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DISSIPATION FACTOR MEASUREMENTS OF TRANSFORMER OIL

by

FRANK EDWARD SMITH

A T H E S I S SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF

THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF

MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE

i n t h e Department

of

Electrical Engineering

We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e
standard r e q u i r e d from candidates f o r t h e
d e g r e e o f MASTER OF A P P L I E D SCIENCE

y/?• c

THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA

April, 1951
ABSTRACT

The p r e s e n t methods o f a s c e r t a i n i n g t h e p r o b a b l e

sludging of transformer o i l s are laborious. A simple t e s t ,

comparable t o t h a t used I n o b t a i n i n g the d i e l e c t r i c strength,

w o u l d be o f c o n s i d e r a b l e value i n reducing t e s t manpower,

equipment and expense.

P r e s e n t I n v e s t i g a t o r s measure such p r o p e r t i e s as

oxygen a b s o r p t i o n , colour change, i n c r e a s e i n acidity, carbon

dioxide e v o l v e d , w a t e r formed, t h e power f a c t o r , and t h e

lnterfacial-tension value.

Numerous d i e l e c t r i c m a t e r i a l s e x h i b i t anomalous

dispersions. The a t t e n d a n t r i s e i n d i s s i p a t i o n f a c t o r

encountered a t the points o f d i s p e r s i o n i s h e l p f u l i n deter-

m i n i n g t h e amounts and t y p e s o f p o l a r i z a t i o n p r e s e n t .

Transformer o i l s , although I n i t i a l l y non-polar, a r e subject

to o x i d a t i o n . This o x i d a t i o n produces m a t e r i a l s of polar

m o l e c u l a r s t r u c t u r e w h i c h g o v e r n t h e power l o s s i n a l t e r n a t i n g

current electric fields. The p r o b l e m i s one o f c o r r e l a t i n g

such l o s s e s to t h e s t a t e o f t h e o i l under t e s t .

This thesis deals with the Investigations carried

out on t h e above problem. Absorption bands f o r t r a n s f o r m e r

o i l s have been found. The p r e s e n t w o r k d e s c r i b e s the presence

and l o c a t i o n o f such a b s o r p t i o n bands, a n d I l l u s t r a t e s how t h e

dipolar state of the o i l a f f e c t s the p o s i t i o n of the l o s s

peaks.
6S.

v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The a u t h o r w i s h e s to express h i s appreciation to

all t h o s e who h a v e a s s i s t e d h i m t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u r s e o f

the research; e s p e c i a l l y t o Dr. P r a n k Noakes f o r h i s

g u i d a n c e and encouragement.

A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t i s a l s o made t o t h e N a t i o n a l

Research Council o f C a n a d a whose g r a n t made t h e i n v e s t i g a -

tion possible.
TABLE OF .CONTENTS

A. INTRODUCTION •» Page 1

B. GENERAL THEORY OF THE PROBLEM

1. Transformer O i l s 5

2. Capacitors 10

3. Dielectrics 12

K 0-Meter 12
5. S e r i e s a n d P a r a l l e l I m p e d a n c e Components 21

C. DESCRIPTION OF THE EQUIPMENT

1. Low F r e q u e n c y E q u i p m e n t 22

2. O i lC e l l 23

3. Low T e m p e r a t u r e E q u i p m e n t 2^

h. Type l 6 0 - A Qr-Meter 25

D. PARTICULAR THEORY OF THE PROBLEM

1. Transformer O i l s 27

2. 0-Meter Tests 29

E. TESTS AND RESULTS

1. Low F r e q u e n c i e s 33

2. High Frequencies 35

3. Low T e m p e r a t u r e s 3^

F. CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION 3 6

i DIAGRAMS ^3

li GLOSSARY 63

ill LITERATURE CITED 6h

iv BIBLIOGRAPHY. 65

v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 6g
L I S T GF ILLUSTRATIONS

TABLE 1 « Dielectric C o n s t a n t s and R e f r a c t i v e I n d i c e s Page 4-3

FIG. 1 - Capacitor Characteristics 44

FIG. 2- Capacitor Characteristics 44

FIG. 3 - Dielectric Characteristics 44

FIG. 4- - Qr-Meter M e a s u r i n g C i r c u i t 4-5

FIG. 5 - Qr-Meter M e a s u r i n g C i r c u i t 4-5

FIG. 6 - S e r i e s a n d P a r a l l e l C o m p o n e n t s ............ 4-5

FIG. 7 « Low F r e q u e n c y M e a s u r i n g E q u i p m e n t 4-5

FIG. g - Capacitor Connections 46

FIG. 9 - Oil Cell 4-7

FIG. 10 - O i l C e l l .. 4-8"

FIG. 11 - Low T e m p e r a t u r e E q u i p m e n t 4-6

FIG. 12 - B a s i c Q r - M e t e r Circuit 4-9

FIG. 13 - A n a l y t i c Circuit o f Qr-Meter 4-9

FIG. 14- - Qr-Meter M e a s u r i n g C i r c u i t s 5°

FIG. 15 - E q u i v a l e n t Qr-Meter M e a s u r i n g C i r c u i t ...... 5Q

FIG. 16 - . Q - M e t e r a n d O i l C e l l 51

FIG. 17 - Low T e m p e r a t u r e E q u i p m e n t ....... ...... 5 2

GRAPH 1 - D i e l e c t r i c Constant and D i s s i p a t i o n Factor


Against Frequency 53

GRAPH 2 - D i s s i p a t i o n Factor Against Temperature .... 54-

GRAPH 3 - Dissipation Factor Against Temperature .... 55

GRAPH 4 - D i s s i p a t i o n F a c t o r A g a i n s t T e m p e r a t u r e .... 56

GRAPH 5 - D i s s i p a t i o n Factor Against Temperature .... 57

GRAPH 6 - Dissipation Factor Against T e m p e r a t u r e .... 5&

GRAPH 7 * D i s s i p a t i o n Factor Against Temperature .... 59

GRAPH 8" «. D i s s i p a t i o n F a c t o r A g a i n s t L o g F r e q u e n c y .. 60

GRAPH 9 - D i s s i p a t i o n F a c t o r A g a i n s t L o g F r e q u e n c y .. 6l

GRAPH 10 - D i s s i p a t i o n F a c t o r A g a i n s t L o g F r e q u e n c y .. 62
A. INTRODUCTION

The p r e s e n t methods o f a s c e r t a i n i n g t h e p r o b a b l e

sludging o f transformer o i l s are laborious. A simple test,

comparable t o t h a t used i n o b t a i n i n g the d i e l e c t r i c strength

w o u l d be o f c o n s i d e r a b l e v a l u e i n r e d u c i n g t e s t manpower,

equipment and expense.

Transformer o i l , because o f i t s complex chemical

structure, i s s u b j e c t e d t o many d i f f e r e n t types o f t e s t I n

order to test i t s r e l i a b i l i t y i n service. I n addition to the

dielectric strength test, two c l a s s e s o f t e s t a r e i n u s e a t

the present time. The f i r s t o f t h e s e i s t h e measurement o f

t h e power f a c t o r o f t h e o i l . The s e c o n d i s t h e measurement

of the oxidation, o r sludging c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the o i l .

Any c o n t a m i n a t i o n o f a t r a n s f o r m e r o i l w i l l increase

i t s p o w e r f a c t o r a n d t h i s i n c r e a s e d power f a c t o r w i l l indicate

deterioration. The p r o b l e m i s n o t t h a t o f f i n d i n g t h e change

in t h e o i l from i t s o r i g i n a l c o n d i t i o n , b u t t h a t o f f i n d i n g
2.

those changes w h i c h w i l l I n d i c a t e t h a t t h e dangerous o p e r a t -

i n g l i m i t o f the o i l i s b e i n g approached. F o r example, most

t r a n s f o r m e r w i n d i n g s c o n t a i n p r o d u c t s w h i c h , when d i s s o l v e d

in oil, cause a power f a c t o r i n c r e a s e , a l t h o u g h t h e i r effect

upon d i e l e c t r i c ' s t r e n g t h and s l u d g e f o r m a t i o n i s n e g l i g i b l e .

In a c t u a l operation, the o i l i s b e i n g o x i d i z e d and s u b j e c t e d

to water a b s o r p t i o n . B o t h o f these e f f e c t s produce an I n c r e a s e

i n power f a c t o r ; however, t h e I n c r e a s e i n power f a c t o r i s depen-

dent upon t h e method o f o x i d a t i o n . When t e s t s a r e c o n d u c t e d

i n t h e l a b o r a t o r y , t h e method o f o x i d a t i o n v a r i e s w i d e l y .

Water, the l i g h t e r o i l a c i d s , and o t h e r v o l a t i l e s a r e a l l o w e d

t o e s c a p e d u r i n g a number o f t h e s e t e s t s . In a d d i t i o n , at the

h i g h temperatures o f the u s u a l o x i d a t i o n t e s t the tendency i s

t o w a r d l e s s a c i d i f i c a t i o n a n d more s l u d g e s e p a r a t i o n . For a

g i v e n amount o f o x i d a t i o n , t h e power f a c t o r i n c r e a s e s f o r

larger values of acidification. Water a b s o r p t i o n c a u s e s an

I n c r e a s e i n power f a c t o r w h i c h i s n o t d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e

decrease i n d i e l e c t r i c s t r e n g t h brought about; t h e r e f o r e , t h e

power f a c t o r t e s t i s not c o n c l u s i v e i n p r o t e c t i n g against

water effects.

S l u d g e t e a t s c o n s i s t o f two d i s t i n c t typess

(l) the sludging propensity t e s t which evaluates the t e n ~

d e n c y o f a new k i n d o f o i l t o form sludge i n terms o f

the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f an a c c e p t e d o i l , and

(ii) the commercial t e s t which determines the u s e f u l l i f e of

t h e o i l t h a t h a s b e e n consumed up t o t h e t i m e o f t e s t .
In the f i r s t test, new o i l i s being s t u d i e d , whereas

in the second t e s t , the o i l s contain contamination products.

The type o f o x i d a t i o n p r e s e n t i n the used o i l i s dependent

n o t o n l y u p o n t h e m a t e r i a l s o f w h i c h t h e o i l I s made, b u t also

upon t h e n a t u r e o f t h e o i l , t h e o p e r a t i n g t i m e , and the tempera-

ture of the transformer.

S l u d g i n g p r o p e n s i t y o f new transformer o i l s i s

s t u d i e d by o x i d i z i n g the o i l under c o n t r o l l e d l a b o r a t o r y con-

ditions. At p r e s e n t , the t e s t procedures are not standardized

and the o i l s are o x i d i z e d at temperatures r a n g i n g f r o m 100 to

150 degress c e n t i g r a d e f o r times r a n g i n g from t h r e e hours t o

s e v e r a l months. P r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t o r s measure different

p r o p e r t i e s such as oxygen a b s o r p t i o n , c o l o u r change, Increase

in acidity, carbon d i o x i d e e v o l v e d , w a t e r f o r m e d , t h e power

factor, and the i n t e r f a c i a l - t e n s i o n value. This procedure

Imposes the d i f f i c u l t y of r e l a t i n g these p r o p e r t i e s to the

actual sludging present. In addition, the secondary products

o f o x i d a t i o n c a n n o t be o v e r l o o k e d . A s s o c i a t e d w i t h the o x i d a -

t i o n of transformer o i l i s the formation o f peroxides, metallic

soaps, a c i d s o f v a r y i n g v o l a t i l i t y and corroslvity, cracked

hydrocarbons, and i n s o l u b l e products or sludge. The acid

c o r r o s l v i t y i t s e l f may Increase to such l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n s

that the transformer l i f e i s endangered from t h i s source.

The A m e r i c a n S o c i e t y f o r T e s t i n g M a t e r i a l s has

developed two different tests. F o r s t u d y i n g new oils, this


s o c i e t y p r o p o s e s an o x i d a t i o n t e s t i n w h i c h t h e o i l i s s u b -

j e c t e d to a temperature o f 120 degrees centigrade i n the

presence o f a c o p p e r c a t a l y s t f o r a p e r i o d o f two w e e k s . In

the second t e s t , the c o n t i n u i t y o f the o i l ' s q u a l i t y i s s t u d i e d

by o x i d i z i n g t h e o i l a t 24-0 degrees centigrade f o r a d u r a t i o n

o f 24- h o u r s u n d e r 250 pounds o f oxygen p r e s s u r e .

P o w e r f a c t o r and interfaclal t e s t s a r e a f f e c t e d by

a c i d i t y changes i n the o i l . A c i d f o r m a t i o n i s dependent upon

the o r i g i n o f the crude oil, the degree o f r e f i n i n g , and the

o p e r a t i n g temperature of the transformer. Moreover, the acid

v a l u e i n c r e a s e s r a p i d l y t o a maximum v a l u e a n d t h e n remains

fairly stable. This process of acid s t a b i l i z a t i o n i s not

thoroughly understood, but i s a t t r i b u t e d , at present, to the

e q u i l i b r i u m s e t up b e t w e e n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a c i d and the removal

of a c i d i n sludge d e p o s i t s .

The i n t e r f a c i a l - t e n s i o n t e s t measures the f o r c e

required to p u l l a platinum r i n g of s p e c i f i e d dimensions,

through the I n t e r f a c e w h i c h e x i s t s between a l a y e r o f the o i l

and a l a y e r of water. D u r i n g o x i d a t i o n o f the o i l , organic

a c i d s w h i c h reduce the t e n s i o n at the i n t e r f a c e are being

formed. This reduction occurs asymptotically with time;

hence, i n the e a r l y stages of o x i d a t i o n , the interfacial-

t e n s i o n v a l u e changes r a p i d l y w i t h s m a l l i n c r e a s e s i n o x i d a -

tion. As t h e a c i d i t y becomes more p r o n o u n c e d , h o w e v e r , the

i n t e r f a c i a l - t e n s i o n v a l u e c h a n g e s more s l o w l y a n d the sensi-

t i v i t y of the t e s t I s decreased.
5

Numerous d i e l e c t r i c m a t e r i a l s e x h i b i t a n o m a l o u s

dispersions. The a t t e n d a n t r i s e i n d i s s i p a t i o n f a c t o r encoun-

tered at the points of dispersion i s h e l p f u l i n determining

t h e amounts and t y p e s o f p o l a r i z a t i o n p r e s e n t . Transformer

oils, although i n i t i a l l y non-polar, are subject to oxidation.

This o x i d a t i o n , i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , produces materials of polar

molecular structure. These s t r u c t u r e s g o v e r n t h e power loss

i n alternating current e l e c t r i c fields. The p r o b l e m i s one o f

c o r r e l a t i n g such l o s s e s t o t h e s t a t e o f t h e o i l under test.

Work o n t h i s p r o b l e m , c a r r i e d out under a grant from t h e

N a t i o n a l Research C o u n c i l o f C a n a d a , c o n s i s t e d c h i e f l y o f two

parts. I n the f i r s t p a r t o f t h e work, t e s t s were r u n on o i l

samples m a i n t a i n e d a t constant temperature and r e a d i n g s o f

d i s s i p a t i o n f a c t o r were t a k e n a s a f u n c t i o n o f f r e q u e n c y . The

frequency spectrum f r o m 20 c . p . s . t o 10 mc ^. was u t i l i z e d i n


1

these t e s t s . I n t h e second p a r t o f t h e work, t h e f r e q u e n c y

was m a i n t a i n e d c o n s t a n t a n d t h e v a r i a t i o n s i n d i s s i p a t i o n

f a c t o r w i t h v a r y i n g t e m p e r a t u r e s were observed.

B. i GENERAL THEORY OF THE PROBLEM

Transformer Oils

I f the i n i t i a l electrical and p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s

o f h i g h l y r e f i n e d o i l s c o u l d be m a i n t a i n e d , then t h e o i l s
w o u l d be s a t i s f a c t o r y l i q u i d i n s u l a t i o n f o r t r a n s f o r m e r s .

H o w e v e r , d e t e r i o r a t i o n commences e a r l y i n t h e l i f e of a trans-

former oil, as evidenced by changes I n t h e c h e m i c a l constit-

uents of the o i l . These changes y i e l d p r o d u c t s w h i c h a r e

detrimental to the d i e l e c t r i c p r o p e r t i e s of the o i l , i t s

ability t o f u n c t i o n as a c o o l a n t , and i t s i n f l u e n c e upon other

s o l i d I n s u l a t i o n In the transformer.

M i n e r a l o i l s c o n s i s t o f a complex m i x t u r e o f o r g a n i c

compounds c a l l e d h y d r o c a r b o n s . The f o u r m a i n t y p e s o f these

hydrocarbons are the p a r a f f i n i c , naphthenlc, olefinic, and

aromatic.

P a r a f f i n h y d r o c a r b o n s c o n s i s t o f open c h a i n and

branch c h a i n compounds a n d a r e r e p r e s e n t e d a s f o l l o w s ?

CH 3 - CH 2 - CH 2 - CH 2 „ CH 2 - CH^

(Hexane, open chain)

CH
3 ~ C H
2 " C H
"* C H
3
CH 2 - CH^

( E t h y l propane, branch chain)

Naphthenlc h y d r o c a r b o n s have c l o s e d c h a i n s t r u c t u r e s

a n d may be r e p r e s e n t e d b y c y c l o - o c t a n e ;
7.

Hg Hg

H 2 = C C=H 2

H
2 = C
X
C
= H
2
c — cr
II II
H„ H„

O l e f l n i c compounds, c h e m i c a l l y known a s t h e u n s a t u r a -

ted h y d r o c a r b o n s , c o n t a i n double bonds between a d j a c e n t carbon

atoms. T h e i r s t r u c t u r e may be r e p r e s e n t e d b y one o f t h e Isomers

of amylenej

C 3 CH — CH-»
OH- / 3

The a r o m a t i c h y d r o c a r b o n s c o n s i s t o f c l o s e d ring

s t r u c t u r e s such as benzene:

H
I
0
^ \
H - C C - H
I li.
H —C C — H

\/
I
H

The p r e s e n c e o f d o u b l e b o n d s b e t w e e n c a r b o n atoms

In a r o m a t i c s t r u c t u r e s d o e s n o t i m p l y t h e same d e g r e e of

c h e m i c a l I n s t a b i l i t y w h i c h e x i s t s i n t h e open c h a i n structures

of the o l e f l n i c hydrocarbons. The o l e f l n i c hydrocarbons


c o n t a i n i n g d o u b l e bonds a r e c h e m i c a l l y a c t i v e and t h e removal

o f t h e s e double bonds from t h e crude o i l c o n s t i t u t e s the

r e f i n i n g process. The r e f i n e d o i l s c o n s i s t l a r g e l y o f satura-

ted hydrocarbons.

The c o n s t i t u t i o n o f i n s u l a t i n g o i l s i s c o m p l e x a n d

r a r e l y does an o i l b e l o n g e n t i r e l y t o one o f t h e f o u r main

groups. This composite c h a r a c t e r o f the hydrocarbons i s i l l u s -

t r a t e d by p r o p y l c y c l o h e x a n e w h i c h c o n t a i n s f o u r p a r a f f i n i c and

s i x n a p h t h e n l c c a r b o n atoms:

Hg Hg

H„= C CH (CHg)^ — CH^


C — C
II II
H 2 H 2

Naphthenlc Paraffinic

O i l s o f t h i s c o m p o s i t e t y p e e x h i b i t t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e con-

stituents. The s i d e c h a i n s a r e more s u s c e p t i b l e t o c h e m i c a l

activity than the r i n g p o r t i o n s o f the molecules, e s p e c i a l l y

I f these side chains are o l e f l n i c .

The c r u d e o i l c o n t a i n s a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f o x i d i -

z a b l e c o n s t i t u e n t s and the r e f i n i n g p r o c e s s I s d i r e c t e d toward

t h e i r removal. M i n o r q u a n t i t i e s o f o x y g e n compounds, nitrogen

compounds, a n d s u l p h u r a r e a l s o removed f r o m t h e c r u d e distill-

ate during refinement. The d e s i r a b i l i t y o f r e m o v i n g a l l of the

n i t r o g e n a n d o x y g e n compounds i s d e p e n d e n t u p o n t h e i r precise
9

c h a r a c t e r f o r c e r t a i n o f t h e s e compounds, known a s n a t u r a l

inhibitors, are instrumental i n delaying the oxidation process.

T h e r e f o r e , o v e r - r e f i n i n g may remove c e r t a i n c o n s t i t u e n t s w h i c h

c o n f e r c h e m i c a l s t a b i l i t y on the o i l .

Two f u n d a m e n t a l c a u s e s a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e

deterioration of mineral Insulating o i l . The f i r s t cause, a

p h y s i c a l phenomenon, r e s u l t s f r o m e l e c t r i c a l d i s c h a r g e s w h i c h

lower the d i e l e c t r i c strength of the o i l . The s e c o n d cause,

a c h e m i c a l phenomenon, r e s u l t s f r o m o x i d a t i o n a n d i s t h e c h i e f

f a c t o r encountered i n the d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f transformer o i l s .

Oxidation involves the chemical combination of

a t m o s p h e r i c oxygen w i t h c o n s t i t u e n t s o f t h e t r a n s f o r m e r o i l .

The r a t e a t w h i c h a c h e m i c a l r e a c t i o n p r o c e e d s i s d e p e n d e n t

upon t h e t e m p e r a t u r e . T h e o r e t i c a l l y , f o r simple substances,

the r a t e o f r e a c t i o n I s d o u b l e d f o r e v e r y 10 d e g r e e c e n t i g r a d e

rise. Hence, a t normal o p e r a t i n g t e m p e r a t u r e s , o x i d a t i o n

proceeds slowly. Generally speaking, h i g h l y r e f i n e d o i l s at

high temperatures y i e l d a c i d s and o i l s o l u b l e materials,

whereas l e s s h i g h l y r e f i n e d o i l s at the lower temperatures

yield greater proportions o f o i l Insoluble products, o r sludge.

The i n i t i a l products of oxidation are organic acids of high

volatility, water, and o r g a n i c p e r o x i d e s . During t h i s period,

a l c o h o l s , k e t o n e s and a l d e h y d e s a l s o appear. Then e s t e r s ,

w h i c h a r e compounds o f a c i d s a n d a l c o h o l s , may be formed.

Finally, e i t h e r p o l y m e r i z a t i o n ( t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f two o r more

l i k e m o l e c u l e s t o f o r m a compound o f r e l a t i v e l y high molecular


10.

weight) o r condensation (the combination of dissimilar mole-

c u l e s ) between e a r l i e r formed products o f o x i d a t i o n takes

place. S o l i d p r o d u c t s , whose s o l u b i l i t y decreases with

decreasing temperature, a r e thus formed. When t h e o i l becomes

saturated, these s o l i d products a r e deposited i n t h e form o f

sludge. Sludge, a poor thermal conductor, partially blocks

the c o o l i n g ducts and i m p a i r s t h e c o o l i n g o f t h e t r a n s f o r m e r .

In addition, s l u d g e i s u n s t a b l e and, f o r high operating

temperatures, breaks down i n t o a c i d s a n d o t h e r p r o d u c t s o f

low molecular weight. The p e r o x i d e s a r e s t r o n g o x i d i z i n g

agents and react w i t h metals i n the transformer t o produce

metallic soaps. The l o w - m o l e c u l a r - w e i g h t acids are highly

c o r r o s i v e i n t h e presence o f water and i n severe Instances,

may w a r r a n t t h e removal o f t h e o i l , even though t h e e l e c t r i c a l

c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s have not been s e r i o u s l y impaired.

Capacitors

When t h e c a p a c i t o r shown i n P i g . 1 i s empty, i t h a s

a g e o m e t r i c a l capacitance o f C and a charging current

j CV (1)

flows under t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e s i n u s o i d a l source voltage

V. T h i s c u r r e n t w i l l be a d v a n c e d 9 ° d e g r e e s i n p h a s e f r o m

t h e a p p l i e d v o l t a g e , a s shown i n F i g . 1.

I f t h e c a p a c i t o r i s now f i l l e d w i t h a dielectric,

its capacitance increases t o

C (2)
11.

where and a r e t h e p e r m i t t i v i t i e s o f t h e m a t e r i a l and o f

vacuum, r e s p e c t i v e l y . A l o s s current component

i n phase w i t h t h e v o l t a g e appears; hence, t h e power f a c t o r

angle of the t o t a l c u r r e n t I a g a i n s t t h e v o l t a g e V, i s r e d u c e d '

to a v a l u e below 9 0 degrees.

This o b s e r v a t i o n does not i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e d i e l e c -

tric i s equivalent t o the simple resistance-capacitance circuit

o f P i g . 2. The f r e q u e n c y r e s p o n s e o f t h e d i e l e c t r i c may vary

c o n s i d e r a b l y and t h u s , t h e c o n d u c t a n c e G, may be d e p e n d e n t

u p o n some e n e r g y - c o n s u m i n g p r o c e s s other than the migration

of charge c a r r i e r s . B e c a u s e o f t h i s phenomenon, t h e s i m u l t a -

neous e x i s t e n c e o f c h a r g i n g c u r r e n t and l o s s c u r r e n t a r e

expressed i n terms o f a complex p e r m i t t i v i t y

£ = £m W
Therefore, t h e t o t a l c u r r e n t becomes

I =
73T ^ U j £ m
*^ ^ L
(5)
where e\ I s d e f i n e d a s t h e l o s s f a c t o r o f t h e d i e l e c t r i c .

The c o n d u c t i v i t y of the m a t e r i a l i s represented by

£ Co - cr—
(6)

and the r a t i o o f l o s s current to charging current

t a n £ = | i _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (7)

cm
i s c a l l e d the l o s s tangent o f the d i e l e c t r i c .

I n P i g . 2, t h e power f a c t o r i s e q u a l to the ratio

of the watts l o s s to the volt-amperes, o r the cosine of the


12

phase angle 8* . S i s shown a s t h e l o s s a n g l e a n d t h e t a n g e n t

of S a s t h e d i s s i p a t i o n f a c t o r D. Prom t h e s e relationships,

the power factor


P
* =
V If > (*>
t h u s , f o r s m a l l l o s s a n g l e s , t h e power f a c t o r a n d dissipation

factor are approximately equal.

Dielectrics
\

When a n e l e c t r i c f i e l d Is applied to a d i e l e c t r i c ,

the n e g a t i v e a n d p o s i t i v e c h a r g e s o f t h e m a t e r i a l s atoms a r e
1

displaced i n opposite directions. T h i s movement o f c h a r g e s

constitutes a c u r r e n t f l o w known a s t h e p o l a r i z a t i o n current

and the d i e l e c t r i c i s s a i d t o be polarized.

For s t a t i c a l l y impressed f i e l d s , the charging current

flows u n t i l the material i s fully polarized. I f the material

i s not an i d e a l d i e l e c t r i c , the current w i l l n o t c e a s e when

the polarization current ceases, but w i l l d r o p t o some l o w

v a l u e d e t e r m i n e d by t h e f r e e - i o n conductivity of the d i e l e c t r i c .

Polarizability, the quantitative measure o f d i e l e c -

tric polarization, i s d e f i n e d b y t h e number o f b o u n d c h a r g e s

per unit cube and t h e i r a v e r a g e d i s p l a c e m e n t i n t h e d i r e c t i o n

of the impressed field.

Two d i s t i n c t types o f charging currents are observed

when a n e l e c t r i c f i e l d i s applied to a dielectric. The first,

an instantaneous charging current, i s attributed to rapidly-


13.

forming p o l a r i z a t i o n s . The s e c o n d , a s l o w l y - f o r m i n g charging

current, i s attributed to absorptive polarizations.

The sum o f a l l t h e s e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f d i s p l a c e m e n t

of charge i n t h e d i e l e c t r i c determines the p o l a r i z a b i l i t y .

Thus, t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f o r c e s e x i s t i n g i n the atomic struc-

ture of the d i e l e c t r i c govern the magnitude o f the p o l a r i z a -

bility and i t s rate o f formation. The t i m e r e q u i r e d fora

p o l a r i z a t i o n t o f o r m i s known a s t h e r e l a x a t i o n time.

When a l t e r n a t i n g f i e l d s a r e i m p r e s s e d o n a d i e l e c -

tric, t h e p o l a r i z a t i o n s o f an a b s o r p t i v e t y p e r e q u i r e a time

t o f o r m w h i c h I s o f t h e same o r d e r o f m a g n i t u d e a s , o r g r e a t e r

than, the period of alternations; hence, t h e p o l a r i z a t i o n s

cannot f o r m c o m p l e t e l y and t h e v a l u e o f d i e l e c t r i c polarization

and dielectric constant decrease as t h e frequency increases.

The t y p e s o f p o l a r i z a t i o n w h i c h c a n be i n d u c e d i n

dielectrics are c l a s s i f i e d as f o l l o w s :

(i) e l e c t r o n i c p o l a r i z a t i o n s - p r o d u c e d by t h e d i s p l a c e m e n t

of electrons with respect to positive nuclei within the

atom;

(ii) atomic p o l a r i z a t i o n s - produced by t h e displacement o f

atoms w i t h r e s p e c t t o each o t h e r i n the m o l e c u l e ;

(ill) dipole p o l a r i z a t i o n s - produced by o r i e n t a t i o n s o f mole-

cules with permanent d i p o l e moments;

Civ) i n t e r f a c l a l o r i o n i c p o l a r i z a t i o n s - produced by the

accumulation of free Ions at the i n t e r f a c e s of materials

p o s s e s s i n g d i f f e r e n t c o n d u c t i v i t i e s and d i e l e c t r i c con-

stants.
IK

Pig. 3 i a
a graphical representation of the changes

I n d i e l e c t r i c l o s s and dielectric constant with frequency

f o r a d i e l e c t r i c assumed t o p o s s e s s a l l t h e foregoing polar!za»

tions. This d i a g r a m shows t h a t t h e d i e l e c t r i c c o n s t a n t curve

has I t s highest v a l u e a t the zero f r e q u e n c y p o i n t where a l l

t h e p o l a r i z a t i o n s h a v e t i m e t o f o r m and contribute their full

amount t o t h e d i e l e c t r i c constant. For c e r t a i n bands of fre-

q u e n c i e s , t h e g r a p h shows t h a t t h e d i e l e c t r i c c o n s t a n t decreases

with Increasing frequency. These bands, where t h e p o l a r i z a t i o n

i s unable to form c o m p l e t e l y d u r i n g the t i m e o f one cycle, are

c a l l e d regions of absorption, o r anomalous d i s p e r s i o n .

E l e c t r o n i c p o l a r i z a t i o n s are characterized by large

i n e r t i a f o r c e s and negligible f r i c t i o n a l forces, except i n

the narrow frequency band o f a b s o r p t i o n . The frictional for-

c e s become l a r g e r f o r a t o m i c p o l a r i z a t i o n s , a s e v i d e n c e d by

the wide i n t e r v a l of frequencies Included i n the absorption

band. F o r d i p o l e and i n t e r f a c l a l p o l a r i z a t i o n s , the frictional

f o r c e s I n c r e a s e i n m a g n i t u d e and the r e s u l t i n g p o l a r i z a t i o n s

a r e h i g h l y damped.

In practical dielectrics, there are f r e e i o n s which

produce J o u l e h e a t as t h e y d r i f t toward the electrodes under

the a c t i o n o f an applied f i e l d . The t o t a l heat developed Is

the sum of t h e d i e l e c t r i c l o s s and the Joule heat. Because

the J o u l e heat I s p r o p o r t i o n a l to the free-ion or d i r e c t

current c o n d u c t i v i t y , the d i e l e c t r i c l o s s i s equal to the

total a l t e r n a t i n g current c o n d u c t i v i t y minus the d i r e c t current

conductivity.
•15.

Assume a d i e l e c t r i c o f d i e l e c t r i c c o n s t a n t £ m and

loss factor £, i s c o n t a i n e d i n a p a r a l l e l - p l a t e capacitor

having a plate separation of "d M


centimeters, and having the

a r e a o f one o f i t s p l a t e s equal to A W M
square centimeters.

Upon a p p l i c a t i o n o f a p o t e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e V across the plates,

a charge "q" p e r u n i t a r e a w i l l a p p e a r on e i t h e r p l a t e and a

polarization P will be c r e a t e d i n t h e d i e l e c t r i c . I f free-ion

conductivity i s neglected, the current i n the leads of t h i s

capacitor will be
A
4* . • (9)
dt
The c o n d u c t i v i t y becomes

* ~- t ^ , • <> 10

^ dt 5

where £ - v , (11)

Prom t h e g e n e r a l t h e o r y o f e l e c t r i c i t y

(12)
'D = t 4 IT P (13)

D = 4 ^ % (1*0

H e n c e , (10) becomes

where e l e c t r o s t a t i c unlt3 a r e u s e d f o r a l l e l e c t r i c a l quanti-

ties. For alternating voltages, V becomes t h e r e a l p a r t of

Vo (16)
where V 0 I s the amplitude. Now t h e c u r r e n t density i s

^ =. (r + j V") E e i
^ t

at
e
1 6 .

where

V" = ( 1 9 )

4- TT
V. U ' t j V" ( 2 0 )

is t h e complex c o n d u c t i v i t y .

The capacitance i n farads of the capacitor with a i r

a3 t h e d i e l e c t r i c i s

C = _ ^ ( 2 1 )

4 fr d ( o X IO -*)
12
• •

The dielectric constant and c o n d u c t i v i t y f o r alter-

n a t i n g c u r r e n t s a r e d e t e r m i n e d by measurements, u s i n g alternat-

ing current bridges, which y i e l d the c a p a c i t o r admittance at

the frequency o f t h e t e s t measurements. I fthis admittance

i s expressed i n terms o f an e q u i v a l e n t p a r a l l e l capacitance

and c o n d u c t a n c e G_ t h e n
P P
- ( S viCpu^Yoc*"** ( 2 2 )
at A 3

w h e r e G- i s g i v e n i n mhos a n d C i n f a r a d s . I t follows that


P P

d
~ ~ P
. . . . . . ( 2 3 )
C
P
( 2 4 )

C OJ

r : M . ( 2 5 )

Conversion t o mhos p e r c e n t i m e t e r yields

( 2 6 )
1 7 .

where C i s t h e c a p a c i t a n c e I n m l c r o m i e r o f a r a d s . Expressed

i n p o l a r form, : A

V
" V
° > ( 2 7 )

where Y 0 r ( V * + V" * V * <2«>

and e = t c x n - 1
I! ( 2 9 )

r
i s t h e phase angle. The l o s s a n g l e 6, defined previously as

H - e , I s equal t o
t a n
• (30)

Hence, tan S - ( 3 1 )
C p to

a n d
. ,, z „iv Kt
C 0 5 e = y' C V v V )

— ( 1 2 )

The i n s t a n t a n e o u s p o w e r i s o b t a i n e d b y m u l t i p l y i n g

the c u r r e n t i n e q u a t i o n ( 1 7 ) by t h e v o l t a g e E Co?>u/t,
0 The

mean p o w e r N / V I s o b t a i n e d b y i n t e g r a t i n g t h i s instantaneous

power o v e r a w h o l e number o f h a l f periods

V. "ft )

W , £ 1 f \ ^ • W

F o r d i e l e c t r i c s p o s s e s s i n g t h e p r o p e r t y o f anomalous

dispersion, t h e e x p r e s s i o n f o r I033 f a c t o r as a f u n c t i o n o f

frequency I s

£ . -- - C t
- - ^ ^ T
. ( 3 5 )
18.

S u b s t i t u t i o n o f t h i s e x p r e s s i o n i n e q u a t i o n (26) gives

V'= • - ° Q^ r£ 2

When (36) i s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d w i t h respect t o frequency, V' I s

seen t o possess no maximum when p l o t t e d a g a i n s t f r e q u e n c y , so

t h a t t h e c o n d u c t i v i t y , i f i t changes a t a l l , o f such dielec~

tries should always Increase w i t h frequency. Differentiation

o f e q u a t i o n (35) w i t h r e s p e c t t o U J shows t h a t t h e d i e l e c t r i c

l o s s f a c t o r h a s a maximum a t <^r=l. The d i e l e c t r i c constant

£m > g i v e n by
< ^ f
~ + £
° ~ °"£
........... (37)
l a c k s a maximum when p l o t t e d a g a i n s t frequency.

Qr-Meter

The quality factor, Q., o f a c i r c u i t i s d e f i n e d by

0. 3 2 1T E n e r g y s t o r e d l n c i r c u i t ......... (3S)
Energy d i s s i p a t e d i n c i r c u i t
per second

A l t h o u g h Q, s h o u l d b e a p p l i e d a s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a resonant

system, t h e t e r m Q, I s o f t e n a p p l i e d t o a s i n g l e c i r c u i t element

and u n d e r t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s , t h e Qr-value should be understood

to apply t o a resonant circuit c o n s i s t i n g o f t h a t element and

a suitable loss-free reactance*

In F i g . 4, a l o w i m p e d a n c e s i n u s o i d a l source i s

connected t o a resonant circuit c o n s i s t i n g o f a c a p a c i t y C,

and a c o i l (shown as a p u r e i n d u c t a n c e L i n s e r i e s w i t h i t s

inherent resistance R). When t h e r e s u l t i n g c u r r e n t ( ' 1 I o s i n <


-^ )
1 9 .

is a maximum, a l l t h e e n e r g y i s s t o r e d i n t h e m a g n e t i c field

of the inductor so t h a t t h e e n e r g y s t o r e d i n t h e c i r c u i t b e -

comes
E - J - L I *

s
" ° • ( 3 9 )

The e n e r g y d i s s i p a t e d p e r c y c l e i s g i v e n by

^ = l Z
* "'. . . . . . . . . . . (1K»
o v e r one c y c l e t h e e n e r g y d i s s i p a t e d b e c o m e s

L
' ' " R . . . . . . . . . . (in)

The r e s u l t i n g 0, o f t h e c i r c u i t i s given by

=
\ • • < ^

When t h e c u r r e n t i n the c i r c u i t i s a t a minimum, t h e t o t a l

s t o r e d energy r e s i d e s i n t h e e l e c t r i c f i e l d o f t h e c a p a c i t o r ,

and by s i m i l a r reasoning t o t h a t g i v e n a b o v e , t h e Q, o f t h e .

circuit i s g i v e n b y XQ/R. For t h i s simple circuit, the value

o f t h e Q, becomes

Q :
\ = \ • (4-3)
I n F i g . 5, t h e pure Inductance L, has been replaced

by a n unknown r e a c t a n c e X. The Q, f o r t h i s c i r c u i t c a n n o t be

obtained without further Information concerning the reactance

X, b e c a u s e i t I s i m p o s s i b l e to state that the entire electrical

e n e r g y i s s t o r e d i n t h e c a p a c i t o r G a t minimum c u r r e n t . If X

i s an i n d u c t i v e impedance such t h a t X= ~hjc. > t h e r e s o n a n t

c u r r e n t w i l l be i* - L , and t h e v o l t a g e appearing across the


20.

c a p a c i t o r w i l l be

The ratio o f t h i s voltage to the input voltage i s known a s

the m a g n i f i c a t i o n f a c t o r ( Q ) o f the c i r c u i t
x and i s g i v e n b y

V . X t ( W

The m a g n i f i c a t i o n f a c t o r a n d t h e t r u e Q, a r e s e e n t o b e equal

for the conditions specified.

In general, t h e e l e m e n t X I s more c o m p l e x a n d t h e

m a g n i f i c a t i o n f a c t o r i s no l o n g e r X / R ; h e n c e , t h e m a g n i f i c a -
c

t i o n f a c t o r d i f f e r s f r o m t h e t r u e Q. C o n s i d e r , f o r example,

t h a t X i n f i g u r e 5, c o n s i s t s o f a pure inductance L, i n p a r a l -

lel with a d i s t r i b u t e d capacity C . Q I n t h i s c i r c u i t , the

m a g n i f i c a t i o n f a c t o r I s given by
= A , (I»5)
R

where

( W

E x p a n s i o n by t h e b i n o m i a l theorem y i e l d s

X «*>Lt \- »~*LC 1 0 ^ .......... (U-7)

or
- Q[ I - C.-I (kg).

The Qr-meter, a n i n s t r u m e n t f o r measuring r a d i o fre-

quency impedances, c o n s i s t s b a s i c a l l y , o f a r e s o n a n t circuit


21.

excited f r o m an oscillatory source. Because these instruments

g i v e i n d i c a t i o n s which are dependent upon v o l t a g e magnitudes

or r a t i o s , the i n d i c a t i o n s are r e l a t e d to m a g n i f i c a t i o n fac-

tors of the tested circuits. Magnification factors can he

u s e d to deduce the c h a r a c t e r o f Impedance a s shown i n t h e fore-

going analysis of the circuits i n Fig. h a n d Fig. 5'

Series and P a r a l l e l I m p e d a n c e Components

C o n s i d e r the s e r i e s and parallel circuits shown i n

Fig. 6. The g e n e r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the elements of

the s e r i e s and parallel arrangements can be f o u n d by equating

the current drawn i n the two circuits. Thus,

e (Ri ~ = ^ ^ ^ (j^j
R s
x
+ X*
5 ~ R P

Hence, ±

and R - R r 1 + X 5
Z
~\ . (50)

A130, X S _ . j _ (51)
>

and X p = L
1 +
?1 1•
The quantity Xs/Rs has been d e f i n e d as the Q., or storage

f a c t o r o f an inductor or capacitor; thus, e q u a t i o n s (50) and

(51) become

R P = R» 11 + <a l l
(52) .
-- X [ s I + D ]
z
) ......... (53)
22.

respectively. From e q u a t i o n s (52) and (53),

~ D • W

Using t h e f a c t t h a t X_ = R Q, i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h
a equation

(53),
- = (55)

I t i s o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e r a t i o Xs/Xp i s dependent upon t h e v a l u e

o f Q. In particular, i f Q, s 10

Xa = 100 = 0 . 9 8 9 . ,

Xp . 101

w h e r e a s i f Q = 1, X§ =
1 • Hence, t h e p a r a l l e l reactance

Xp 2 ,

o f a n i n d u c t o r w i t h a Q o f one i s t w i c e t h e s e r i e s reactance,

so t h a t o n l y h a l f t h e s e r i e s c i r c u i t capacitance i s required

to tune i t t o resonance i n a p a r a l l e l c i r c u i t . When t h e 0, o f

an i n d u c t o r i s h i g h , t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n i t s s e r i e s a n d

p a r a l l e l reactance i s l e s s t h a n one percent.

C. DESCRIPTION OF THE EQUIPMENT

Low F r e q u e n c y E q u i p m e n t

I n the frequency b a n d b e t w e e n 20 c . p . s . a n d 20 kc s.,


l

the e q u i p m e n t shown i n F i g . 7 was e m p l o y e d . This equipment


23.

c o n s i s t s o f a c a p a c i t a n c e b r i d g e t y p e 716-B, a m p l i f i e r a n d

n u l l I n d i c a t o r t y p e 1231-A, a n d a p r e c i s i o n c a p a c i t o r type

722-D ( p r o d u c t s o f t h e G e n e r a l R a d i o Company). A Hewlett

Packard o s c i l l a t o r , t y p e 9726, was u s e d a s t h e s i n u s o i d a l

v o l t a g e source f o r the b r i d g e . The d e s c r i p t i o n a n d s p e c i f i c a -

t i o n s f o r t h e General Radio apparatus c a n be found i n t h e

General Radio Catalogue L, 19kg . 1


The H e w l e t t Packard,

o s c i l l a t o r i s described i n s p e c i f i c a t i o n 97 6, obtainable
2

from t h e manufacturers.

The m e t h o d o f c o n n e c t i n g t h e p r e c i s i o n c a p a c i t o r t o

t h e b r i d g e i s shown i n F i g . g. The t e s t cell i s similarly

connected. The t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f t h i s method


2

have been d i s c u s s e d i n t h e G e n e r a l Radio E x p e r i m e n t e r .

Oil Cell

The o i l t e s t c e l l was r e q u i r e d t o h a v e n e g l i g i b l e

l o s s angle over t h e temperature and f r e q u e n c y ranges employed,

low s u r f a c e l e a k a g e , s m a l l o i l volume, a n d a s u i t a b l e c a p a c i t y

for s e n s i t i v e b r i d g e measurements. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e c e l l was

to be d i s m a n t l e d e a s i l y so t h a t i t s component p a r t s c o u l d b e

thoroughly cleansed. T h e s e p a r t s w e r e t o be l o c a t e d accur-

a t e l y when t h e c e l l was r e a s s e m b l e d . The c e l l shown i n

Fig. 9 meets t h e b a s i c requirements.

The i n n e r e l e c t r o d e A (l„2>95 i n c h e s o u t s i d e d i a m e t e r

d u r a l t u b i n g ) was f a s t e n e d t o t h e p o l y s t y r e n e p l a t e B b y t h e
24.

h e x a g o n a l n u t C. T h i s p l a t e was secured t o the o u t e r e l e c -

trode. D ( I . 6 9 6 inches i n s i d e diameter d u r a l t u b i n g ) by eight

equally-spaced &/j,2 screws. O i l was i n t r o d u c e d to the cell

via t h e r e m o v a b l e b r a s s f u n n e l E, and was d r a i n e d from the

cell v i a t h e s p i g o t F. For the constant temperature tests,

t h e t h e r m o m e t e r G, was used. I n the v a r i a b l e temperature

tests, t h e ttermometer was r e p l a c e d by a c o n s t a n t i n - i r o n

thermocouple.

The s e c t i o n a l ! z e d d r a w i n g o f F i g . 10 illustrates

the lower base p l u g J (con!cally-shaped to f a c i l i t a t e drainage),

and t h e i n n e r b a s e p l u g K, w h i c h was machined to r e t a i n the

thermometer. C i r c u l a r g r o o v e s p l a c e d on the underside of this

l a t t e r p l u g ensure r a p i d heat t r a n s f e r from the o i l to the

thermometer bulb. E x c e s s i v e o i l added t o t h e c e l l flows

through t h e o v e r f l o w p i p e H, thus maintaining a constant o i l

level.

An Abbe R e f r a c t o m e t e r was u s e d t o measure t h e refrac-

t i v e i n d e x o f the o i l s i n the o p t i c a l range of frequencies.

T h i s Instrument i s d e s c r i b e d by Monk^.

Low Temperature Equipment

For the low t e m p e r a t u r e t e s t s , t h e p l y w o o d chamber

A,, shown i n F i g . 1 1 , was constructed. The additional compart-

ment B, was p r o v i d e d to house the t e s t cell. A l l inside

s u r f a c e s were l i n e d w i t h r o c k wool i n s u l a t i o n . The test cell

C was Immersed i n t h e m e t h y l a l c o h o l c o n t a i n e d i n t h e glass


25.

v e s s e l D. T h i s v e s s e l was s u r r o u n d e d b y d r y i c e u n t i l compart-

ment B was f i l l e d completely. Movement o f t h e a i r i n t h e

c h a m b e r was e f f e c t e d b y t h e f a n E , w h i c h was d r i v e n b y t h e

s m a l l a - c m o t o r P. The s p e e d o f t h i s m o t o r was c o n t r o l l e d

b y t h e v a r i a c G-.

Type l 6 0 - A Q - M e t e r

The B o o n t o n l o w - l m p e d a n c e - i n j e c t i o n Q-meter, t y p e

160-A, was e m p l o y e d f o r measurements i n t h e f r e q u e n c y spectrum

f r o m 50 k c ' s . t o 10 m c s . f
The p r i n c i p a l p a r t s o f t h e I n s t r u -

ment a r e a r a d i o f r e q u e n c y o s c i l l a t o r , a measuring circuit,

and a power s u p p l y . The b a s i c d i a g r a m i s shown i n F i g . 12.

The o s c i l l a t o r ( c o n t i n u o u s l y v a r i a b l e f r o m 50 k c s .
f
t o 75

m^s.) s u p p l i e s a c a l i b r a t e d v o l t a g e to t h e measuring circuit.

The o s c i l l a t o r o u t p u t i s c o n n e c t e d , v i a a t h e r m o c o u p l e meter,

t o a 0 , 0 k ohm r e s i s t o r i n t h e m e a s u r i n g c i r c u i t . The c u r r e n t

t h r o u g h t h e 0.Ok ohm r e s i s t o r , and hence thevoltage drop

across i t , i s known. The t h e r m o c o u p l e m e t e r i s c a l i b r a t e d a s

a m u l t i p l i e r o f t h e c i r c u i t Q, a s i n d i c a t e d b y t h e Q, v o l t m e t e r .

The measuring c i r c u i t c o n t a i n s a vacuum t u b e v o l t m e t e r , h a v i n g

n e g l i g i b l e power c o n s u m p t i o n , and t h e main a n d v e r n i e r tuning

capacitors. When a s u i t a b l e i n d u c t o r i s c o n n e c t e d t o t h e

e x t e r n a l i n d u c t o r t e r m i n a l s , resonance i s e s t a b l i s h e d and t h e

vacuum t u b e v o l t m e t e r i n d i c a t e s t h e m a g n i f i c a t i o n f a c t o r o f

the resonant circuit.


26

The a n a l y t i c a l c i r c u i t of the low-impedance-injection

Q-meter i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g . 13. The s t r a y e f f e c t s , such

as l e a d i n d u c t a n c e s and capacitances, are Included as d e f i n i t e

circuit components. The I n j e c t i o n v o l t a g e i s m o n i t o r e d b y

m e a s u r i n g t h e c u r r e n t I , w h i c h f l o w s i n t o t h e 0.C4 ohm r e s i s -

tor R . Q T h i s t y p e o f i n j e c t i o n i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r two sources

of correction t o the indication. The f i r s t e r r o r i s Introduced

because t h e r e s i s t a n c e R Q i s i n s e r i e s w i t h t h e resonant cir-

cuit. T h i s e r r o r i s s m a l l a t l o w f r e q u e n c i e s , b u t becomes

appreciable at frequencies i n e x c e s s o f 10 mc's. When t h e

a d d i t i v e method i s e m p l o y e d , t h i s error cancels. I n the

a d d i t i v e method, a s u i t a b l e i n d u c t o r i s c o n n e c t e d across

t e r m i n a l s X X a n d t h e unknown a d m i t t a n c e G , B i s connected

across t e r m i n a l s YY. From r e a d i n g s o f t h e t u n i n g capacitor

and m a g n i f i c a t i o n f a c t o r w i t h and without the admittance, the

s u s c e p t i v e and conductive c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e unknown c a n b e

obtained. The s e c o n d e r r o r i s i n t r o d u c e d b y t h e s e l f - I n d u c t a n c e

LQ of the injection resistor. The v o l t a g e i n j e c t e d i s p r o p o r -

tional to •\/R7+'» (a? l


. Although t h e s e l f - i n d u c t a n c e c a n be

made e x t r e m e l y s m a l l , a c o r r e c t i o n must b e a p p l i e d a t f r e q u e n -

c i e s i n e x c e s s o f 10 m c s . r
This e r r o r i s present for a l l

r e a d i n g s , i n v o l v i n g t h e m a g n i f i c a t i o n f a c t o r magnitude.

The o s c i l l a t o r c u r r e n t may c o n t a i n h a r m o n i c s o f t h e

fundamental, whereas t h e v o l t a g e a p p l i e d t o t h e vacuum t u b e

voltmeter i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y f r e e from harmonic content owing

to t h e f i l t e r i n g a c t i o n o f t h e resonant circuit. Because t h e

c a l i b r a t i o n i s dependent upon t h e r a t i o o f o u t p u t t o i n p u t

voltage, harmonics w i l l Introduce errors.


27-

The i n p u t c i r c u i t o f t h e vacuum t u b e v o l t m e t e r will

c o n t a i n some s e r i e s i n d u c t a n c e L v and p a r a l l e l capacitance C v

which w i l l make t h e v o l t a g e b e t w e e n g r i d a n d c a t h o d e o f t h e

tube d i f f e r e n t than the voltage across the tuning capacitor,

Gg. This e r r o r i s present f o r a l l types o f measurement, b u t

becomes I m p o r t a n t o n l y a t t h e v e r y h i g h frequencies.

The s e r i e s r e s i s t a n c e Ry i n t h e i n p u t c i r c u i t i s

dependent upon f r e q u e n c y ; however, t h i s e r r o r v a n i s h e s when

the a d d i t i v e t e s t i n g procedure i s adopted.

The s e r i e s i n d u c t a n c e a n d s e r i e s r e s i s t a n c e Rp

of the tuning c a p a c i t o r C 2 are negligible, i n well designed

c a p a c i t o r s , at the lower frequencies.

D. PARTICULAR THEORY OF THE PROBLEM

Transformer Oils

The s a t u r a t e d h y d r o c a r b o n s a r e e s s e n t i a l l y non-polar,

but u p o n o x i d a t i o n , t h e y decompose i n t o a c i d s , e s t e r s a n d

s o l i d m a t e r i a l s which a l l contain p o l a r molecules. In polar

substances, the centre of g r a v i t y of the p o s i t i v e charges i n

the molecules i s not c o i n c i d e n t w i t h the centre o f g r a v i t y o f

the negative charges. Upon a p p l i c a t i o n o f a n e l e c t r i c a l stress

to these m a t e r i a l s , two d i s p l a c e m e n t currents flow. The first

current, of very short d u r a t i o n , i s the normal charging


2&.

c u r r e n t which a r i s e s from the displacement of e l e c t r o n s within

the molecules. The second c u r r e n t , of the absorptive type,

r e s u l t s from the g r a d u a l o r i e n t a t i o n o f the p o l a r molecules

i n t o the d i r e c t i o n o f the a p p l i e d f i e l d . The r a t e o f the

absorption i s a f u n c t i o n o f the the temperature, viscosity,

a n d s i z e o f t h e p e r m a n e n t p o l a r d i p o l e s i n t h e medium. Accord-

i n g t o Debye, t h e r e l a x a t i o n t i m e o f d i l u t e s o l u t i o n s of polar

m o l e c u l e s i n n o n - p o l a r s o l v e n t s i s g i v e n by
T = 4TT ? xx b ( 5 6 )

AT
T h i s r e l a t i o n i s based upon t h e assumptions t h a t p o l a r molecu-

l a r i n t e r a c t i o n i s n e g l i g i b l e , t h a t t h e i d e a l gas l a w s a p p l y ,

and t h a t S t o k e s law f o r f a l l i n g
1
spheres i n a v i s c o u s medium

relate t o t h e f o r c e s b e t w e e n p o l a r and n o n - p o l a r m o l e c u l e s .

E x p e r i m e n t a l w o r k h a s shown t h a t these a s s u m p t i o n s a r e not

always v a l i d because the e x p e r i m e n t a l v a l u e of T i s greater

t h a n t h e v a l u e o b t a i n e d from f o r m u l a (56). I t has been sugges-

t e d by Lowry and Murphy t h a t the a s s o c i a t i o n of aggregates of

p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e n u c l e i t o form i o n i c d i p o l e s r e s u l t s i n

dimensions of M
a " which g r e a t l y exceed t h o s e o f i n d i v i d u a l p o l a r

molecules. C l a r k has p r e s e n t e d a t h e o r y i n v o l v i n g the forma-

t i o n o f p o l a r groups o r i e n t i n g w i t h i n , and r e l a t i v e t o , the

c e n t r a l p a r t of the molecule.

The e l e c t r o n i c p o l a r i z a t i o n s mentioned earlier are

unaffected by t e m p e r a t u r e changes. The r e f r a c t i v e Index

changes w i t h t e m p e r a t u r e , b u t t h i s change i s c o m p l e t e l y accoun-

t e d f o r by t h e accompanying v a r i a t i o n i n density. Atomic


29.

vibrations are affected by t e m p e r a t u r e b e c a u s e t h e binding

force between atoms i s r e d u c e d as t h e t e m p e r a t u r e i s i n c r e a s e d .

Atomic p o l a r i z a t i o n s would possess a p o s i t i v e temperature

c o e f f i c i e n t i f t h e d e n s i t y d i d not change. The v a r i a t i o n i n

d e n s i t y r e s u l t s i n a n e g a t i v e t e m p e r a t u r e c o e f f i c i e n t and the

next net e f f e c t y i e l d s zero, or s l i g h t l y p o s i t i v e value f o r

the temperature c o e f f i c i e n t o f atomic p o l a r i z a t i o n s ; Accord-

i n g t o Debye, t h e v a r i a t i o n o f d i p o l e polarization with

t e m p e r a t u r e c a n be e x p r e s s e d by

P - A +- B / T , ( 5 7 )

where A I s a measure o f t h e i n s t a n t a n e o u s p o l a r i z a t i o n s which

are i n d e p e n d e n t o f t e m p e r a t u r e , and B i s a m e a s u r e o f t h e dipole

polarizations. The molecules i n a l i q u i d are i n a continuous

state o f r o t a t i o n a l and t r a n s l a t i o n a l m o t i o n . The force exer-

ted on t h e d i p o l e s by an e x t e r n a l f i e l d i s opposed by the

t h e r m a l m o t i o n w h i c h t e n d s t o p r e s e r v e t h e random orientations

of these dipoles. When t h e t e m p e r a t u r e I s d e c r e a s e d , h o w e v e r ,

the t h e r m a l energy i s r e d u c e d and f o r a g i v e n a p p l i e d field,

the dipole p o l a r i z a t i o n increases, r e s u l t i n g i n a negative

temperature c o e f f i c i e n t o f dipole polarization.

Oy-Meter T e s t s

The following analysis was developed to obtain the

highest possible a c c u r a c y from t h e Q-meter r e a d i n g s . The

inherently d i s t r i b u t e d i n d u c t a n c e and c a p a c i t a n c e o f the test

cell and c o n n e c t i n g l e a d s have s m a l l l o s s e s a n d d a t a must b e

taken to account f o r these e l e c t r o d e constants.


30.

It l a necessary to take three sets of readings to

account f o r the d i s t r i b u t e d constants and to determine

a c c u r a t e l y the d i e l e c t r i c p r o p e r t i e s o f the o i l sample.

1. The calibrated c a p a c i t o r s e t t i n g and Q, r e a d i n g

are observed at resonance w i t h the i n d u c t o r i n p l a c e , but

without the t e s t c e l l connected.

2. The c a l i b r a t e d capacitor s e t t i n g i s observed

a t r e s o n a n c e w i t h t h e i n d u c t o r and empty t e s t c e l l connected.

3. The calibrated c a p a c i t o r s e t t i n g and Q. reading

a r e o b s e r v e d a t r e s o n a n c e w i t h t h e i n d u c t o r and filled test

cell connected.

The c i r c u i t s o f P i g . iH- show t h e equivalent measuring circuits

f o r each of the t h r e e c o n d i t i o n s d e s c r i b e d . The quantities

indicated i n these c i r c u i t s a r e as follows:

L = coil Inductance

r =' coil resistance

G l3 G,2 Gj 5 capacitance o f Q»*meter t u n i n g c a p a c i t o r a t

resonance.

C d ~ the e f f e c t i v e d i s t r i b u t e d capacitance of the

cell and connecting leads viewed from the

Qr-meter t e r m i n a l s .

C e = the d i r e c t capacitance between the electrode

faces of the t e s t cell.

C g ~ the d i r e c t capacitance between the electrode

f a c e s o f the t e s t c e l l w i t h t h e o i l sample i n

place.
Pi- & the e f f e c t i v e r e s i s t a n c e of the sample.
51.

I t w i l l be n o t e d that i n circuit ( 2 ) t h e r e i s no

component t o r e p r e s e n t p o w e r l o s s i n t h e t e s t c e l l . The loss

in t h e t e s t c e l l was e x p e r i m e n t a l l y d e t e r m i n e d t o be n e g l i g i b l e

up t o a f r e q u e n c y o f 10 mc's. For-frequencies i n excess of

t h i s value, losses were o b s e r v e d to appear i n the connecting

leads. Because the h i g h e s t t e s t frequency u s e d was 10 mc s.,


t

t h i s l o s s component i s n o t a c c o u n t e d f o r i n the present

analysis. The same I n d u c t o r i s u s e d f o r t h e t h r e e s e t s o f

measurements; t h u s , t h e d i s t r i b u t e d c a p a c i t a n c e o f t h e i n d u c -

t o r I s t h e same f o r a l l t h r e e c i r c u i t s a n d n e e d n o t be

considered further.

From e q u a t i o n (43), t h e Q, o f c i r c u i t ( l ) i s

In c i r c u i t (2), the t o t a l effective series capaci-

t a n c e must e q u a l C]_; h e n c e ,
C ,= C t +C A +C e . ( 5 g)

The v a l u e o f C e c a n be c a l c u l a t e d from t h e geometri-

cal configuration of the test c e l l . These c a l c u l a t i o n s were

c h e c k e d b y t e s t i n g t h e c e l l 'on t h e t y p e 71&*B c a p a c i t a n c e

bridge with the precision capacitor t y p e 722~D. The total

series e f f e c t i v e capacitance of c i r c u i t (3), i s e q u a l t o C^.

Circuit (3) can be s i m p l i f i e d by r e p l a c i n g the p a r a l l e l resis-

tance and c a p a c i t a n c e by an e q u i v a l e n t s e r i e s combination,

T h i s s i m p l i f i e d c i r c u i t i s shown i n F i g . 15.
32

The s e r i e s c a p a c i t a n c e and r e s i s t a n c e R can be

determined from c i r c u i t (3) as f o l l o w s :

C
i- ^ 3 + +c 5 () 60

-•• ( 6 l )

From t h e s i m p l i f i e d c i r c u i t o f F i g . 15, t h e 0, i s

determined as

q, r 1 . (62)

The d i s s i p a t i o n f a c t o r o f t h e o i l s a m p l e i s b e i n g s o u g h t i n

this analysis, and since t h i s factor i s d i r e c t l y related to

the Q, o f t h e o i l s a m p l e , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o d e t e r m i n e t h i s

latter quantity. The Q. o f t h e o i l s a m p l e i n t e r m s o f i t s

equivalent c i r c u i t quantities i n F i g . 14- (3) i s

**c s . a # (63)

From e q u a t i o n (4-3),

and from e q u a t i o n (62),


R =
CO
33.

From e q u a t i o n (6l),

Rs _L_ Q
*
cuC, Q ( - O,^ * . . . . (66)

and from equations (60) a n d (52S),

C
s = C
l " C
3 - °d B
°1 - G
3 - <1
C
- C
2 - °e>

C s ~ C 2 - C 3 * 0. e (67/)

If the values o f C fi and R g are substituted i n equation (63),

t h e f o l l o w i n g e x p r e s s i o n f o r Q, x i s obtained*

Q x = (0 2 - * OqHQrjQ^) (6g)

Cl Cfti «• Q5) \
w h e r e 0^ i s tl|e&A\o;f t h e o i l s a m p l e . From e q u a t i o n (5*0,

D x " - Cx (Oi - Q3) ......... (69)


Q x
(C 2 - C 3 * C^U^)

w h e r e Dx i s t h e r e q u i r e d d i s s i p a t i o n f a c t o r o f t h e o i l sample.

E. TE3T3 AND RESULTS

Low Frequencies

Throughout t h e p r e s e n t work, t h e f o l l o w i n g four

t r a n s f o r m e r o i l s were tested;

1 * i a new t r a n s f o r m e r oil;

2 a transformer o i l w i t h 5 years service lifej

3 - a t r a n s f o r m e r o i l w i t h unknown s e r v i c e llfej

4 ~ a transformer o i l with contamination products.


3*.

P r e l i m i n a r y t e s t s w e r e made o n t h e o i l c e l l to

determine i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . These measurements were taken,

by t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n m e t h o d , w i t h t h e e q u i p m e n t shown l n P i g .

7. A t 1000 c . p . s . , t h e c e l l d i s s i p a t i o n f a c t o r was 0.0005.

The c e l l was p l a c e d i n a t h e r m o s t a t i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d o v e n f o r

t h r e e h o u r s a t a t e m p e r a t u r e o f 100 degress fahrenheit. Upon

c o o l i n g t o room t e m p e r a t u r e , t h e c e l l y i e l d e d a d i s s i p a t i o n

f a c t o r o f 0.0001. Because these r e a d i n g s were not s a t i s f a c -

tory, t h e c e l l was d i s m a n t l e d , thoroughly cleansed with

repeated washings o f c a r b o n t e t r a c h l o r i d e , and t r e a t e d a t

170 degrees f a h r e n h e i t f o r s i x hours. The d i s s i p a t i o n f a c t o r

readings, a f t e r t h i s treatment, were not d e t e c t a b l e . These

readings a r e i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e c a r e w h i c h must be exercised

in removing adsorbed surface moisture from the c e l l . Tempera-

t u r e r u n s o n t h e empty c e l l showed t h a t t h e c a p a c i t y r e m a i n e d

constant f r o m 64- d e g r e e s t o 120 degrees fahrenheit.

T e s t s , u s i n g a s u b s t i t u t i o n m e t h o d , w e r e made o v e r

a r a n g e o f 20 c . p . s . t o 20 k c ^ s . w i t h t h e e q u i p m e n t shown i n

Fig. 7' S e v e r a l r u n s w e r e made w i t h e a c h o i l a t a constant

temperature o f 7° degrees f a h r e n h e i t . The d i s s i p a t i o n f a c t o r

readings f o r a l l the o i l s Increased with decreasing frequency

until t h e r e g i o n o f 4-5 t o 5° c . p . s. w h e r e maxima occurred.

A m i c a c a p a c i t o r , w i t h a known r i s i n g d i s s i p a t i o n f a c t o r curve

down t o 10 c.p. s, , e x h i b i t e d t h e same l o s s hump a t 5 ° c.p.s.,

thus showing that the frequency response of the bridge and

d e t e c t o r was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e s e maxima. Accurate values

for the d i e l e c t r i c constant were o b t a i n e d , but values f o r the


35.

d i s s i p a t i o n f a c t o r were not o b t a i n a b l e f o r f r e q u e n c i e s i n

e x c e s s o f 5000 c. p. s. f o r a l l , e x c e p t t h e h i g h - l o s s o i l 4-.

Graph 1 shows t h e b e h a v i o u r o f t h i s o i l . The measurement o f

low-loss o i l s , a t , t h e s e f r e q u e n c i e s and t e m p e r a t u r e s , i s not

p o s s i b l e without the i n c l u s i o n of a guard circuit f o r use w i t h

t h e c a p a c i t a n c e - b r i d g e t y p e JlG-B. However, t h e dielectric

c o n s t a n t s o f the o i l s remained constant throughout these

tests; thus, the I n d i c a t i o n i s . t h a t no a b s o r p t i v e phenomena

are p r e s e n t under the s t a t e d t e s t i n g conditions.

F u r t h e r t e s t s w e r e made w i t h t h e B o o n t o n t y p e l60-A

Q - m e t e r f r o m 50 k c s . t o 10
t
1110*8. The e q u i p m e n t i s shown i n

Fig. 16. Experiment showed t h a t t h e i n h e r e n t c e l l and connect-

i n g l e a d i n d u c t a n c e became n o t i c e a b l e a t f r e q u e n c i e s i n e x c e s s

o f 10 mc*s. As i n t h e p r e v i o u s t e s t s , the d i s s i p a t i o n factor

o f t h e l o w - l o s s o i l s was not o b t a i n a b l e . The c u r v e f o r o i l 4-

is shown i n g r a p h 2. The dielectric constant readings had

a maximum d e v i a t i o n o f f i v e p e r c e n t f r o m t h e mean v a l u e . None

of the o i l s exhibited dispersions i n this region, however,

the d i s p e r s i o n s , i f t h e y do e x i s t , p r o b a b l y produce deviations

lower than f i v e percent.

High Frequencies

An Abbe R e f r a c t o m e t e r y i e l d e d t h e r e f r a c t i v e index

of the o i l s i n the v i s i b l e spectrum at a temperature of 7°

degrees fahrenheit. The Maxwellian r e l a t i o n £--n J


was used to

determine the d i e l e c t r i c constant. These v a l u e s were compared


36.

w i t h the corresponding v a l u e s taken at the low f r e q u e n c i e s

o n t h e c a p a c i t a n c e b r i d g e t y p e 716-B. The r e s u l t s a r e shown

In table 1.

Low Temperatures

F u r t h e r t e s t s w e r e made w i t h t h e e q u i p m e n t shown

i n F i g , I J . For these t e s t s , t h e f r e q u e n c y was m a i n t a i n e d

c o n s t a n t a n d t h e t e m p e r a t u r e was v a r i e d f r o m p l u s 60 degrees

to m i n u s 60 d e g r e e s f a h r e n h e i t . Preliminary tests conducted

on t h e o i l - c e l l showed t h a t t h e Q, a n d c a p a c i t y o f t h e empty

cell d i d not v a r y o v e r t h i s temperature range. The results

are shown i n g r a p h s 3 t o 10 inclusive.

A d d i t i o n a l t e s t s w e r e made a t 2 m c s . w i t h t h e same
l

equipment. I n t h e s e t e s t s , t h e o i l - - . f I l l e d c e l l was h e a t e d

to 160 d e g r e e s f a h r e n h e i t , p l a c e d I n t h e i n s u l a t e d chamber,

a n d a l l o w e d t o c o o l g r a d u a l l y t o 2>0 d e g r e e s f a h r e n h e i t . The

r e s u l t s f o r a l l the o i l s f o l l o w e d t h e same p a t t e r n a n d g r a p h 2

r e p r e s e n t s t h i s t y p i c a l b e h a v i o u r f o r o i l 4.

P. CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION

In t h e f r e q u e n c y b a n d f r o m 20 c . p . s . t o 20 k c s., r

at the c o n s t a n t temperature o f 7° degrees f a h r e n h e i t , t h e

dissipation factor of low-loss transformer o i l s i s too low to


37.

be read a c c u r a t e l y w i t h the e q u i p m e n t shown i n F i g . 7. This

e q u i p m e n t w o u l d be s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r s u c h measurements i f a

guard c i r c u i t were used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the capacitance

bridge type "JlS-B. T h i s equipment p r o v i d e s a c c u r a t e readings

f o r the d i e l e c t r i c constant. The steady value of dielectric

constant plotted against frequency would i n d i c a t e that no

a b s o r p t i v e phenomena a r e p r e s e n t , under the s t a t e d testing

c o n d i t i o n s , i n t h i s range. The rising dissipation factor

curves at the low frequency values are a f u n c t i o n of the

bridge and d e t e c t o r response, as e x p l a i n e d p r e v i o u s l y . This

suggests t h a t s p e c i a l equipment, s u i t a b l e for testing trans-

f o r m e r o i l s f r o m t h e l o w f r e q u e n c i e s down t o a f e w cycles per

s e c o n d , s h o u l d be b u i l t to determine the true dissipation

factor and dielectric constant as the frequency approaches

zero. F u r t h e r t e s t s , c a r r i e d out w i t h d i r e c t c u r r e n t s , would

be v a l u a b l e i n comparing t h e measured power I0S3 with initial

a b s o r p t i o n and c o n d u c t i v i t y .

The static dielectric constant (£ )


e c o u l d not be

obtained w i t h the present cell. The ballistic galvanometer

and " s h a r i n g " methods were t r i e d , b u t the low capacity of the

cell i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the r e l a t i v e l y high surface leakage

o f the te'sting equipment p r e c l u d e d the employment o f these

methods. I t i s suggested that a s p e c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d capaci-

tor, having an empty c e l l capacitance of approximately 0.01

microfarads, would y i e l d s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s f o r the calcula-

tion of £ Q .
3 g
"

When t h e Q-meter m e t h o d I s u s e d a t t h e t e m p e r a t u r e

o f 7° d e g r e e s f a h r e n h e i t , o n l y t h e h i g h - l o s s o i l s y i e l d satis-

factory dissipation factor values. Because t h e d i e l e c t r i c

constant readings are accurate to f i v e percent, dispersion

d e v i a t i o n s l e s s than f i v e percent cannot be detected. Graph

1 shows t h e d i s s i p a t i o n f a c t o r c u r v e f o r o i l 4, I t I s t o be

noted t h a t the d i s s i p a t i o n f a c t o r curve i srising s l i g h t l y as

the h i g h e r f r e q u e n c i e s a r e being approached.

It i s concluded t h a t t h e d i s p e r s i o n method f o r t e s t -

ing the condition o f transformer o i l s , i n the frequency

s p e c t r u m f r o m 20 c . p . s . t o 10 m c a . a n d a t room
l
temperature^

i s not s a t i s f a c t o r y .

The actual dielectric constant obtained a t t h e low

f r e q u e n c i e s i s g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t l i s t e d i n t a b l e 1. L e t the

c a p a c i t a n c e A r e p r e s e n t t h e t e r m i n a l c a p a c i t a n c e w h i c h does

n o t a l t e r when t h e c e l l i sf i l l e d , capacitance B represent

the e m p t y - c e l l c a p a c i t a n c e between t h e a c t i v e p o r t i o n o f t h e

e l e c t r o d e faces, and capacitance C represent the capacitance

b e t w e e n t h e a c t i v e p o r t i o n o f t h e e l e c t r o d e f a c e s when t h e

cell i sfilled. L e t the t o t a l e m p t y - c e l l c a p a c i t a n c e be x

mmfds. a n d t h e f i l l e d - c e l l c a p a c i t a n c e y mmfds.

Then, A + B - x mmfd.

and A + C = ' y mmfd.

The dielectric constant as c a l c u l a t e d i n t a b l e 1 i s given by

A -j- C = y
TTB x
The true d i e l e c t r i c c o n s t a n t o f t h e o i l i s g i v e n b y C/B.
39

This r a t i o I s o b t a i n e d as follows;

•A f B = x
A * C y

B = A ( x ~ y) + C x
y y

B 5 A (x - 1) + x
C" G y y

= x (C -fr A) - Ay
Gy

o = cy
B x (C * A) - Ay

x (70)
1 + A (1 „ j[)
C x

I f c a p a c i t a n c e A were r e d u c e d to zero, then e q u a t i o n (70)

shows t h a t t h e a c t u a l d i e l e c t r i c constant of the o i l would

equal the d i e l e c t r i c constant value l i s t e d i n t a b l e 1. Because

the r a t i o i s g r e a t e r than u n i t y , the t r u e d i e l e c t r i c constant

o f t h e t r a n s f o r m e r o i l i s g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t shown i n t a b l e 1.

The m a g n i t u d e o f £ i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y -|- so t h a t t h e c o r r e c t e d

d i e l e c t r i c constant values are 2.20, 2.185, 2.230, and 2.3SI


f o r o i l s 1, 2, 3> and respectively. Comparison of these

v a l u e s w i t h those o b t a i n e d i n the v i s i b l e spectrum, shows t h a t

the d i e l e c t r i c c o n s t a n t has dropped c o n s i d e r a b l y and suggests

t h e e x i s t e n c e o f an a b s o r p t i o n b a n d l y i n g b e t w e e n 10 1110*6.
and the v i s i b l e spectrum.

G r a p h 2 shows t h a t t h e i n c r e a s e d l o s s i n d-c conduc-

t i v i t y which occurs w i t h i n c r e a s e d temperature is insignificant

i n comparison w i t h the corresponding decrease i n dipolar

absorption loss.
MO.

G r a p h s 3 , ^, 5, and. 6 show t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between

d i s s i p a t i o n f a c t o r , temperature, and frequency f o r t r a n s f o r -

mer o i l s 3, 1, 4, a n d 2, r e s p e c t i v e l y . I t i s observed that

the c u r v e s f o l l o w an o r d e r l y pa,ttern. This result suggests

t h a t t h e same a b s o r p t i o n m e c h a n i s m i s I n v o l v e d a t e a c h o f t h e

frequencies tested. The l o s s p e a k s o c c u r a r o u n d t h e same

dissipation factor value. T h i s behaviour suggests that the

conductivity i s practically constant w i t h respect to frequency.

I t i s expected, from e q u a t i o n (36), t h a t t h e d-c c o n d u c t i v i t y

will i n c r e a s e w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n f r e q u e n c y , i f i t changes

at a l l . Graph 6 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e i m p o r t a n t f a c t t h a t an

i n c r e a s e i n m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t i s e v i d e n c e d , b y an i n c r e a s e i n

d i s s i p a t i o n f a c t o r , b u t t h e l o s s peak r e m a i n s , essentially,

in t h e same p o s i t i o n . The I r r e g u l a r shape o f t h i s c u r v e i s

attributed t o the heterogeneity of the d i e l e c t r i c . These

graphs y i e l d t h e predominant fact that as the frequency i s

i n c r e a s e d , t h e l o s s peaks a r e s h i f t e d t o t h e r i g h t .

T h i s means t h a t a n i n c r e a s e i n t e m p e r a t u r e tends to

produce a decrease i n the time constant o f t h e a b s o r p t i o n

process. T h i s r e s u l t agrees w i t h Debye s equation t


(56).

The r e l a x a t i o n time decreases d i r e c t l y w i t h I n c r e a s i n g tempera-

ture. I n addition, the v i s c o s i t y decreases w i t h Increasing

temperature, causing a f u r t h e r decrease i n the r e l a x a t i o n

time. These c u r v e s c o r r o b o r a t e t h e c o n c l u s i o n s o b t a i n e d

f r o m t h e l o w f r e q u e n c y e x p e r i m e n t s c a r r i e d o u t a t room tempera-

ture. A t room t e m p e r a t u r e s , t h e r e l a x a t i o n t i m e w o u l d decrease

to s m a l l v a l u e s and t h e l o s s peak would appear at very high


41

frequencies. Time was not available f o r p l o t t i n g viscosity-

curves. At any given temperature, such v i s c o s i t y curves, in

conjunction with the graph data, would a l l o w the calculation

of the f r e q u e n c y at w h i c h the l o s s peak o c c u r s . This calcu-

l a t i o n , w h i c h assumes t h a t the effective dipole radius is

invariant with t e m p e r a t u r e , w o u l d be expected to y i e l d the

approximate region of absorption. G r a p h s 8, 9, and 10 are

plotted from the d a t a on g r a p h s 5, 6, and 3, respectively.

T h e s e g r a p h s show t h e trend l n d i s s i p a t i o n f a c t o r , at constant

temperature, with variations in frequency.

Graph 7 shows t h e behaviour of the different trans-

former o i l s , at the constant frequency of 2 mc s., t


plotted

against temperature. The r e l a t i v e l y narrow a b s o r p t i o n band

o f o i l 4- i s a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e large rate o f change o f viscos-

ity of the o i l l n t h i s temperature range. I t i s seen that

a l t h o u g h the r e l a x a t i o n time i s constant, the l o s s peaks occur

a t h i g h e r t e m p e r a t u r e s as the l o s s f a c t o r of the o i l increases.

Because the l o s s f a c t o r i s known t o d e c r e a s e ( g r a p h s 3» 4-, 5

and 6) with increasing temperature, the effective dipolar

r a d i u 3 must i n c r e a s e to m a i n t a i n a c o n s t a n t r e l a x a t i o n time.

The present i n v e s t i g a t i o n h a 3 yielded the following

information.

(1) A b s o r p t i o n bands have been found i n transfor-

mer oils.

(2) The location of t h e s e a b s o r p t i o n bands has been

found f o r temperatures r a n g i n g from -60° F. to

60° F.
42.

(3) The r e l a x a t i o n t i m e o f t h e a b s o r p t i o n process

has been found to v a r y w i t h temperature.

(4) The p o s i t i o n o f t h e l o s s p e a k h a s b e e n f o u n d

to v a r y w i t h the d i p o l a r s t a t e o f the o i l .

I n a d d i t i o n , the I n v e s t i g a t i o n has suggested that

f u r t h e r work s h o u l d be u n d e r t a k e n t o d e t e r m i n e t h e l o c a t i o n

of the absorption bands a t any r e q u i r e d temperature, the

q u a n t i t a t i v e measurement o f t h e e f f e c t i v e d i p o l a r radius,

and the v a r i a t i o n of the e f f e c t i v e d i p o l a r radius with the

s t a t e o f the o i l .
*3.

AUDIO SPECTRUM V I S I B L E SPECTRUM


Dielectric Refractive Refractive Dielectric
OIL Constant Index
Index Constant

1 2.190 1. 4S0 I.4765 2. ISO

2 2.17S 1.476 I.4769 2.179

3 2. 220 1.490 1.471 2.165

4 2.376 1.541 1.433 2.199

TABLE 1

D i e l e c t r i c C o n s t a n t s and R e f r a c t i v e Indices
44.
Capacitor Character!atlos

Vcosatf
I
V CO Scot
© C ±.

FIG. 1

Electronic.. ^
— — - •-

3-J Atomic

Loss
Factor

Visible

Frequency
Dielectric Characteristics
PIG. 3
*5.

0,-Meter Measuring Circuit

0 -v^^ 1

FIG. 4 FIG. 5 J3L ,


-msuw—'
FIG. 6

S e r i e s and
Parallel
Components

1 - A m p l i f i e r and N u l l - I n d i c a t o r Type 1231-A.


2 - Hewlett Packard Audio O s c i l l a t o r 9 7 2 6 . x

- Test C e l l .
- Capacitance B r i d g e Type 716-B.
5 - P r e c i s i o n C a p a c i t o r Type 722-D.

FIG. 7
Low Frequency Measuring Equipment
46.

FIG. S

Capacitor Connections

FIG. 11

Low Temperature Equipment


49.

<!>!
1 Oscillator
2 Thermocouple Ammeter
Vacuum Tube Voltmeter
C a l i b r a t e d Tuning C a p a c i t o r
5 - njection Resistor
I

FIG. 12

B a s i c Qr-Meter C i r c u i t

YP l 2
R

FIG. 13
A n a l y t i c C i r c u i t o f Q-Meter
50

7To;

(i) (2) (3)


FIG. 14
Qr>Meter Measuring C i r c u i t s

FIG. 15
Equivalent Q-Meter Measuring . C i r c u i t
51.

P I G . 16

Qr-Meter a n d O i l Cell
FIG. 17

Low Temperature Equipment


0 I

U
o

o
r*
Ct.
c
o D i e l e c t r i c Constant s 2«31
at
O.
-H
CO
CO

50

D i e l e c t r i c Cons ant and Dissipation


Factor Afeainst Frequency
15- GRAPH 1
10.
\

10 10' 10- Ho 10" lol VJ1

LOG FREQUENCY I N M£*S.


(
rrrt.
-1 T.T."
-H-T-! ' -;!ti-

--H4 w ±4 41.:.: . :r.i j. •


id::
m l-i-K
q:g.|i:
tt
11 GLOSSARY

Charging current

Lose current

Conductance

Susceptance

Dissipation Factor

Polarizability

Equivalent series resistance

Equivalent series reactance

Equivalent p a r a l l e l resistance

Equivalent p a r a l l e l reactance

Dielectric Constant of m a t e r i a l

Dielectric Constant o f vacuum

Static dielectric constant

Dielectric constant at very h i g h frequenci

Relaxation time

Coefficient of viscosity

Distributed capacitance

Refractive index

Dipolar radius

Boltzmann s 1
constant

Absolute temperature
64,

iii LITERATURE C I T E D

1 General Radio Catalogue, General Radio Company,

New Y o r k , 194S.

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