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Pearson Edexcel Level 3

Advanced Level
GCE in Physics (9PH0)

List of data, formulae and relationships

Issue 2
Summer 2017

P57019RA
©2017 Pearson Education Ltd.

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Pearson Edexcel GCE Physics 2017 — Advanced Level — List of data, formulae and relationships — Issue 2
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2 Pearson Edexcel GCE Physics 2017 — Advanced Level — List of data, formulae and relationships — Issue 2
List of data, formulae and relationships

Acceleration of free fall g = 9.81 m s−2 (close to Earth’s surface)

Boltzmann constant k = 1.38 × 10−23 J K−1


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Coulomb law constant k =   = 8.99 × 109 N m2 C−2
4πε0
Electron charge e = −1.60 × 10−19 C

Electron mass me = 9.11 × 10−31 kg

Electronvolt 1 eV = 1.60 × 10−19 J

Gravitational constant G = 6.67 × 10−11 N m2 kg−2

Gravitational field strength g = 9.81 N kg−1 (close to Earth’s surface)

Permittivity of free space ε0 = 8.85 × 10−12 F m−1

Planck constant h = 6.63 × 10−34 J s

Proton mass mp = 1.67 × 10−27 kg

Speed of light in a vacuum c = 3.00 × 108 m s−1


Stefan-Boltzmann constant σ = 5.67 × 10−8 W m−2 K−4

Unified atomic mass unit u = 1.66 × 10−27 kg

Mechanics Work, energy and power


Kinematic equations of motion ΔW = FΔs
(u + v)t 1
s =  Ek =  2  mv2
2
v = u + at ΔEgrav = mgΔh
1 E
s = ut +  2  at2 P = 
t
v2 = u2 + 2as W
P = 
Forces t
useful energy output
∑F = ma efficiency = 
total energy input
F
g =  useful power output
m efficiency = 
total power input
W = mg

moment of force = Fx

Momentum

p = mv

Pearson Edexcel GCE Physics 2017 — Advanced Level — List of data, formulae and relationships — Issue 2 3
Electric circuits Young modulus
Potential difference F
Stress σ = 
A
W
V =  Δ x
Q Strain ε = 
x
Resistance σ
E = 
V ε
R = 
I
Elastic strain energy
Electrical power and energy 1
ΔEel =  2  FΔ x
P = VI

P = I 2R Waves and Particle Nature of Light


V 2 Wave speed
P = 
R
v = f λ
W = VIt
Speed of a transverse wave on a string
Resistivity
ρl T
R =  v = 
A μ

Current Intensity of radiation


ΔQ P
I =  I = 
Δt A
I = nqvA Power of a lens
1
Materials P = 
f
Density P = P1 + P2 + P3 + …
m Thin lens equation
ρ = 
V
1 1 1
 +   = 
Stokes’ law u v f
F = 6πηrv Magnification for a lens
Hooke’s law image height v
m =   = 
object height u
ΔF = kΔ x
Diffraction grating

nλ = d sin θ

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Refractive index Fields

n1 sin θ1 = n2 sin θ2 Coulomb’s law


QQ
c F = k  1 2 2
n =  r
v 1
where k = 
Critical angle 4πε0
1 Electric field strength
sin C = 
n F
E = 
Q
Photon model
Q
E = k 
E = h f r 2
V
Einstein’s photoelectric equation E = 
d
1
hf = ϕ +  2  mv2max Electric potential
Q
de Broglie wavelength V = k 
r
h Capacitance
λ = 
p
Q
C = 
V
Further mechanics
Energy stored in a capacitor
Impulse
1
W =  2  QV
FΔt = Δp

Kinetic energy of a non-relativistic Capacitor discharge


particle
Q = Q0e−t/RC
p 2
Ek =  Resistor – capacitor discharge
2m
I = I0e−t/RC
Motion in a circle
V = V0e−t/RC
v = ωr
In a magnetic field

T = 
ω F = BIl sin θ
mv2
F = ma =  F = Bqv sin θ
r
v2 Faraday’s and Lenz’s laws
a = 
r −d(Nϕ)
ε = 
a = rω2 dt
Root-mean-square values
Centripetal force
mv2 V0
F =  Vr ms = 
r √2
I
F = mrω2 Ir ms =  0
√2
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Nuclear and particle physics Radioactive decay
In a magnetic field A = λN

p dN
r =   = −λN
BQ dt
ln 2
λ = 
Thermodynamics t½
N = N0 e−λt
Heating
A = A0 e−λt
ΔE = mcΔθ
ΔE = LΔm Gravitational fields
Molecular kinetic theory Gravitational force
1 3 Gm1m2
2
 mác 2
ñ =  2
 kT F = 
r 2
1
pV =  3  Nmác2ñ
Gravitational field strength

Ideal gas equation Gm


g = 
r 2
pV = NkT
Gravitational potential
Stefan-Boltzmann law
−Gm
L = σAT 4 Vgrav = 
r
L = σ4πr2T 4
Oscillations
Wien’s law
Simple harmonic motion
λmaxT = 2.898 × 10−3 m K
F = −k x
Space a = −ω2x
Intensity x = A cos ωt
L
I =  v = −Aω sin ωt
4πd 2
a = ‒Aω2 cos ωt
Redshift of electromagnetic radiation 1 2π
T =   = 
Δλ Δf v f ω
z =   ≈   ≈ 
λ f c ω = 2π f
Cosmological expansion Simple harmonic oscillator
v = H0d m
T = 2π 
k
Nuclear radiation l
T = 2π 
Mass-energy g

ΔE = c2Δm

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