and as our code cannot perform this synchronization (such codes are called non-self-synchronizing), the issue rests on our shoulders. The possible solution, i.e. the transfer of the synchronizing sequence 1010101over the additional communication line is rather uneconomical, because it requires an extra couple of wires. Finally, let us see what happens if a long sequence of null bits is passed.

see what happens if a long sequence of null bits is passed. If we pass a

If we pass a long sequence of null bits, the lack of self- synchronization will have an effect as well; moreover, there is another nuisance: how can the receiver know that a prolonged

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lack of the potential is a long sequence of zeros and not the absence of data at all? Thus, there is another one, the third problem: how to select the method of encoding data for transmission over communication lines. We assume that we can solve this problem (we can assume it with confidence — we already know about the existence of networks that work!). What are the difficulties we can expect in the future? Again, it is not strange that these are difficulties associated with the communication lines sharing. Indeed, if a few computers use the communication line, the information in the line can be intended to any of them. How can we determine the recipient of this information? How can we know whom he should respond to this information? Fortunately, in real life this problem was solved quite a long time ago, and the idea of this solution can be applied to the networking issue. We only have to develop some method of addressing, assign addresses to the transmitter and receiver and indicate them in the transmitted information in the same way addresses are specified in the letters of regular mail. It seems that the amount of work grows with each new step of the problem solving. Now we need to determine what requirements the addresses we will use on the network must meet. Let us think what is the most important and mandatory requirement to an address? Imagine that somebody has sent you a postal order to the large sum. What would you expect the least in this situation? Probably, another street, house, apartment, and the recipient with the exactly same data as your own address in your city. In other words, main and indispensable requirement for any address is its uniqueness. Otherwise, the information and money

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order can be delivered to somebody else instead of the person who should have received it. Next, we should note that this address will be transmitted along with the data over the network. So, the more space it takes,

the less room is left for the data, and, therefore, to increase the volume of the transmission of useful data per unit of time, we need to ensure that these addresses are small. In addition, small addresses are easier to analyze by the communication equipment, their analysis requires less processing powers (the postman will read the name of the city London faster, than name of the city Venkatanarasimharajuvaripeta in India). Therefore, the next requirement for the addresses is compactness. In addition to network equipment and machinery, addresses are used by people. What address would be more convenient for you to remember: itstep.org or 89.184.78.37? The answer is obvious, I guess. Network address must have a user-friendly view — after all, the network should work for us, and not we for it! Hence, another requirement for the address is its convenience for people. Is it enough to meet these requirements? Well, in fact, the requirement for address is only one — its uniqueness, and the rest is no more than good wishes. What more could we expect from the address? Let us imagine that the address of each individual will be the number of his/her passport or ITN. Unique, compact, though not very convenient addresses to remember. Can you imagine how will mail delivery to this address look? I can think of only one way: postal cars equipped with loudspeakers drive about cities and villages and one thing can be heard: «the owner of the passport with number so and

so, go to the post office, there is a letter for you

» Why is it

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going to happen? Just because no one is able to keep in mind an appropriate geographical location of the recipient and the number of his/her passport! Let the post works as usual: at first, mail arrives in the country and then — in the city, and then — in the post office, where local postmen know where the correct street is located, and the needed house can be easily found in that street, and, of course, the apartment, in its turn, is in that house. The possibility of such step-by-step search is provided by the existence of a hierarchy of addresses. We see that addresses must be hierarchical to provide the efficient operation of the network. If we carefully consider the abovementioned requirements, we will realize that many of them disagree with each other. For example, it is evident that requirements for uniqueness and compactness may conflict: an extremely compact address consists of a single character but how many of them can exist? The same situation happens with the compactness and hierarchy as those requirements may also be difficult to provide simultaneously. Due to such difficulties in networking, different addresses must co-exist in order to use the address, which meets the necessary requirements in different situations. Let us discuss what addresses exist. We start with the hardware addresses. As you know, in non-fully meshed topologies, or, as they are also called, topologies with shared communication lines, the signal sent by one of the stations will reach all stations on the network. Hence, each station in the network must have its own address, and each portion of the sent data must be provided with a destination address so the station could determine whom the data is meant to, and the address of the transmitter to know whom send the reply to. To this purpose,

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each network adapter has its own unique address, which is usually threaded in its ROM. Hardware addresses in the usual networks typically have a length of 6 bytes and they are unstructured. With this address length, the addressing up to 2⁴⁸ devices (it will be 2⁸x (21⁰) ⁴, is equal to about 256 trillion addresses) can be provided. In fact, there will be less unique address (approximately 64000 billion) due to the fact that 46 bits are used for addressing instead of 48 bits, and the first two address bits have a specific meaning, which will be discussed later. These addresses are set directly by the adapter manufacturers not only to avoid duplication but also to reduce the amount of manual labor of the administrator (actually, hardware addresses can be changed manually, and we will discuss it later). The uniqueness of the address is provided by its dual addressing: a part of the address — the first 3 bytes — is assigned centrally (in fact, each manufacturer is given a permission to use a certain range of the first three bytes of the address and the range can only be used by this manufacturer), while the remaining three bytes are assigned in a unique way directly by the manufacturer, so each serial adapter receives an address. We calculate what address range can be assigned centrally by the manufacturers, taking into account the special role of the first two bytes of the address: 22⁴ˉ2 = 222 = 22x (21⁰) 2 ~ 4 million of unique address ranges. At the same time, each manufacturer can release the amount of adapters, which is four times bigger than each issued range. Since these addresses are not intended for direct human consumption, the requirements for convenience of address formats lack, and these addresses are usually written in the hexadecimal format using a delimiter or without it:

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00-0c-76-28-5d-50,

00: 0c: 76: 28: 5d: 50

00.0c.76.28.5d.50,

000c.7628.5d.50,

000c76285d50, — there are all different ways of writing the same hardware address. The next type of addresses is numeric composite addresses, also called protocol addresses. There may be many varieties of these addresses but all of them have some features in common:

they are assigned by administrator (in some way), have uniqueness in the network of any size and have the structure (are hierarchical). Consequently, using these addresses, the problem, which is not possible by means of hardware addresses, can be solved: delivery information in a complex composite network. Telephone numbers may refer to the class of such addresses (rather arbitrarily): they are unique in the telephone network, have a structure (country code — city code — number of ATE — local phone number), using which it is easy to find a route to any subscriber. These addresses are commonly used by different software and usually inconvenient for users. IP addresses may be examples of such addresses in data networks — four-byte addresses usually recorded in the decimal-dot notation (192.168.1.10, 10.1.0.22, and so on. D). These addresses are commonly used in modern networks, despite a number of disadvantages. We will study IP addresses in details in our next course. The next class of addresses is symbolic addresses, sometimes called symbolic names. This class of addresses has been designed specifically for the convenience of users, and usually contains only well-read symbols: letters, numbers and some other

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symbols. To meet the requirements for convenience, developers had to sacrifice the requirements for compactness: these addresses are usually longer than hardware and protocol addresses. They can be structured (un. org, www.itstep.org, etc.) and unstructured (\\printserver, journal, etc.). Hardware and software do not work with such addresses, and additional services that would help to convert user-friendly addresses to the addresses understandable to the computers are required. So, as we have seen, the problem of selecting an addressing scheme can also be solved in different ways, and to create network technology and / or construct a network, you will need to choose a way of addressing that is optimal for a particular situation. We proceed to the next networking issue — the structuring problem. As you may remember, the need to build complex composite networks was the reason of the requirements for the hierarchical addressing and introduction of compound addresses. In fact, structuring of addresses is merely a reflection of the real need to structure networks. As in the case of topology, we can talk about the logical and physical structuring. Let us look at the example of the physical structuring. Suppose we have four stations, operating in the topology «common bus». The figure shows (very schematically) the fall of the level of the signal sent from the station A to the station D. At a considerable distance, the signal level may fall so that the connection between the stations will be impossible. What is to do in such situation? You know perfectly well a variety of amplifiers are applied in the electronics.

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Lesson 1 By placing the device amplifying the signal in the place where it is still

By placing the device amplifying the signal in the place where it is still quality, we can increase the distance, at which data is transmitted. The digital signal amplification problem is facilitated by the fact that it has a predictable, known in advance shape, unlike the analog signal, which can take arbitrary values in a certain predetermined range. Since there may be any analog signal, the amplifier cannot distinguish noise from the analog signal and amplifies the signal with the noise. The digital signal is enough to detect and then retrieve it with any specified parameters. That is why high-quality analog amplifiers are so expensive, and because of that it is possible to create an «amp» of digital signal of some acceptable cost. These «enhancers» — in fact, they perform signal regeneration — are called repeaters. Multiport repeaters are called hubs.

— in fact, they perform signal regeneration — are called repeaters . Multiport repeaters are called

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All these devices are means of physical network structuring.

Let us imagine a different situation. Assume that the transmission is from the station A to the station B. In this case, the repeater will also amplify the signal in the right part of the network (the network parts are called segments), and the stations in the right segment will not be able to transmit data at that moment because they and the left segment are on the same shared communication line. To increase the performance of the network it would be nice to have a more intelligent device that could determine the physical address of the recipient, the segment in which it is, and send a retrieved signal to the segment only when it is really necessary. And these devices actually exist; they are called bridges. Multiport bridges called switches. We have identified a range of problems in the construction of the hardware part of the network and move on to problems that require software implementation. Let us enumerate the most obvious:

1. Several network applications can run simultaneously on a

network computer. How does the software will explore, which

of the applications are designed for the received network data?

2. Different data types can be transferred between the same

applications (a text a picture in the same e-mail). How to

interpret the data and to distinguish them from each other?

3. The network consists of many devices and depends on the

operation of the supporting structure — the power, ground, and so forth. Any of the components can fail, and the data transmitted at the moment may be lost. How to deal with the data loss and ensure their delivery?

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4. All these and many other functions may be implemented directly in the application and the operating system that provides these functions for applications. What is the best way to do it and how it should be organized? This is not the full range of issues encountered in the network engineering design. We have ensured that the networking task consists of many complex components.

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4. The model OSI

At the beginning of the network technologies development, each manufacturer approached to the network engineering problem independently, and those decisions were completely proprietary (closed for the free use), they based on the corporate standards of manufacturers: IBM, Decnet, etc. At the time, many networks were forcedly tied to the equipment of a single manufacturer because devices from different manufacturers could not communicate with each other. The idea to create some general model, which could be used by all network professionals and would allow to develop interoperable hardware and software, occurred. Furthermore, it was decided to divide the general problem into pieces in a way so it could be possible to make change in each part independently of other parts. This principle of the partitioning of the tasks into smaller independent parts to facilitate its solution is called «decomposition». How can decomposition be carried out in the best way? Based on what signs can it be done? Let us first divide our network on the basis of implementing of the functions into two parts — hardware and software, and think, in what way it can benefit us.

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Software

Equipment

The answer is obvious: if we can create and maintain a constant mode of interaction of the two parts (levels), then it will be possible to make changes on each level without affecting other layers. And it, in its turn, means that software developers and network equipment manufacturers can operate independently. If both of them know the rules on level interaction, the most important thing is to adhere to these rules. The convenience is obvious: if there will be a common network model, which all experts will adhere to, the creation of new network technologies and problem solving will be rather simplified. Is two levels enough for handling proper decomposition? If think a bit, we will understand that it is not enough: there are still many interactions of components and still too many problems at every level. For example, at the program level, there are operating system and applications. The next question arises: how will be better to organize the network interaction of applications? Should each application have its own network module, or it is better to implement the module once in the operating system? It is clear that if we implement the module once in the operating system, the application developer will not need implement its functions in the application independently and he will be able to concentrate on solving a specific applied problem. So, we come to the conclusion that the addition of another layer will facilitate the creation of technology.

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Into how many levels is it necessary to part the task to carry out an effective decomposition? To answer this question, in 1978, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) started creating a reference model OSI — Open System Interconnection. Specialists from ISO created a universal conventional model of network interaction, which enabled network professionals around the world to speak the same language (the documentation and standards describing OSI model can be downloaded for free from http: //www.itu. int / rec / T-REC-X / en as part of the recommendations X.200). This model is an abstract model, and like any new abstract model may remain unclear until it is not filled with application examples. You should not worry: the mastering of the model OSI, a common «language» of network professionals, occurs gradually, as well as the study of any foreign language. As described abstractions will be filled with concrete content, you will not notice how the use of the model will become familiar and natural to you.

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The OSI model consists of seven levels:

Lesson 1 The OSI model consists of seven levels: Levels are numbered bottom-up, from the first

Levels are numbered bottom-up, from the first to the seventh, and are named as follows: Layer 7: Application Layer Layer 6: Presentation Layer Layer 5: Session Layer Layer 4:

Transport Layer Layer 3: Network Layer Layer 2: Data Link Layer Layer 1: Physical Layer The literature on network written in your native language may provide other names, causing discrepancy of the terms. However, you should not think of the option that is the most appropriate, it is just an issue about the correct translation. The most essential moment is to understand the subject. Therefore, if someone asks «What is the correct term?» undoubtedly answer «Using English terms are correct».

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We should note that the original number of layers has not

been determined; during the development of the model it was found that seven would be the most appropriate number. The principles used in the determination of the layers in the model were as follows:

a) Do not create too many levels as it makes the task of layers

description and integration more difficult than necessary.

b) Create the boundary between the levels at the point where

the description of the services may be short and the number

of layers interactions across the boundary is minimized.

c) Create separate layers to handle functions that differ in

the ensuring of a process or technology applied.

d)

Collect similar functions at the same layer.

d)

Carry out the selection of the boundary between the

layers at a point that was selected successfully previously (as shown by previous experience).

e) Establish a layer to easily localized functions, so that the

layer could be completely redesigned and its protocols could be reversed, if you want to take the advantage of new advances

in the field of architecture, hardware or software technology, without changing the services provided by neighboring layers.

g) Establish the boundaries between the layers where it

may be useful to have an appropriate standardized interface at some point of time. (См. ITU-T Recommendation X. 200; INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY — OPEN SYSTEMS INTERCONNECTION— BASIC REFERENCE MODEL: THE BASIC MODEL) In fact, the number of layers could be both small (later you will study such models) and large as you will see later in this model.

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Let us have a detailed look at the functions of each layer. By definition, ITU-T, the physical layer transparently provides for the transparent transmission of bit streams between data link entities across physical connections («The Physical Layer provides for the transparent transmission of bit streams between data-link-entities across physical-connections»). The physical layer defines the electrical and physical specifications for devices and is responsible for the transmission of signals over the communication line, receiving and conversion them into data bits. This level includes physical characteristics of the data transmission medium, methods of converting data bits into signals and conversely, determines the electrical parameters of the signals, the mechanical and electrical connection requirements, etc. It will be easier to understand, if we represent the systems that intercommunicate as two people having a talk. What will relate to the physical layer? The loudness and tone of the voice, the transmitter-signal generator — the vocal cords, the receiver- transmitter — eardrums. Signal transmission environment is air, signal is a sound wave propagating in the transmission medium, which represents changes in loudness and tone of the voice. Another example is the interchange of written information. Communication media is paper or board, the signal is a change of the medium brightness due to the applied paint. Let us imagine that the same information is transmitted in two different ways — in writing and orally. Will its content differ depending on the method of transmission? Certainly, it will not: a physical layer is not associated with the character of the transmitted information and its operation is totally independent of the transmitted data.

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Now ask yourselves a question: is the physical level enough for the successful data transmission organization? Obviously, it is not. Imagine a situation when there are several people in the room, and each of them wants to talk to someone else from the audience. What happens as a result? Just noise that does not contain virtually no useful data. This situation is familiar to you: you previously read about the problem of sharing the shared transmission medium («medium decompression»). Think of the methods of medium decompression such as «cultured people», «Parliament» and «pipe of peace». Moreover, if just one person speaks, can we determine to whom he refers or provides information based only on the signal (change in the loudness and tone of the voice)? Of course, we cannot. The problem of addressing messages is also solved by providing each batch of sent data with the so-called «hardware address». Further, we know that the human language is redundant:

small (and sometimes large) misinterpretation does not interfere with its proper understanding; for example, each of us probably once talked to a person who had some speech defects — stuttering or burr, but that did not prevent interlocutors from understanding each other correctly. Perhaps, if those defects were too strong, he/she sometimes had to repeat the message more than once. With the network data transmission, such situation is not possible without additional measures because the exchange of data as a sequence of bits does not provide redundancy automatically, the portions of data is necessary to provide with some additional information in order to ensure the correctness of the received data.

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In natural languages, if you use your native language, there is also no need for any special allocation of individual words in sentences; you isolate individual words automatically because of your childhood habit. Imagine that you hear a quick speech in an unfamiliar or slightly familiar to you foreign language. In such situation, you will be able to distinguish individual words only if the speaker deliberately emphasizes them with intonation or pauses. Similarly, you will be able to recognize individual words in the sentence pronounced in some unfamiliar to you foreign language, even written with the famous alphabet, only if they are separated by spaces. The situation is similar with the data network interchange — any bit, beginning or ending data blocks, is not possible to distinguish from the data bit inside this block, which means that if you do not take special measures, correct interpretation of the received data bits will be impossible. The solution of all these tasks is implemented at the data

link layer.

The data link layer provides multiple functions. They include the method of gaining access to the shared communication line, designing byte flow into the data blocks for transmission, communication line addressing, data integrity check by providing the data block with additional information and a number of important functions, which we will consider in detail further.

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According to the standard ITU-T, the data link layer provides functional and procedural means for connectionless-mode (datagram) among network entities, and for connection-mode for the establishment, maintenance, and release data link connections among network entities and for the transfer of data link service data units. A data link connection is built upon one or several physical connections. Now we can make a preliminary conclusion that creation of a working network is possible when using the first two levels of the model, data link and physical. For such a network, there will be a number of restrictions. For example, it is impossible to create a network of arbitrary or even large scale by using only these layers: going back to the example of the conversation of people in a big company, imagine the conversation of several tens of thousands of people by using any of the known access methods. In addition, remember that hardware addresses are flat and unstructured and imagine the problem of finding a recipient in this crowd, for example, using his/ her ITN or passport number, which are also the examples of unstructured addresses. In other words, using two lower layers, you may provide an operation of small, limited in size networks, and for large networks, especially for networks of free size, functioning of the upper layers of the model OSI is required. The network layer allows to combine smaller networks designed using only the physical and data link layer into a complex composite network of free size.

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Unlike hardware addresses, the network layer addresses are structured hierarchical addresses. This feature of the network addresses allows to address not individual hosts but those objects which present the association of multiple hosts, i.e. network. The operation of the network level can be illustrated with the example of an ordinary postal service, delivering parcels, letters, postcards and telegrams to recipients. Let us remember the look of the postal address. Its components are: country’s name — city — street — house — apartment — recipient’s name. Structure and hierarchy can be clearly seen here. Each postman, who carries out delivery, does not need to be provided with a full route of the mail to the recipient because it is sufficient to know the next destination point for the letter at each level of the hierarchy. To deliver a letter from the US to Cambodia, the following procedure is possible: the postal service workers determine the vehicle heading to Ukraine and dispatch the letter. In the process of delivering the letter can change a number of vehicles: car, plane, railroad car. This change of vehicles illustrates the use of various technologies of the link layer (car — plane — railroad car) on the information delivery in the composite network, despite the fact that «network address» of the recipient remains the same. Upon arrival to Cambodia the letters are sorted and our letter is placed in the vehicle, next to Phnom Penh. In Phnom Penh, in the main post office, the letter will be placed in the baggage, which should be delivered to the appropriate post office serving the required street. The postman will deliver the letter to the house on Street 63, 2nd floor — to the branch of our academy.

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Thus, we have defined the network layer functions in a complex composite network — addressing and routing (determination of the data block route). By the definition of ITU-T, the network layer provides the functional and procedural means for connectionless-mode or connection mode transmission among transport entities and, therefore, provides to the transport entities independence of routing and relay considerations. In addition, the network layer provides the means to establish, maintain, and terminate network connections between open systems containing communicating application entities and the functional and procedural means to exchange network service data units between transport entities over network connections The three abovementioned layers, i.e. physical, data link and network, are classified as «network-dependent» because these layers provide network operation and data transfer. Now, we can see that the three lower layers of the OSI model, physical, data link and network layers are required to build the network of free scale. Ask yourselves a question: is it enough to use only these three levels to build a well-functioning network? If we pay attention to the fact that the network of free scale can contain any number of components (that number is not infinite but it can be very large, indeed) and remember that the greater the number of components that the system contains, the greater the probability of failure of any of its components is, we realize that we cannot go without additional means to ensure reliability in a large network. In fact, it is enough for any network device or any physical communication channels to fail, the possibility of data loss soon occurs.

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In order to deal with the aftermath of data loss during transmission and ensure reliable delivery of data, the transport layer has been introduced to the model.

It is clear that there is no guarantee for the safety of the data block on the way: failure or accident will cause the loss of data, which were crossing the damaged component of the network at that moment. However, this is not a disaster: the data are not actually gone, and the transmitter can continue sending them until the data does not get to the receiver. This is where the question arises — how can the transmitter know that the recipient has received the information? There is no sense to send data without end! Let us recall the familiar analogy — the correspondence delivery service. If we imagine that we need to deliver very important information to the subscriber via letter, the only way to make sure that the letter is not lost on the road

is to take the advantage of the advice-of-receipt post. The receipt

is a postcard attached to the letter, which the recipient must

sign when he/ she receives the letter and send it back to us — to the transmitter, using the same postal service. After receiving

a receipt signed by our recipient, we ensure that our letter was

delivered safely. The same method is used at the transport layer: a certain portion of the data is to be confirmed by the recipient. This confirmation is called a receipt and the method itself is called positive acknowledgment (positive as it confirms positive delivery). Now let us imagine that we have not received a receipt to some portion of the data sent. Why can this happen? Let us get back to the analogy with the postal service. You have sent a letter and are waiting for the receipt at the moment. When will you begin to worry about its absence? If you can imagine what time the

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approximate delivery of the letter in one direction takes, you will multiply the number of the days by two, add a couple of days in case of the absence of the recipient on the spot, add days-off and when that period comes to an end, you can assume that: a) the letter is lost; b) the receipt is lost. What are your actions in both cases? In fact, as to receive two similar letters is better than not get any, the action should be as follows — your letter resending. Although this resending will cause additional loading of the postal service, it will increase the probability of the letter delivery. The operation of the transport layer looks almost the same when sending data over the network: portions of the data are numbered in a certain way by the system-transmitter and the system-recipient should acknowledge the receipt of the data portion. You should note that the implementation of safe delivery by resending is not mandatory, and is contraindicated for a number of technologies. Moreover, not all of the packages are confirmed even when using safe delivery: for example, receiving of the receipts is never confirmed (guess, why?). ITU-T defines the transport layer as a layer that provides transparent transfer of data between session-entities and relieves them from any concern with the detailed way in which reliable and cost effective transfer of data is achieved. The transport layer is classified differently. Sometimes it refers to the network-dependent layers because it is directly related to the network data transmission but such approach (which is bad, in our opinion) is sometimes referred to a separate classification:

it is not belonged neither to the network-dependent levels nor to the superposed applications levels and presented as a certain interlayer, which provides safe data transmission over the network- dependent levels for the applications layers. We consider such approach far more correct.

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The levels, lying above the transport layer, are called the applications layers. Such layers provide the operation of the applications on the hosts. Just above the transport layer the session layer is located. The session layer is used to establish logical connections between applications interacting through a network. The easiest way to present its work is to draw an analogy with a conventional phone call. Think of this process: you dial a number and listen to beeps for a while, after which the connection occurs. At this point the channel for sending data at the physical, data link and network layers already exists, i.e. it is already possible to send information, i.e. to speak. Do you begin to state your information immediately after the other party takes off the receiver? Of course, you do not in most cases. What do you say right after the connection? True, as a rule, most people simply say «Hello». Does this word carry some information loading related to the essence of the conversation? Of course, it does not, in fact, «Hello» only serves the purposes of testing the quality of the communication and determining the transmission line parameters quality: if it is enough for the effective information interchange. After hearing «Hello» on the other side and ensuring that you can hear your companion well and he/she can hear you, you proceed with next stage — you introduce yourself and ask who you are talking to. This is quite reasonable because, as a rule, you want to transfer the information to a concrete person, and not to anyone who has picked up the phone. You find the desired subscriber and only then proceed to the conversation. Finishing the conversation, you say «Goodbye» and only then break the physical connection and hang up.

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In fact, we have listed the session layer functions: the definition of the logical connection parameters, the logical connection establishment, the logical connection maintenance, the logical connection breakup. Sometimes it is said that the session layer controls the dialogue. ITU-I defines the functions of the session layer as follows: the purpose of the session layer is to provide the means necessary for cooperating presentation entities to organize and to synchronize their dialogue and to manage their data exchange. To do this, the session layer provides services to establish a session connection between two presentation entities, to support orderly data exchange interactions, and to release the connection in an orderly manner. Above the session layer, there is the level of representation, sometimes called the presentation layer. The presentation layer provides the conditioning of the formats of data transmitted between the application layer entities. It releases the entities of the application layer from the need to independently solve the problems associated with the overall presentation of information, thus providing, syntactic independence. The sense of the presentation layer can be explained by the following example. Suppose that you have a lot of friends, each of whom knows some foreign language, and all your friends together know all foreign languages. It would seem, you should not have any problems with the translation of foreign correspondence. But imagine that you have received a letter, written in a language totally unknown to you, and you have no idea what the kind of language it is. Who do you ask for help with the translation? The only solution is to copy the letter and

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give all of your friends-linguists copies. However, if the letter contains information about the language, in which it is written, you will know whom of them you should call without any doubt. The definition the presentation layer contained in the specification ITU-T is the following: the presentation layer provides for the representation of information that application entities either communicate or refer to in their communication. The top seventh layer of the OSI model is called the application layer. This layer provides access to application processes for the OSI environment for inter-process communication when solving common problems. In particular, its task is to establish communication between cooperating processes of the applications, conditioning of the application context, which determines the uniform conditions for interacting objects. It also provides application processes with network services of general purpose (e-mail, file transfer, web browsing). You should understand that the application layer is not the layer, at which applications run, but the layer, at which they interact. The application layer is defined by ITU-T as follows: as the highest layer in the Reference Model of Open Systems Interconnection, the application layer provides the sole means for the application process to access the OSIE (OSI Environment). Hence the application layer has no boundary with a higher layer. (In this context, the term «OSI environment» is defined as some abstract representation of a set of concepts, components, functions, services, protocols, etc., as defined in the OSI reference model, and the specific resultant standards, which, when applied, make the interaction between open systems possible)

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Let us compare the OSI model with the two-level (hardware layer — software layer) model, which we studied before. Indeed, the fact that a new model has appeared does not mean the old one has disappeared, especially since the division of functions in the hardware and software implementation is quite an objective and finely well-defined. The situation is quite simple with the upper layer (application layer). It is clear that it is software-implemented because the applications, the interaction between which the layer determines, are software. It is also obvious that the implementation of the physical layer is hardware. The question is: where exactly is the boundary between the hardware and physical layers in the OSI model? What levels have greater number, those that implemented in hardware or software? Most likely, if the functions of the layer are rather complex and diverse, the layer implementation will be software. If a number of simple standard functions are implemented at the layer, it is likely that its implementation will be hardware. Of course, this assumption cannot be any clear criteria but (at least) it allows to understand that the OSI model OSI, as in our previous two-level model, the software- implemented layers are above the hardware-based layers. That is, the upper and lower layers of different models are the same. Indeed, top five layers of the OSI model are software- implemented, and it is believed that the two lower layers are hardware-implemented. Although some sources provide information about the data link layer implemented partly in hardware and partly in software, it happens due to the terminological subtleties most likely. As a matter of fact, a question whether a device driver that provides the data link layer functions implementation refers to software is difficult to

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answer unambiguously. That is, the implementation of the data link layer functions should be considered hardware, meaning what exactly the sources discussing mixed implementation presuppose. The third (network) layer is largely hardware- implemented in modern equipment; however, it is too early to discuss it in details. Now, when we are familiar with the model of OSI, let us try to define what happens to the information when it is transferred within the framework of the given model. To clarify the situation, let us use the analogy approach. Of course, our model of interaction is largely conditional but the description of the main processes in this model will help us understand the basic principles of information transmission. Let us choose two organizations as interacting systems. One organization is a design institute, which designs equipment on request (we call this organization the Contractor); the second one is a plant, which orders the design of the equipment (the Customer).We represent the two systems graphically highlighting critical levels.

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Administrative level Financial level

 
Administrative level Financial level    
 
Administrative level Financial level    

Manager

Manager

   

Chief economist

Chief economist Chief economist

Chief economist

Chief economist Chief economist
 
 

Technical level

Chief engineer

Technical level Chief engineer Chief engineer

Chief engineer

Technical level Chief engineer Chief engineer
Chief economist   Technical level Chief engineer Chief engineer Supplying level Secretary Secretary

Supplying level

Secretary

Supplying level Secretary Secretary

Secretary

Supplying level Secretary Secretary

Imagine a situation when the Customer orders a project made by the Contractor. From the administrative level, the Manager from the Customer’s side sends out the instructions to the financial level to secure financing within the limits. The Chief Economist from the Customer’s side designates financing and passes it to the technical level. An the technical level, the Chief Engineer draws up the required technical documentation and sends it to the supplying level in order for further re-sending it to the Contractor. The postal or courier service delivers the information to the Contractor, and then the technical level from the Contractor’s side analyzes the documentation and coordinates the technical parameters. Then the project is transferred further, to the Chief Economist, who deals with the agreement of the cost, and only then it goes to the Manager for signature. After it, the project does the opposite journey in order to pass a similar sequence on the Customer’s side and to be signed by the Manager from the Customer’s side. Once the project is signed by the Managers from both sides, this interaction is considered as completed.

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Pay your attention to the direction of the interaction within the same system. These interactions are indicated by the arrows directed upwards and downwards from the boundary between the layers. That is, within a single system interaction occurs strictly between the adjacent layers: the upper layer transmits information down, while the underlying layer sends it up. During the information interchange between different systems, the interaction occurs strictly between the same layers of these systems as expected — they have the same functions, and it is obvious that the signature of the Manager must be put next to the signature of the second Manager; financial issues need to be addressed to Financiers and technical issues — to Technicians. The physical flow of information within the OSI model is conducted in the same way: physical information is transmitted between the adjacent layers of the system — the transmitter — downward — over the communication line to another system, then between the physical layers the other system — the recipient — upwards. The logical interaction occurs strictly between the layers. It is understood that the processes of information transmission and interaction must be regulated and described by certain rules. In our example, the Secretary, who received the correspondence, would not bring it to the Manager immediately after delivery — he has a job description for processing correspondence, and he goes in accordance with it. The Economist will not bring the project to the Manager without performing pre-actions defined by his job description and so on. Job description represents a certain set of rules governing the actions of the employee in a given situation. A similar set of rules governing the interaction exists in the model OSI. We give a definition of these sets of rules:

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A set of formal rules and agreements, governing the interaction

between the adjacent layers within a single system, is called an

interface:

A set of formal rules and agreements governing the interaction

between the same layers of different systems, is called a protocol. ITU-T defines the protocol of the corresponding layer in

the following way: (N) — protocol is a set of rules and formats

(semantic and syntactic), which determines the communication behavior of (N) — entities in the performance of (N) — functions. The determination of the interface in the ITU-T references is as follows: the interactions between the OSI service user and the OSI service provider constitute an abstract interface at the OSI service boundary. This abstract interface is the OSI local view. The OSI local view is defined in terms of the set of OSI service primitives, which the OSI service user and the OSI- service provider are allowed to exchange, together with the sequencing rules which apply to these exchanges)

If we talk less formalized language, the interface in the

terminology OSI is the language of interaction between the adjacent layers of the system when protocol, respectively, is the language of the interaction between the same layers of the different systems. We now proceed directly to the question of the information transmission in the model OSI. As you know, information goes to the upper — application — layer directly from the user in most cases (not in all cases, namely at most, as it can also be received from applications). This user information is the unstructured flow of bytes. As we have just learned, this information must be appropriately handled by the application layer of the transmitter and application layer of the

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recipient. In order to handle the process correctly, the application layer of the transmitter must add to user information specific service information, which implements the layer functions. For example, it can be service application information, which carries out processing of the user data. In compliance with the rule on its transmission, the information is further transferred for the processing to the presentation layer, which, as you know, ensures the conditioning of data transmission formats. The presentation layer considers all the received data as a single block of information. In order to interpret the transmitted data, the presentation layer of the transmitter must add service information for the presentation layer of the recipient. For example, the information may indicate that data is transmitted in a text format. The session layer, in its turn, interprets everything it receiver from the presentation layer as data, to transmit which the connection must be established, interacting entities must be specified and the connection settings must be agreed. And to this end, it adds its own service information, which ensures connection, session management and so on, to the data. To ensure its functions, the transport layer must divide the received data into the blocks, which are optimized for network- transmission, provide each block with service information, allowing to implement functions of the secure delivery – for example, the number of data block, which permits to acknowledge their receiving. At the network level, each data block must be provided with address information that enables secure delivery and the ability to respond to the transmitter.

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The data link layer also adds its proprietary information, ensuring compliance with the relevant data of the data link layer functions: indicates the boundaries of the data block, implements hardware addressing and so on. At the physical layer, service information added to the network- transmitted portion of the data is not so easy to determine. However, in a number of technologies, which we will explore later, such service information can be considered, for example, the transmission of the synchronization sequence that is preceded directly by the transmission of data. We can see that each layer of the OSI model interprets the data received from the top layer unstructured and complements the data with its service information. This service information required for the proper processing of the data by the recipient is known as headers of the corresponding layer (for example, the application layer header, network layer header, and so on). The process of adding of these headers into the information traffic is called encapsulation. It is obvious that each header is only valid for the appropriate layer of the system-recipient; the upper layers do not required the headers of the lower layers. Therefore, each level of the system — recipient, having handled the appropriate header, discards it and transmits the data to the upper layer without its header. This process is called decapsulation (the term is used less often than the «encapsulation») We represent this process graphically:

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Data Header7 Data Header6 Header7 Data Header5 Header6 Header7 Data Header4 Header5 Header6 Header7 Data
Data
Header7
Data
Header6
Header7
Data
Header5
Header6
Header7
Data
Header4
Header5
Header6
Header7
Data
Header3
Header4
Header5
Header6
Header7
Data
Header2
Header3
Header4
Header5
Header7
Header7
Data
Header1
Header2
Header3
Header4
Header5
Header7
Header7
Data

From this we can draw the following conclusion: the coefficient of efficiency of any network technology will always be less than 100%. Obviously, this is due to the fact that the service headers will be transferred to the network in addition to useful data. Units of data of each level within the model are called «protocol data units» or PDU of the appropriate level. The data units of the three upper layers do not have separate names and are simply called data. The data units of other layers have their own names. Let us list them. Transport layer data unit is called a segment or datagram. The data unit of the network layer is called a packet. The data unit of the link layer is called a frame. The data unit of the physical layer is a bit.

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Everything seems to be simple. Before you transfer the data to the lower layer, you only need to add the appropriate service information. But here the question arises — can we ensure that the manner, in which data is processed in the transmission, will be correctly used for interaction of the layers? In other words, is there always an interface between two similar layers implemented in the same way? That is, are interfaces between the layers standardized? On the one hand, the convenience of this approach is obvious:

involving standardized interfaces, full independence between the layers is achieved, and modification of each layer can ignore the other layers, while keeping standard interfaces for them. On the other hand, the OSI model is abstract, and OSI per se does not require interfaces within open systems to be standardized. Moreover, whenever standards for such interfaces are defined, adherence to such internal interface standards can in no way be considered as a condition of openness. How do things go in reality? In fact, only one standardized interface is provided for existing network technologies. This is the interface between the network and the data link layers. Even such a little thing benefits greatly. After all, what is the interface between the network and the data link layers? This is the interface between the hardware and software parts of the system! Therefore, standardization of this interface has led to the possibility of independent development of hardware and software as well as to the independence of the software manufacturers from hardware manufacturers and vice versa. We now turn to the consideration of protocols. It is clear a certain protocol functions at every layer. Therefore,

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to ensure the information transmission, these protocols must be properly coordinated with each other, that is, each protocol should not be viewed separately but as a set of interacting protocols. For such sets there is a definition — a protocol stack. To be more precise, there are two definitions: 1) protocol suite, defined as a hierarchical set of interrelated protocols, which is usually developed by a group of developers and 2) Protocol stack: A representation of the hierarchical nature of a protocol suite. Speaking correctly, suite is the definition of protocols and stack is software implementation of the protocol suite. In the English literature, these terms are often used interchangeably. However, considering the independence of the two lower layers of the OSI model from upper layers, the definition of the protocol stack can be replaced by more appropriate: a protocol stack is a hierarchical set of interconnected upper layer protocol, as a rule, developed, by a group of developers. It is understandable why such a clarification is necessary: in connection with the standardization of the interface between the 2nd and 3rd layers of the model, the development of protocols 1–2 and 3–7 layers is usually performed by different development teams. Thus, the name «protocol stack» has been left for the corresponding set of upper layers protocols; the set of the data link and physical layers protocols uses the name «network architecture». This terminology accurately reflects the situation in networking: in fact, the network architecture defines hardware implementation, the «face» of each existing network technology.

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The current situation is as follows: there is a variety of network architectures, differently implemented in hardware, and there are various protocol stacks from different manufacturers. The availability of a standardized interface between the hardware and software parts of the model allows the operation of any protocol stack on top of any network architecture. Stacks TCP/IP, IPX / SPX, NetBIOS / SMB serve as examples. Ethernet, PPP, Frame Relay, ATM and many other technologies present network architecture types. In this course we will consider the network architecture in local network areas but let us first briefly look at some popular protocol stacks. We will begin with the protocol stack TCP/IP. Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/ IP) is the industry stack protocol standard most widely used at the present time, which have been developed for wide area networks. The standards TCP/IP are published in a series of documents called Request for Comment (RFC). The first versions of the stack protocol appeared in the mid- 1970s of the last century, at the initiative of the US Department of Defense (DoD) that is why the stack is sometimes called «stack DoD». In 1969, after the construction of the first network ARPANET, the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) was interested in the creation of a reliable packet- switched network for the data interchange between heterogeneous computer systems installed in research institutes. In order to develop connectivity between heterogeneous networks, DARPA funded research at the Stanford University, as well as the company Bolt, Beranek and Newman (BBN). The result of this research is a set of protocols Internet.

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The TCP/IP stack is a set of protocols, which is the most common today, because the protocols of the stack are used to exchange data between any connected network and equally well suit for networks of any size.

The University of Berkeley has made a significant contribution to the development of TCP / IP stack by implementing stack protocols in its own version of the OS UNIX. The widespread occurrence of the operating system UNIX led to the widespread occurrence of the IP protocol and other stack protocols. A global network of Internet operates at the same stack. So, how can we explain the widespread occurrence and the great part of the stack TCP/IP? :

■ it is the most complete standard network stack protocol, which has a long history;

■ this stack is a set of open standards that can be freely used by any developer;

■ almost all networks broadcast the major part of their

traffic with the protocol TCP/IP, moreover, it is a method of gaining access to the largest global network — Internet, i.e.,

the stack is de facto standard;

■ all modern operating systems support the TCP/IP stack

Since the TCP/IP stack was designed before the advent of the OSI model, the conformance of the stack layers of TCP/ IP to the layers of the OSI model is rather arbitrary, although it also has a layered structure. The reason lies in the different number of the layers in the models so different sources represent this conformance in different ways. TCP/IP protocols are divided into four levels.

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I

Application level

II

Transport level

III

Internet level

IV

Network access level

The lowest, fourth layer corresponds not to the layer /layers of the model OSI but to the interface between the second and third layers of the model. The methods of data transmission over different network architectures are described at this level of the TCP/IP model. This layer supports all common standards of physical and data link layers, in other words — any network architecture. Typically, when a new technology of local area networks or wide area networks appears, it is soon included to the TCP/IP stack due to the development of the relevant RFC, which determines the method of encapsulation of IP packets in its frames. It is often said that the lower layer of the TCP / IP model corresponds to the physical and data link layers of the OSI model; however, this interpretation fails: at the lower layer of the TCP/IP model, the technology of data link/physical layers is not described. Joining of the TCP/IP stack with the existing technology of the data link / physical layers are subject for discussion in this case, which corresponds to the interface between the second and the third layers of the model OSI.

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The next, the third is the level of the internetting (the literal translation of the term «internet», which should not be confused with «the Internet» with a capital letter denoting the largest composite network), engaged in the transmission of packets by means of different technologies. This layer is fully consistent with the network layer of the model OSI. As the main layer protocol in the stack, the IP protocol is used, which was originally designed as a protocol of transmission packets in composite networks, consisting of a large number of different networks, combined by means of various network technologies. The IP protocol is a so-called «datagram» protocol, which means that it does not provide preset communication, flow control, does not guarantee delivery of packets to the destination node. The internetting layer includes all protocols helping to solve the problems of routing in the composite networks — so-called «dynamic routing protocols» such as RIP, OSPF, BGP and others, which we will examine later as well as the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) used for network diagnostics and informing about errors. The next layer (layer II) is called the transport layer. The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) operate at this layer. TCP provides reliable transmission of the messages between remote application processes through the formation of logical connections. The UDP protocol provides application packets transmission in a datagram way as IP does, and only acts as a connecting-link between the network protocol and numerous application processes.

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Most often in the literature, you will find that the transport layer of the TCP / IP model is associated with the transport layer of the model OSI but it is very lame comparison. Let us analyze this information. The TCP protocol supports three main functions:

■ addresses the top-layer entities (applications, as a rule)

■ establishes logical connections between the applications

■ guarantees the data delivery to the application by acknowledgment of a receipt. Based on the abovementioned information, what layers of the model OSI it should be attributed to? The function of the delivery support refers to the transport layer of the model OSI. The function of the setting logical connections between the applications refers to session layer of the model OSI. Addressing applications, between which the session layer establishes the connections, should also be referred to the session layer. It is clear that in order to establish a logical connection between the applications, they must be identified first. Thus, TCP acts as the transport and session layers of the model OSI. Now a few words should be said about the second layer of the protocol under study — UDP. This is a simple datagram protocol; it does not establish logical connections between applications and does not guarantee the delivery of data to applications that use it. However, it performs one of the functions of TCP listed above: the protocol UDP addresses applications that exchange data without the connection and delivery support. Thus, the UDP protocol should be referred to the session layer of the model OSI, though it does not fulfill the main task of the session layer — it does not establish logical connections between applications, but, nevertheless, the UDP protocol performs addressing top-level

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applications. Thus, the transport layer of the TCP / IP model should be compared with a pair of the session / transport layers of the model OSI. The TCP protocol, which operates at this layer, fully performs the functions both of the transport and session layers of the model OSI, and the UDP protocol, which operates at this layer, performs only a secondary function of the session layer of the model OSI. The upper layer, the first, is called the application layer. During the years of use in different networks, a large number of the of applications level protocols was developed in the TCP/IP stack. They include such widely used protocols as the file transfer protocol (FTP), the protocol of the terminal emulation telnet, the mail transfer protocol SMTP, the client mail protocols such as POP3 and IMAP4, the hypertext protocol HTTP, the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), the name resolution protocol (DNS), the network management protocol (SNMP), etc. As an individual large course will be dedicated to the further study of these protocols, we are not going to mention them now. In terms of the models comparison, the functions of the first-layer of the TCP / IP model correspond to the presentation and application layers of the model OSI. Next, let us make a graphical representation of the conformance of the layers of the TCP / IP model and the layers of the model OSI.

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OSI model

TCP/IP model

Application

Application

Presentation

Session

Transport

Transport

Network

Internet

L2-L3 Interface

Link

Data-link

 

Physical

 

Now let us consider the following protocol stack, which used to hold a dominant market position, the stack IPX / SPX. This stack is the original protocol stack manufactured by the company Novell, which it developed for its NetWare network operating system in the early 1980s. The protocols Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) and Sequenced Packet Exchange (SPX), which gave the name to the stack, were a direct adaptation of the protocols XNS produced by the company Xerox, which were distributed to much smaller extent than IPX / SPX. In the 1980s and early 1990s, the IPX / SPX protocols were in the lead in the number of installations. It was due to the fact that the OS Novell NetWare had a market dominance with a share of installations exceeded 80% across the globe. Due to the fact that the IPX / SPX stack was proprietary (i.e. the property of the developer), its use was limited for the third-party developers, and purchasing a license was required. At that time, the market obtained a powerful competitor — the stack TCP / IP, which had a number of advantages in addition to open standards, and the popularity of the IPX / SPX stack slowed down. This stack is almost never used today.

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The family of protocols developed by the Novell and their conformance with the OSI model is shown in the figure.

7–5

SAP

NCP

4

SPX

 

3

IPX, RIP, NLSP

1

Ethernet, FDDI, Token Ring и др.

The NCP and SAP protocol operate at the top layer, which corresponds to the application, presentation and session layers of OSI. The protocol NCP (NetWare Core Protocol) is a protocol of interaction between a NetWare server and workstation shell. By means of this protocol, the workstation connects to the server, displays the server directories to the drive local letters, browses the file system of the server, copies the deleted files, change their attributes, etc. and carries out the separation of the network printer between the workstations. SAP (the Service Advertising Protocol) enables network devices to exchange information about existing network services. Servers and routers use SAP to advertise their services and network addresses. The SAP protocol allows network devices to update permanently the data about the maintenance services available online. When starting, the servers use SAP to notify the rest of the network about their services online. When the server shuts down, it uses SAP to notify the network of the termination of its services. The transport layer of the OSI model in the Novell stack corresponds to the protocol SPX, which transmits messages with the connection establishment. Note the interesting feature of the implementation of the IPX / SPX stack: functioning of

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this layer is not mandatory. Application layer services can access directly to the network layer, where the protocol IPX is running. Besides the IPX protocol, routing information communications protocols RIP and NLSP work at the network layer in the IPX / SPX stack. IPX is a protocol that deals with packets addressing and routing in the Novell networks. IPX routing decisions are based on the address fields in the header of its packet, as well as information from the routing information communications protocols. For example, IPX uses the information supplied by the protocol RIP or protocol NLSP (NetWare Link State Protocol) for the packets transmission to the destination computer or to the next router. The IPX protocol only supports datagram messaging method so it consumes computing resources economically. Thus, the IPX protocol provides three functions: setting the address, specifying the route and datagrams distribution. The features of the IPX/SPX stack are conditioned with the peculiarities of the operating system NetWare, namely the orientation of its earlier versions (up to 4.0) for work in local networks of small size, consisting of personal computers with modest resources. Therefore, Novell needed protocols, which required minimum amount of RAM (limited to 640 KB in the MS-DOS IBM-compatible computers) and would operate fast with the processors of insignificant computing power. As a result, the early protocols of the IPX/SPX stack worked well in small local area networks, while they functioned much worse in global networks, as they overloaded slow connections with broadcast packets, which were used extensively by several protocols of the stack (for example, for communication between clients and servers). This drawback of the stack also affected its popularity along with the need to obtain a license for its using.

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Let us turn to the next popular stack, which is still used nowadays. The NetBIOS / SMB stack appeared in 1984, due to the development of the company IBM, which designed a software interface (API) NetBIOS — Network Basic Input / Output System three year later after the release of the first computer IBM PC in order to expand the standard functions of the basic input/output system (BIOS). This extension was used for communication between network resources but did not provide the low-level network data transmission protocol. Such protocol was released in 1985; it was merged with the NetBIOS in conjunction NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface). NetBEUI was created counting upon small workgroups (up to 255 nodes) and had no routing functions. Later, Microsoft released an add-on-the protocol SMB (Server Message Block), which implemented a number of high- level services, such as file service, print service and messaging between applications; it used for the NetBIOS resources. The SMB protocol is used in the Windows operating systems. It is a proprietary (closed) standard and Microsoft provides SMB specifications only to its certified partners. SMB is being constantly improved (updates come with each new version of Windows). The NetBIOS/SMB Stack and its projection on the OSI model can be represented as follows:

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7

6

SMB

5

NetBIOS

4

3

2

1

As we can see, all lower layers are lacking in the NetBIOS / SMB stack! Although we are used to the lack of the specification of the data link and physical layers, it is the first time we have faced the lack of the network layer. The question is the next:

is it good or bad? Is this stack «full»? In fact, the right answer to this question does not exist. You should understand that we cannot consider the terms «good» and «bad» in abstracto, without referring to a certain situation. Correct, the stack does not have the network layer. However, let us remember why it is needed. We have introduced this layer to combine networks in order to make it possible to create complex composite networks. Why do we need the network level in local area networks? After all, routing is not required in the local area networks and the protocol can run on top of the data link layer frame, saving computing resources of the hosts! You may ask: what shall we do if we need to route the data of the stack? The solution suggests itself — the data can be routed over any network protocol of any stack as application data! That is, we can see that this construction provides great flexibility of the stack application. For example, both options are included in the stack implementation in the Microsoft Windows operating

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system: you can use the data protocol transmission directly over the data link layer (NetBIOS over Frame, NetBF) or over the network layer (NetBIOS over TCP/IP, NetBT). The SMB protocol, which is appropriate to the application and

presentation layers of the model OSI, regulates the interaction of the workstation and the server. The SMB functions include the following operations:

■ Session Management. Creation and breakup of the logical

channel between the workstation and network resources of the file server.

■ File access. The workstation can access to the file server

with requests for creating and deleting directories, creating,

opening and closing files, reading and writing into files, renaming, and deleting files, file search, getting and setting file attributes, blocking entries.

■ Printing Service. The workstation can queue all files for

the print server and obtain information on the print queue.

■ Messenger service. SMB supports simple messaging with

the following functions: to send a simple message; to send a broadcast message; to send the beginning of the message block; to send a text of the message block; to send the end of the message block; to send the user name; to cancel the sending; to get the name of the machine. Despite the commercial status of the SMB protocol, there is a freely available software package Samba, which provides limited support for the services SMB for the OS Unix/Linux. Since the TPC/IP stack TPC/IP protocols are the main protocols in the Unix-systems, NetBIOS over TCP/IP is used in Samba to provide compatibility.

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5. Networks classifications

Now we are familiar with the problems that arise in the network design, the models used in it and the corresponding terminology, let us move on to a new topic — the networks

classification.

It is clear that the networks classification should be based on some criterion. It is also obvious that these characteristics should be useful in the future and provide some essential information. To draw an analogy, for example, with cars classification, then along with useful classifications — for example, of carrying capacity, type of vehicle, fuel used, there may be the meaningless classification as well: for example, of seat covering color, tilt of the driver’s seat and the shape of the radio antenna. Certainly, we are interested in meaningful classifications. Let us give some examples

■ Territorial distribution

■ Departmental belonging

■ Production functions

■ Information rate

■ Transmission medium types

■ Organization of the interaction of computers

■ Used equipment

■ Used software

We will discuss some of them. Networks can be local, global, and regional by territorial distribution. Local network is a network, which covers an area of thousands of square meters.

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Regional network is a network located in the city or region. Global network is a network covering an area of about tens of thousands of square kilometers. In the classification of networks, three basic terms are used today: LAN, MAN and WAN. LAN (Local Area Network): local networks with closed infrastructure before contacting service providers. The term «LAN» can describe small office network as well as the network at the level of a large factory, which occupies several hundred acres. One of the features of local networks is the use of high- speed channels. As a rule, the infrastructure of local networks has a single owner.

MAN (Metropolitan Area Network): regional networks, networks of

the city scale. As a rule, they are associations of local networks, with one or more owners. WAN (Wide Area Network): global networks. The main feature of the global network is the availability of communication lines rented from telecommunications provider. When designing a local network, the owner can afford purchasing a required amount of cable and secure cabling. However, providing cabling at a distance of tens and thousands of kilometers is extremely expensive or even an impossible- doing task due to the existing legal and technical constraints. It is much easier to take advantage of the existing infrastructure by renting necessary resources from the provider (Ukrtelecom, Farlep, etc.). The characteristic features of the global networks include complexity of the used technology and equipment, originally due to low-quality communication lines. The first global networks were built on the networks for voice transmission,

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which poorly suited for data transmission. It conditions the high cost of the equipment (compare the price of the cheapest modem with the price of the most expensive network adapter) as compared with the equipment for local area networks. The same reasons explain why information rate over the global communication lines is substantially lower than information rate over the local area networks.

More recently, another term has been coined — PAN (Personal Area Network). Such networks operate at distances of 1–20 meters, a typical example is the technology of Bluetooth. The classification on a factory basis is similar to the abovementioned classification:

■ workgroup network

■ enterprise network (sometimes called campus networks)

■ corporate networks

Workgroup networks usually represent the network of the size of local networks, with additional features of homogeneity (uniformity) of the used software and equipment. In fact, the department performs some tasks of the same type requiring similar software and computers. Typically, workgroup networks do not presuppose separate administrator and his functions are performed by either the administrator of the enterprise, or by the most qualified employee of the department. Enterprise network is a union of workgroups; their size may be like a size of the regional scale networks. The distinctive feature of the enterprise networks is the mandatory presence of administrator or administrative group for the operation of the network in the enterprise. Corporate networks can reach the scale of global networks. The mandatory feature of corporate network is the presence

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of the group of administrators to ensure its functioning in the specified mode, up to its continuous operation (24/7). By the information rate, computer networks can be divided into low, medium and high-speed.

■ low-speed (up to 100 Mbit / s)

■ medium-speed (up to 1000 Mbit / s)

■ high-speed (up to 1000 Mbit / s)

Of course, the given number are rather conditional, the speed of today's networks are constantly growing. From the perspective of the interaction of computers, networks are divided into peer (Peer-to-Peer Network) and with a dedicated server (Dedicated Server Network). All computers are equivalent in the peer-to-peer network. Sser can access the data stored on any computer. The advantages of peer networks are their simplicity in installation and operating. The disadvantage is information security maintenance is complicated in such networks. Therefore, this networking method is used for the systems with a small number of computers and where the question of data protection is not critical. In the hierarchical network, when installing the network one or more computers are allocated in advance, they control the exchange of data across the network and the distribution of the resources. Such computer is called a server. Any computer with access to the server services is called network client or workstation. In the hierarchical networks, the server is a permanent repository of shared resources. The server can be a client of the server of a higher level of the hierarchy. Therefore, hierarchical networks are sometimes called networks with a dedicated server. Typically, servers are high-performance computers, possibly with multiple processors

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operating in parallel, with the high-capacity hard drives, and a high-speed netcard (1000 Mbit / s or more). The hierarchical model of the network is the most preferred, as it allows to create the most stable network structure and more rational allocation of resources. Another advantage of

the hierarchical network is a higher level of the data protection. As compared with peer networks, the disadvantages of the hierarchical network include:

1. The need for an additional operating system for the server.

2. Increased complexity of the installation and upgrading of the network.

3. The need for a separate computer as a server. We have studied some classifications; each of them will be

used considering various aspects of the network. Now let us turn to the question regarding the requirements for the networks: what do we expect and want from them.

Requirements for networks In fact, the only requirement is established for the network —

it must provide us with the range of services that we need. Implementation of all other requirements is designed to provide us with the maximum comfort and convenience when using the network. Let us look at them, starting with the requirement for performance. Performance is an integral network characteristic consisting of several other characteristics, which include.

■ traffic speed

■ bandwidth

■ delay

■ jitter (delay variation)

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The speed of traffic is measured at some time intervals by dividing the total volume of the data transferred by the time of their transfer. Users usually complain of the deterioration of the traffic speed when they say that the network is slow. Bandwidth is the maximum speed of the network technology, defined by a certain standard, on which the network is based. The bandwidth reflects the maximum possible amount of data transmitted by the network or its part in a unit of time. Bandwidth is not a user characteristic, like the delay or information rate over the network, as it indicates the speed of the internal operations execution. Bandwidth is measured in bits per second and is independent of the network load. Transmission delay is defined as the time interval between sending the user request to the network and receiving a response to it. Obviously, the value of this indicator depends on the service, which the request is sent to, and on the current state of the network. Therefore, the average delay time is commonly used. Delay variation is the difference between the minimum and maximum delay of some period of time. Not all types of traffic are sensitive to transmission delays:

delays in the exchange of files, sending e-mail or Web pages do not affect the quality of work. On the other hand, the delay and jitter in the exchange of voice data can cause significant distortions of voices, echoing and low or even unacceptable communication quality. All performance characteristics of the network are virtually independent. There may be networks with low traffic rate and low latency, with high traffic rate and high latency (e.g., satellite networks), with low traffic rate and high latency, etc.

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Reliability There are several aspects of reliability. Such parameters as the probability of failure of the device, or the maximum time between failures can be used for simple devices. However, such criteria are unsuitable for reliability evaluation in the complex systems such as networks consisting of millions of simple devices. To assess network reliability, two indicators are used most often. One of them is the readiness index (sometimes called the coefficient of the network availability). It characterizes network reliability over a long period of time, estimating the percentage of the time, during which the network can be used:

RI = 100% x (TD–ND) / TD, where RI — readiness index TD — total duration ND — network downtime The second indicator is used to assess the reliability of the network at the current period of time. It is determined by the probability of packet delivery:

PD = 100% x (SP–LP)/OP where

PD — packet delivery factor SP — the number of the sent packets LP — the number of lost packets These two parameters characterize network reliability with sufficient accuracy. Another requirement for the network is its security. As there will be a separate course on the security, you should note that the network security issue is not the information security

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issue only. Moreover, sometimes even the information security issue is reduced only to the aspect of data privacy, forgetting other aspects of the network security, which also includes technical security referring to the protection of the equipment and infrastructure, life safety referring to the protection of users and personnel and other aspects of the overall security, in addition to information security. Let us examine the extensibility and scalability. These two requirements will be considered together, since they are close to each other. We understand the possibility of relatively easy addition of the network component — stations, intermediate devices, etc. under the extensibility. Scalability is the ability to add network components without its performance degradation.

That is, the scalability is extensibility without performance penalty.

You should understand that almost all network solutions are automatically expandable, while the scalability of the network requires careful planning. For example, when building the peer network for 10 computers, it will be extensible, if we want to connect another 6 computers and construct it, using a 16-port switch. Imagine that we want to transform the peer network into the network with a dedicated server, and all other computers will be able to access it through a single port. We will be able to achieve the scalability, only if we pre-plan the purchase of the additional switch with one more high-speed port. By transparency we mean the possibility for network users to use it in such a way that, regardless of the resources location, either locally or in the network, access to the resource and its use occur in the same way. From the point of user’s view, the transparency is an option to use network resources in the same manner as local ones are used. The slogan IBM slogan

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states about the transparency: «The network is a computer!» Transparency is a network property to hide the details of its internal structure from the user, without interfering with the user's work. The network must conceal all features of operating systems and differences in equipment. Controllability of the network presupposes the possibility of centralized management and control of all network components, the option to automate basic tasks of network management and configuration, making it easier for the administrator and more effective as well. To improve the controllability of the network, many protocols and hardware-software complexes, which are especially required in large, geographically dispersed networks, have been designed. Compatibility (integrability) means that the network can include the most diverse software and hardware, and it may jointly operate multiple operating systems that support different x protocols stacks, equipment from different manufacturers and applications from different vendors. A network, consisting of elements of different types, is called heterogeneous or heterogeneous. Thus, compatibility determines the effective functioning of a heterogeneous network.

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6. Home assessment

Study the materials on the Module 1 of the course CCNA1 R & S and take the corresponding module exam on the portal netacad.com.

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