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A Comparative Study of the Curriculum and Approach towards Teaching


Science: An International Study

Conference Paper · January 2011

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A Comparative Study of the Curriculum and Approach towards Teaching
Science: An International Study

Swee Chin, Ng,


Kolej Tunku Abdul Rahman

S. Chee, Choy,
Kolej Tunku Abdul Rahman

Oo Pou, San,
Kolej Tunku Abdul Rahman

Fui Chung Chin,


Kolej Tunku Abdul Rahman

Lee Wah, Teh


Kolej Tunku Abdul Rahman

Abstract
The Europe Commission (EC) has initiated a number of studies to
research the decline in the take-up of science and science literacy among
European students. One of the projects is called ‘Science Education for
Diversity’ (SED), funded under EC’s Seventh Framework Programme
(FP7). This project hopes to find ways to improve science education in
order to respond more effectively to the new student diversity, especially
among students in the European classrooms who are more diverse as a
result of immigration. Lebanon, India, Turkey and Malaysia, where there
is a rich diversity of cultures and yet science remains as a popular career
choice, were invited to join in the study with the United Kingdom (UK)
and the Netherlands in this project. The aims of the study are to
understand the differences in the Education Systems of the partner
countries as well as finding new approaches to science education that
would appeal to all students using the Design-Based Approach. This
paper is written based on part of the findings in Work Package 2 (WP2)
out of a total of 7 work packages of the SED project. It will discuss the
differences in education systems and curriculums as well as the different
approaches to teaching science in the various partner countries.

Keywords: Science education, teaching of science, curriculum

Introduction
The Europe Commission (EC) has initiated a number of studies to research the
decline in the take-up of science and science literacy among European students. One of the
projects is called ‘Science Education for Diversity’ (SED), funded under EC’s FP7. This
project hopes to find ways to improve science education in order to respond more effectively
to the new student diversity, especially among students in the European classrooms who are
more diverse as a result of immigration. Lebanon, India, Turkey and Malaysia, where there is
a rich diversity of cultures and yet science remains as a popular career choice, were invited to
join in the study with the United Kingdom (UK) and the Netherlands in this project. The aims
of the study are to understand the differences in the Education Systems of the partner
countries as well as finding new approaches to science education that would appeal to all
students using the Design-Based Approach.
In this paper we will attempt to highlight the varying emphasis in the education
system and science curriculum among the six countries as well as their core values and
approaches to teaching science. The core values and approaches used to teach science in
Malaysia will also be compared to the other countries. This paper will comprise of three
sections: firstly an overview of the education systems in the partner countries; secondly the
science curriculum and thirdly the core values and approaches used in science education
which will include the use of teaching methodologies in the classroom.

Overview of the Education Systems


Although the terminologies used to describe the phases of study may vary, the
Education System across all the six partner countries generally comprises two to three phases.
Further demarcations may be used within a phase in some countries, that is, from nursery,
primary school education, secondary school education and tertiary education. Almost all the
countries start nursery education at the age of 4 and formal grade 1 education at the age of 6
or 7, except for UK which begins one year earlier than the others. All children between the
ages of 6 to 14 years old go from primary to lower secondary in the partner countries. They
are given free and compulsory school education during this phase of their education, except
for the UK and the Netherland, where the secondary education is also free and compulsory.
However, in India the universalisation of primary education is yet to be achieved. There is
currently a concerted effort by the government of India to bring this about (Choksi et al,
2011a). In Malaysia, the promotion of students to the next grade is automatic during the
primary and lower secondary years (Ng et al, 2011). Similarly, India practices automatic
promotion throughout primary education as well. In the Netherlands, Turkey and the UK,
although promotion is not automatic, repeating a school year, especially during primary
school is uncommon (Choksi, et al, 2011b).
In all six countries, secondary education is broadly demarcated into two main tracks:
Academic and Vocational and/or Technical. Such systems cater to the different needs and
preferences of students while making allowances for over and underperforming students.
Most of the countries require students to choose their progression track after lower secondary.
Except for the Netherlands where students are streamed as early as the last year of primary
education to one of three tracks: pre-vocational secondary education, higher general
education and pre-university education (Griethuijsen et al, 2011). The streaming is done
based on the students’ national examination results. As for countries that allow students to
choose the track of education, it is interesting to note that there has been a decrease in the
number of students going on the vocational track, including the Nertherland.
For most of the countries, university education begins at 18 years of age with the
exception of Turkey where it begins at 19 years. The various types of courses available in the
countries vary. For enrolment into science based courses it is expected that students would
have taken certain required science courses in secondary school (Choksi, 2011b). A quota
system operates in India and Malaysia that are based on socioeconomic status and ethnicity
respectively. In India about 22% of the seats in university are reserved for students from
certain tribes and caste groups(Choksi et al, 2011b), while in Malaysia, the ratio for
Bumiputera (native) and non Bumiputera students are set at 55:45 (Ng et al, 2011). Quota
systems do not exist in the other partner countries.
In all the countries the education system comes under the purview of Ministries or
departments of Education. Schools in Malaysia, Lebanon, Turkey and India are funded by the
country itself. These schools are called the ‘public schools’ and the funding for these schools
are from public sources. There are more of these ‘public schools’ than the private ones in all
the countries with the exception of Lebanon where 65% of the schools are private (Choksi et
al, 2011b). In most partner countries the objectives, goals, the curriculum, approaches
adopted for teaching science, class size, duration of each lesson and the total number of hours
per subject are defined by the national curriculum committee (Morgan, 2011, BouJaoude et
al., 2011, Bag & Gencer, 2011, Ng et al., 2011). However, in India the curriculum is designed
by the curriculum committee of its respective states (Choksi et al, 2011), and in the
Netherlands the Dutch government determines the objectives of all primary and secondary
schools and the quality standards of all schools. For example, under the Dutch Primary
Education Act 2006, all primary schools are mandated to provide education in six domains.
And as long as the schools provide quality education to cover the domains, they are free to
decide how many hours to allocate to each domain. (Griethuijsen et al, 2011).

Student Diversity
In the Netherlands, depending on the type of school, students may be refused entry.
The Dutch primary schools can be divided in to ‘black’ or ‘white’ schools with the former
have a greater population of its students from non-western immigrant families (Griethuijsen
et al, 2011). Segregation is not as strong in secondary school as they draw students from a
larger neighbourhood. In Malaysia a similar situation exists in the primary schools which are
divided into the national and national type schools that are publically funded. The national
type schools comprise of the Chinese and Tamil schools where many students of these
ethnicities are enrolled. Most of the Malay students are enrolled in the national schools (Ng et
al, 2011). When students progress to secondary schools the lines of ethnicity in schools are
not as defined similar to the Netherlands.
The ethnic divide in primary schools in the other partner counties is not as evident.
These countries have either very few ethnic minorities or they are integrated with the native
population like in the UK (Morgan, 2011). However, in India there are special provisions
made for certain tribes in the rural areas to ensure that these students can obtain an education
(Choksi et al, 2011a).

The Science Curriculum


In all six partner countries the demand of the economy, the need to develop a
knowledge-based economy and the challenges of industrialisation has influenced the design
of their science curricula. Despite the dynamic changes taking place in all the countries,
science continues to be accorded the status of a ‘core’ or compulsory subject during the
primary school years for all partner countries, except for Malaysia during the 1983 in primary
1 to 3. All partner countries has accorded science as a ‘core’ subject for the track related to
science and technology for secondary and tertiary education
In India science has been considered an essential part of its curriculum since 1968 and
the curriculum are content based where students are taught with content knowledge and to
develop a scientific attitude. In 1975, the curriculum integrated science and social science
content into s new subject called Environmental Studies, which allowed an interconnected
understanding of science from various perspectives. In the 80s, science education was
focused on developing a child’s ability and values. These include spirit of inquiry; creativity;
curiosity, problem solving and decision making skills; discovering relationships between
science and health; agriculture; industry and their daily lives. There was again a change of
focus in the 90’s, to computer literacy and to be effective in the growing technological world
(Choksi et al, 2011b).
In the UK, science has been taught as a content based core subject since the 50s until
1977. The science curriculum then advocated to be organised around ‘areas of experience’
including ‘scientific’ and favoured a ‘process science’ which tended to focus on scientific
skills over content. However, with the National Curriculum (NC) Reform 1988 the science
curriculum has reverted back to being content-driven. As the coverage were found to be too
heavy, the curriculum was again reviewed in 1993 and reformed again in 1995 to reduce the
descriptors of attainment targets from 10 levels to 8 levels. In the year 2000, the revised
curriculum in NC2000 marked a return to a more progressive orientation in science teaching.
For example the topic ‘The importance of science’ was included to promote a more
humanistic and progressive view of science with greater emphasis on coming to an
understanding of ‘the nature of science’. The new science curriculum focused on the
influence of culture as well as the environment (Morgan, 2011).
In Lebanon, science has occupied an increasingly important role in its curriculum
since 1995 when its education system was revised under the Education Reform Act
(BouJaoude et al, 2011). Since then, the number of hours dedicated to science and science
related subjects has been increased. In the Netherlands a newly revised Primary Education
Act in 2006 made it compulsory for science and technology to be included under social and
environmental studies. Science in secondary school is optional depending on the track that a
student takes (Griethuijsen et al, 2011).
In Malaysia, teaching of science has been focused on scientific knowledge and
content-driven until 1983 curriculum review took place. In that curriculum review, Science
was replaced with a new subject called ‘Man and his Environment” and was introduced in the
upper primary schools (Ng et al, 2011). This new subject was not considered a core subject it
was not examined in the primary school achievement test (UPSR) in the sixth grade.
Research showed that this new curriculum has created a lot of significant negative impact,
and the Ministry of Education decided to revamp the science curriculum again in the 90s.
Since 1993, science has been reverted to a ‘core’ subject during the National Curriculum
review. This curriculum introduces science as compulsory subject at grade 1. It focuses on
knowledge acquisition and is also aimed at developing the scientific, thinking and analytical
skills of students. In recent years, with the rapid development of information technology and
the need to produce a workforce that is equipped to meet the challenges of the information
age, the existing curriculum of the school system has been reviewed to be reflective of the
knowledge and skill needs of the country (Ng et al, 2011).
The language of instruction for science in the UK, Turkey and the Netherlands is in
their respective first/ motional language (Choksi et al, 2011b). In Lebanon, science is taught
in their second language which is English or French. In India, the subject may be taught in
English in the urban areas while it is taught the regional language in the rural areas. However
in Malaysia the debate on whether to teach science in English or the national language Malay
has been on-going since 1978. In 2003, the teaching of science was reverted back to English
but a recent decision to revert back to teaching science in Malay will take place in 2012 (Ng
et al, 2011).

Primary and Secondary School Science Curriculum


In all the countries science at the primary level is offered as an integrated course
rather than as individual specialised subjects Choksi et al, 2011b). In India, the first five
elementary grades are taught science as a single subject called Environmental Studies. In
grades 3-5, this subject is expanded into General Science and Social Studies (Choksi et al,
2011b). From primary grades 6 to 8 and two years of secondary education grades 9 and 10,
the syllabus more cross-disciplined encompassing the rudiments of Biology, Chemistry and
Physics. At the higher secondary level, science is taught as separate subjects: biology,
chemistry and physics with an emphasis on experimentation. In the UK however, there are
four Key Stages with an emphasis on the ‘knowledge, skills and understanding’ students
should be taught and the ‘breath of study’ for each subject (Morgan, 2011). In Key Stages 1
and 2, four areas are identified: scientific enquiry; life processes and living things; materials
and their properties; and physical processes. While Key Stage 3 emphasises the importance of
science, the key concepts and the key processes as well as the curriculum opportunities that
can be offered students to enhance their engagement with the subject. In Key Stage 4 students
have the opportunity to opt for the biology, chemistry and physics as separate courses or a
combined science course incorporating dimensions of all three.
In Turkey, the course Knowledge of Life is taught in grades 1-3 which comprises
environmental consciousness and effective use of resources. Science and Technology offered
in grades 4-8 consists of seven learning areas one of which encompasses attitudes and values
towards science (Bag & Gencer, 2011). The other six areas are physical processes; science
processing skills; matter and change; science-technology-society-environment; life and living
beings; and the earth and the universe. In secondary education, biology, chemistry and
physics are compulsory for all students in grade 9. In grades 10-12 these courses together
with Astronomy and Space science are mandatory for students who wish to specialise in
science. However, it may be taken as electives if they are specialising in other areas. In
Lebanon, general science is taught in primary grades 1-6 while Biology, Chemistry and
Physics are taught during grades 7-10 (BouJaoude et al, 2011). In grade 11 students can opt
to study the Humanities or Science streams and in grade 12 they may choose to study General
Science or the Life Sciences.
In the Netherlands, primary education is centred around six domains with science and
technology included in the ‘Social and Environmental Studies’ domain. On average students
study about 100 hours a year on social and environmental studies in the last two years of
primary education which is eight years in duration (Griethuijsen et al, 2011). During the first
three years of secondary education, science and technology related courses are taught which
includes biology, mathematics, technology, informatics and a physics/chemistry combination
course. After the first three years, physics and chemistry are taught as separate courses. Since
2000, ‘Science, Technology and Society’ is offered in the last years of secondary education
(Griethuijsen et al, 2011). Added to this since 2007, the course ‘Nature, Life and Technology’
was introduced where students learn to perform and design experiments. This course consists
of subjects like forensic research, GPS technology, topics which are not normally dealt with
in biology, chemistry and physics.
The Malaysian primary science curriculum aims to provide opportunities for students
to learn about themselves through everyday experiences and scientific investigations (Ng et
al, 2011). In the lower primary levels, grades 1-3 focuses on living things and the World.
Grades 4-6 have added dimensions of elementary mechanics and technology apart from
living things and the surrounding environment (Ng et al 2011). In upper secondary school,
students can opt for biology, chemistry, physics and additional science.
The curriculum for all six partner countries are similar to each other where the
curriculum starts by introducing things surrounding the students and things related to their
daily life at the primary level of education. More indepth knowledge of the three basic
sciences is introduced when students reach their upper secondary education. Most partner
countries still use the more ‘traditional’ subjects to teach the fundamentals of science, except
the Netherlands. The Netherlands uses a more applied approach to teaching science in terms
of the subject content they offer especially in secondary school.

Approaches to Teaching Science


Each partner country’s approach to teaching science was based on the inherent needs
of that country. All of the countries framed their approach based on the training needs of the
country as well as the goals set in the production of human resource. All the countries are
interested in developing science learning through a holistic approach that uses all aspects of
learning, namely affective, behavioural (psychomotor) and cognitive. Certain countries like
the Netherlands favour a more applied approach in secondary school science and efforts have
been put in to make science more appealing to the female gender as well as students from
different cultural backgrounds (Choksi et al, 2011). While in the UK, the emphasis is on the
socio cultural development of its population. The inclusion of science as a core subject is a
response of the economic imperative of government policy of providing future scientists to
support the national economy since the 1950s until now. (Morgan, 2011). In Turkey, students
are moulded by schools to be well rounded individuals who can contribute to the economic,
social and cultural development of the country (Bag & Gencer, 2011). In Lebanon the focus
of the education system was to introduce reforms to unify its citizens and advancing the
country to modernity after many years of war (BouJaoude et al, 2011). In Malaysia the
education is on building a truly Malaysian society by taking a holistic approach to ensure
quality human development in the country (Ng et al, 2011). In order to achieve their
education goals each country uses different approaches to teaching science. The approach in
each country will be discussed.

The Netherlands
In the Netherlands, emphasis is placed on the need for students to apply their
knowledge of science to their work. Special emphasis is also placed on their approach to
learning science with the female gender. The number of females opting into science related
jobs is lower when compared to the norm in other European countries. Over the years there
has been a radical change in the approach to teaching science. There is a decrease in the
reliance on high stakes tests (Griethuijsen et al, 2011).
Focus was already on science education for females as there was a decline in numbers
as early as in the 1980s. This decline was attributed to the differences in learning styles and
interests between girls and boys (Griethuijsen et al, 2011). This was further researched and
explained in 1994 that the differences could be due to the nature of technology and the
teaching methods and approaches used. Hence, it was not because of the attitudes of females
but more because of the teaching approach used. This has resulted in teaching methods where
emphasis was placed on application to real life, group work and report writing. In secondary
schools students are expected to take subject clusters and a report is to written in their final
year on a topic that fits within that cluster (Griethuijsen et al, 2011). Emphasis is also on self-
study in the last few years of secondary school.
This approach to teaching science is continued at university level where greater
emphasis is place on working in groups, writing report, presenting and problem centred
projects. There is also strong collaboration with industries in order to provide them with
personnel that fit the needs of a particular industry. In all, science education in the
Netherlands has evolved into one that is hands-on and application based that is interested in
developing individuals that are able to problem solve as well as articulate in the science field
of their choice.

The United Kingdom


The approach used in the UK has evolved from a more process based approach in the
1977 to a more content driven approach to teaching science in the 1988 (Morgan, 2011).
However, of late it has been shown that the content driven approach has proven
unmanageable to both teachers and students. This has resulted in a reduction of the content
and prescription to a more manageable level. A more humanistic and process driven approach
was adopted where emphasis is on developing the student into more engaged learners through
experimentation and modelling.
In the primary levels, there is an emphasis on the cultural significance of science and
its development worldwide. The approach is for students to be taught knowledge, skills and
understanding through experimentation and investigation into the environment. Students are
also taught the importance of health and safety issues. At the secondary level, the approach is
to enhance students’ sensitivity towards cultural diversity and emphasise the study of science
in order to encourage curiosity about phenomena in the world and offer opportunities to find
explanations. The UK approach towards learning science is to a certain extent application
based and content driven. Students at the end of their secondary school are expected to be
able to sit for an examination which would qualify them for entry into university (Morgan,
2011).

Turkey
The emphasis in Turkish schools is to cater to the needs of individual students as well
as meeting the needs of the nation as a whole. In the new curriculum that was introduced in
academic year 2005, a contemporary scientific approach as well as catering to the different
needs of students was taken into account. In this new curriculum, schools become self-
monitoring, self-developing and will also follow new innovations. The reforms have resulted
in the revision of the content material of the elementary and secondary school curriculum to
make them more constructivist and inquiry-based (Bag & Gencer, 2011). The aim was to
nurture scientifically and technologically literate persons.
With the introduction of the new curriculum, seven areas of learning are emphasised
as mentioned the previous section on Secondary and Primary School Curriculum. The seven
areas are based on a spiral approach that is student centred with teaching activities that are
applied consisting of multiple assessment methods and techniques. In this new curriculum,
new alternative measurement and evaluation techniques such as student portfolio, group
activities and peer evaluation are used (Bag & Gencer, 2011). Although Turkey is very
forward looking in its approach to learning science, students are required to study biology,
chemistry and physics rather than having more applied subject as in the Netherlands.

India
In India, science is a compulsory subject for all students however, the content and
process of teaching the subject varies from state to state. This approach to teaching science
was initiated in 1960 with the objective of acquiring knowledge about science and developing
holistic attitudes towards the study of science (Choksi et al, 2011a). In 2005, the primary
levels the approach to teaching science is integrated and is more focused on the process of
learning science rather than the product. At this level the objective of the curriculum is to
nurture the curiosity of the child towards the world and to engage in exploratory and hands-
on activity to acquire basic cognitive and psycho-motor skills (Choksi et al, 2011). At this
level there are no formal periodic tests and no awarding of grades or marks and no detention.
The syllabus at this level is child-centred and is framed within a social constructivist
perspective. At the upper primary level the focus is on students learning science using hands-
on experiences. Activities at this level include group activities, discussion with peers and
teacher as well as displaying their work through exhibitions in school and neighbourhoods
(Choksi et al, 2011a)..
At the secondary level, students are engage in learning science through hands-on
experiences with systematic experimentation as a tool for discovering principles of
theoretical principles and working on significant science projects. In the higher secondary
level, science is again, like in Turkey and UK, are divided into three individual disciplines:
biology, chemistry and physics. Experimentation at this level is still emphasised together with
investigative projects and creating awareness of creative pitfalls.
Lebanon
Lebanon has had to face many rebuilding problems after its war from 1975-1989. In
the process rebuilding the country and uniting its citizens, national unity is emphasised as
well as the reforming of public policies (BouJaoude et al, 2011). Added to this its youth also
need to acquire the necessary knowledge and technical skills for functioning in a world that is
scientifically and technologically advanced. The approach of science education is basically to
educate its youth to be able to function and compete in a scientifically advanced society.
Emphasis is to give students hands-on and minds-on experience when learning science. The
science education system in Lebanon is relatively examination oriented beginning in grade 9.
This will culminate in the award of a school certificate.
The Lebanese science curriculum also emphasise the need to develop positive
attitudes towards learning science. In order to achieve this, the curriculum attempts to
develop students into lifelong learners of science through experiential learning (BouJaoude et
al, 2011).

Malaysia
The teaching approach in Malaysia used to focus on knowledge acquisition and was
content-driven. The curriculum and textbooks were also factual and knowledge based. In the
1980’s with the introduction of new curriculum which integrated people and environmental
factors into the teaching of science, the focus changed to more applied teaching of the
subject. However, the curriculum has been ineffective due to implementation problems.
The current curriculum is basically using the syllabus set out in 1993 in the New
Primary School Curriculum (KBSR) and the Integrated Secondary School Curriculum
(KBSM). In that review, it was recommended that the science curriculum focus on specific
scientific knowledge acquisition with integration of application and relationship between
science and nature. In write ups from the Ministry of Education and teacher training manuals,
teaching approaches that encourages the use of skills like scientific thinking, critical thinking
analytical thinking and science processing are to be used in classrooms. However, such skills
are not obvious among the students and there is no such emphasis to be found from a review
of the literature or teaching materials.
The literature reviewed on the teaching approach in Malaysian classrooms has shown
that student centred approaches were incorporated into teaching and learning activities as
well as a more holistic approach to human development. However, the implementation of
such approaches was hindered by teachers not being able to carry out these processes
effectively (Ng et al, 2011). As such, ICT based learning was implemented with the aim of
stimulating student thinking and creativity, at the same time catering to different learning
styles. This approach was carried out not only in Smart Schools, but also in National (SK) as
well as National Type (SKJ) schools. The aim was to eventually nurture students that were
independent, self-directed and self-paced in their learning.
Even with the implementation of student centred learning, the approach in the
Malaysian system is still relatively examination oriented in that there are still examinations at
the end of six years of primary education before progressing into secondary education. In
secondary school, students are examined after the third year to stream them into the sciences
or arts, in the fifth year for placement into colleges or pre-university courses and finally in the
seventh year for direct placement into university.

Conclusion
Although the design of science curricula of all six countries was influenced by their
respective economy and industrialisation needs; two points were evident when the curriculum
was analysed over time. Firstly the emphasis on scientific skills and inculcation of scientific
reasoning in science education is obvious in UK and the Netherlands, which is noted as
distinct core values of science teaching in the two countries; and secondly, science education
has remained a core subject although all the countries has gone through several education
reforms where there has been recommend changes to the teaching approaches used.
In all partner countries student engagement with science has been at the forefront of
their teaching approaches. Most of them use student-centred approaches and emphasises
enhancing students’ experimentation and investigative skills in science. In the Netherlands
there is an obvious emphasis on the process of learning rather than the content material. In
the rest of the partner countries there is more emphasis on the content material.
Countries like the Netherlands have curriculum that is liberal and applied. Students
are taught to source for information and examination of content materials are kept to a
minimum. At the other end of the spectrum, countries like Lebanon and Malaysia are more
examination focused although there is a concerted effort to allow for a more student-centred
approach to be used. It is also interesting to note that the UK system also require students to
pass an exit examination in order to be awarded a school certificate.

References
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Unpublished Report.

BouJaoude, S., Khishfe, R., Alameh, S., & Radwan, N. (2011). [Education in science for
diversity, WP2: Lebanon Report]. Unpublished Report.

Choksi, B., Chunawala, S., & Natarajan, C. (2011b). [Education for Diversity: WP2
Synthesis Report]. Unpublished Report.

Choksi, B., Chunawala, S., & Natarajan, C. (2011a). [Education in science for diversity,
WP2: India Report]. Unpublished Report.

Griethuijsen, R. V., Eijck, M. V., & Brok, P. D. (2011). [Education in science for diversity,
WP2: The Netherlands Report]. Unpublished Report.

Morgan, A. (2011). [Education in science for diversity, WP2: England Report]. .


Unpublished Report.

Ng, S. C., Choy, S. C., Oo, P. S., Chin, F. C., & Teh, L. W. (2011). [Education in science for
diversity, WP2: Malaysia Report]. . Unpublished Report.

Authors (s):
Swee Chin Ng, School of Arts and Science, Tunku Abdul Rahman College, Malaysia
email: ngsc@mail.tarc.edu.my
S. Chee Choy, Perak Branch Campus, Tunku Abdul Rahman College, Malaysia
email: choysc@mail.tarc.edu.my
Pou San Oo, Centre for Continuing Professional Education, Tunku Abdul Rahman College, Malaysia
email: oops@mail.tarc.edu.my
Fui Chung Chin, School of Social Science and Humanities, Tunku Abdul Rahman College, Malaysia
email: chinfc@mail.tarc.edu.my
Lee Wah Teh, School of Arts and Science, Tunku Abdul Rahman College, Malaysia
e-mail: tehlw@mail.tarc.edu.my

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