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Global History
Wine in the 18th Century
The period of 1700 t0 1799 was one of enlightenment. Technology advanced and political ideals
were promoted. Wine in the 18th century reflected societal changes. Important for wine were both
technological and social revolutions.
Wine During the Eighteenth Century
• Winemaking began in Australia (New South Wales) in the late part of the century.1
• By the eighteenth century, Constantina wine from South Africa had become popular among
European royalty.2
• By the 18th century, reliance on volume had given the wines of the Paris area a reputation for poor
By this time, popularity of sparkling Champagne had become so high that it sold for twice the price
of the best still wine from the region.4
• Portugal created the oldest appellation system in the world, that of the Douro Valley.5
• The Methuen treaty reduced British tariffs on Portuguese wine, thus giving them preferential
treatment over French wine imports.6
Cir. 1717
The first large-scale vineyard was planted in northern Mexico. To secure the Spanish monopoly over
wine, many restrictions were imposed against other vineyard plantings.7
As the demand for both inferior and good wines increased, the profits of French vintners grew.8
Cir. 1720
Increasing rural prosperity in France enabled peasants for the first time to drink wine daily in
viticultural areas.9
A description of winemaking in Burgundy explained that labor costs were reduced by “putting little
Children into the Tubs to tread the Grapes to Pieces, who by running about in these large Tubs, as
the Grapes are throwing in, tread them under their Feet, which more effectually bruises and heats
them, than ’tis possible to do by beating with Sticks or Battoons.”10
• John Clarke invented the hydrometer in London. Among its uses was measuring the the alcohol
content of wine and other alcoholic beverages.11
• Tokaji vineyard classification began. Each vineyard was placed into one of three categories based
on soil, exposure to sun, and potential to develop ‘noble rot’​(botrytis cinerea).
English sailors were given the choice of taking their daily alcoholic beverage ration in the form of a
pint of wine or a half-pint of rum. This was instead of the traditional gallon of beer.12
Grapes were first cultivated in the North American colony of Georgia.13
The production of wine in South Carolina began as early as 1748.14
• Spain established the first cork production facility.15
• Wine provided the third largest source of calories for students in most French boarding schools.16
Jesuit priests produced alter wine in Louisiana as early as 1750.17
The Douro region was declared the only place that could produce wine sold as “Port”. Thus, it is one
of the world’s oldest established appellations.18
• There was a market for aged wines by the early 1760s. This was indicated by the fact that a London
publisher was selling a cellar-record book for listing wine purchases and consumption.19
• The Royal Society of the Arts in London recognized two wineries in New Jersey for producing the
first quality wine derived from colonial agriculture.20
Wine cultivation was introduced into California from Mexico and wine making became the state’s
oldest industry.21
First late harvest ‘noble rot’​ wine recorded in Australia.22
• Corks were first used as a common closure of wine bottles. This made it possible to age wine in
• Wine was first made in California by priests at San Juan Capistrano.24
Vinefera or European grape vines were taken to the Australian New South Wales colony with the
first fleet of convicts.25
• The chemist Lavoisier showed that fermented sugar produces CO2 and ethanol.27
• After the French Revolution, vineyards owned by the Church and nobles were confiscated. They
were subdivided into small plots, and distributed to many owners. French law rejected
primogeniture. Instead, it divided property equally among heirs. This further subdivided vineyard
property into ever smaller parcels. In Burgundy the resulting inefficiencies caused the rise of. wine
brokers. They’re called negociants. They buy wine from the many owners of small plots, blend it, and
then sell it under their own names.26 The Revolution had a major impact on French wine in the 18th
• Portugal prohibited vineyards in Brazil to protect its own wine industry.28
Jospeh Proust isolated sugar from grapes and demonstrated that it was what was later called
glucose. It’s the same sugar found in honey.29
We’ve seen some of the developments of wine in the 18th century. Now we turn to ​wine in the 19th
Wine in the 19th Century
Industrialization grew quickly during the century but had little direct impact on wine. It was nature
that had the big impact through the spread of ​Phylloxera.​ That’s an insect that kills grape vines. Most
of Europe’s vineyards were destroyed or badly damaged. The future of wine in the 19th century
looked bleak. Then an obscure scientist in Texas saved the vines through his idea. Vineyards and
wine would survive the disaster.
There were also changes in winemaking. Early in the century chemist Jean-Autoine Chaptal
suggested adding sugar to the crushed grapes. That was to increase the alcohol content of the wine.
This process, which is legal in France, is called Chaptalization. But that’s just one of many parts in the
story of wine in the 19th century.
The Portuguese royal family moved to Brazil and repealed the prohibition against viniculture. Wine
consumption became incorporated into meals, social gatherings and numerous other activities in the
A French Huguenot planted grape vines in the Hudson Valley of New York State. This planting
became the nucleus for what later became the Brotherhood Winery. It is the oldest winery that has
been in continuous operation in the U.S.2
• Canada’s first vineyard was planted. It was located near Toronto, Ontario.3
• The first grape vines were planted in Hawaii.4
• Wine pioneer Agoston Haraszthy built the Buena Vista winery in California. It grew to 6,000 acres
(2,430 hectares). It produced award-winning wines and had offices in San Francisco, Chicago,
Philadelphia, New York and London.7
• The first commercial winery in New Zealand was established.5
• It was proven that each mole of glucose produces two moles each of CO2 and ethanol.6
• ‘Sparkling Catawba, of the pure, unadulterated juice of the Catawba grape, transcends the
Champagne of France’​ reported the ​Illustrated London News.​ 8
• The presence of bacteria in wine was first described by Louis Pasteur.9
The Ashante people live in what is now Ghana. They produced large quantities of palm wine before
European settlers arrived.10
• By the 1820s, the Australian state of New South Wales was producing prize-winning wines. In 1822
one won a silver medal and in 1828 another won a gold medal at the Royal Society of Art in
• Grape vines were planted in the Australian state of Tasmania early in the 1820s.12
The method of measuring alcohol by suppressing the boiling point was invented.13
Sparkling wine production, which continues there today, began in Slovakia.14
• Nicholas Longworth planted Catawba vines in his vineyard near Cincinnati, Ohio. Three years later
he produced his first Catawba wine. He retired from the practice of law to devote his time to
viticulture and wine making, which became very successful.15
• The first hybridization in viticulture was reported.16
• A critic wrote that ‘the wretched Lisbon wines acquire what little taste they have from oak
Cir. 1825
The first grape vines were planted in what is now the state of Washington. It was by a trapper at Fort
Vancouver on the Columbia River.18
•Wines were first produced in Missouri.19
•Vineyards were first planted along the Ohio River in what is now West Virginia.20
• The first vineyards in Alabama were planted. The state developed a flourishing wine industry
before prohibition destroyed it.21
Cir. 1830
Grape vines were first planted in Western Australia.22
• The French revolution of 1830 caused a reduction in the demand for wine and a drop in its price.23
• The average annual consumption of wine per person in the U.S. aged 15 or older was 1/2 gallon
(1.9 liters).24
• The first commercial winery in California was established by Jean-Louis Vignes. He was also the first
to import European vines and the first to export California wines.25
• After England passed the Slavery Abolition Act, South African vineyards experienced economic
The Brotherhood Winery in New York State began commercial production. It would, as indicated
above, become the oldest winery in continuous operation in the U.S.27
Near present-day Yountville in Napa County, California, trapper Gorge Yount planted a few Mission
grape vines. They were near his log cabin to make wine for his own use.28
• The first commercial wine successfully produced in the U.S. was made of Catawba grapes by
Nicholas Longworth in Cincinnati, Ohio.29
• Wine pioneer Agostin Haraszthy planted a vineyard in Wisconsin before he moved to California, He
later where planted more vineyards there.30
• Wines were produced in New Zealand beginning in the 1840s.31
North Carolina was the largest producer of wine in the U.S.32
Brigham Young ordered vineyards to be planted and a winery to be built in Utah.33
• Over 600 acres (9,240 hectares) of vineyards on the banks of the Mississippi supplied at least 40
wineries in Nauvoo, Illinois.34
• The use of sulfur to control powdery mildew was first described.35
• The first winery in Israel in modern times was established.36
• The first truly dry or brut Champagne wasn’t produced until an English merchant ordered some
without sugar added. The curiosity proved to be popular with customers.37
• Wines were commercially produced in Tennessee from terraced vineyards.38
• ‘​Cane pruning’​ of vines was first described.39
Chileans imported and planted Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot Noir, Riesling, Merlot, Semillion and Cot
The 1855 Classification of Bordeaux wines was created at the command of Napoleon. The Chamber
of Commerce developed the classification. It had wine dealers compile a list of the best producers of
wine. They did so based solely on the prices of the wines. Were prices an accurate indicator of wine
quality? Probably not. Today we know that ‘Blind tastings and academic studies robustly show that
neither amateur consumers nor expert judges can consistently differentiate between fine wines and
cheap wines….’​42
The area around Cincinnati, Ohio, had about 2,000 acres (about 800 hectares) of vineyards. It
produced 568,000 gallons (2,150,000 liters) of wine. This made Ohio the major wine producing state
in the U.S.43
• Sulfur dust was widely used to effective control fungal diseases.44
• The first winery in the state of Washington was built near Walla Walla.45
• Grape vines were planted in the Australian state of Queensland.46
• A patent for a corkscrew (​U.S. patent number 27,615​) was granted to M.L. Byrn of New York, NY.47
• The center of wine production in the New World was in Ohio. One-third of all the vines in the U.S.
were in that state. It had twice the vineyard acreage of California.48
• California produced 246,518 gallons of wine.49
• South African wines flourished in the nineteenth century when it was a British colony. But after
Britain lowered tariffs on French wine, South African wines lost their competitive advantage. Sales
dropped and viticulture declined.50
• The Single Bottle Act of 1861 in Britain permitted retailers who paid a relatively low license fee to
sell wine for consumption away from the premises or ‘off premises.’​51
• Burgundy created its wine classification system.52
Phylloxera vastatrix i​ s a grape vine parasite. Vines native to the US are resistant to it. It was
accidentally brought to England. Two years later it spread to France. It quickly migrated all over
Europe and elsewhere. In the 1870s it destroyed 70% of French vineyards and still spread. It
threatened to destroy the entire European wine industry. It was the biggest threat to wine in the
19th century. A scientist in Texas suggested grafting European vines on American rootstock. It
worked.This finally saved the wine industry. But the French resisted using the proven solution. And
they did so for 16 years.53
• The reduction in wine acidity dung the later stages of vinification was recognized.54 It is now
known as malolactic fermentation.
• Louis Pasteur demonstrated that yeast are living cells and that they cause wine fermentation.55
• Louis Pasteur demonstrated the importance of wine phenolics.56
• Illinois was producing 225,000 gallons (852,000 liters) of wine a year, which was almost as much as
the state of New York produced.57
• A vineyard of 100 acres (40 hectares) was planted in Iowa and came to produce about 30,000
gallons (113,500 liters) of wine per year. Disease and Prohibition destroyed it.58
• The first vinefera vines in the state of Washington were planted at Yakima.59
Wine production became well established in Cape Verde.60
Cir. 1870
Grapes were first used to make wine in Japan.61
• Charles V. Riley the first state entomologist for Missouri, identified ​Phylloxera​ as the pest
destroying vineyards in Europe.62
• Entomologist Thomas V. Munson of Texas suggested to French officials that grafting vinefera vines
onto the rootstock of vines native to the U.S. might save their grape industry. The procedure was
finally accepted and was highly successful. France awarded Munson the Chevalier du Merite
Agricule, the highest award that could be given to a foreign civilian. In 1888, he was inducted into
the Legion of Honor. To commemorate the award, a Centennial Celebration was held in Cognac and
Denison 100 years later.63
• The Uruguayan wine industry began when the Tannat grape vine was brought into the country.64
The first wine was exported from Brazil.65
The young Australian wine industry had clearly achieve considerable success. “At the 1873 Vienna
Exhibition the French judges, tasting blind, praised some wines from Victoria, but withdrew in
protest when the provenance of the wine was revealed, on the grounds that wines of that quality
must clearly be French.”66
Malligard developed his ‘ebullioscope,’​ which was modified in 1881 by Salleron to measure alcohol.
The Salleron ebulliometer enabled accurate measurement of alcohol for the first time.67

• Downey mildew (as distinct from powdery mildew) appeared in France. It began devastating
vineyards by killing green parts of the vines.68
• Australia continued to produce wines of very high quality. A Shiraz (also known as Syrah) competed
in the 1878 Paris Exhibition. It was likened to Chateau Margaux and “its taste completed its trinity of
• Absinthe became very popular in France when failing grape crops caused absinthe to becoming
less expensive than wine.70
• After diseases devastated Peruvian vineyards, production moved south to Chile.71
• During the middle of the decade, ‘black rot’​ appeared in French vineyards and attacked the leaves,
shoots and individual grapes.72
• The first national vineyard census was taken in the U.S.73
• The University of California at Berkeley established the Department of Viticulture and Enology.
Later, in 1906, it was moved to the University of California at Davis74.
• Georgia was the sixth largest producer of wine in the U.S.75
The International Phylloxera Congress in Bordeaux officially endorsed the practice of grafting
European grape varieties onto American native grape rootstocks to control ​Phylloxera​.76
• The Muller-Thrugau grape was hybridized from varieties having qualities desirable in wine.77
• Australian wines continued to win high honors in French competitions. One Australian wine won a
gold medal “first class” at the 1882 Bordeaux International Exhibition.77
The first winery in Chile was established.79
California produced 1,250,000 gallons of wine. An infestation of ​Phylloxera​ soon caused a dramatic
reduction in production.80
Argentina began the production of large quantities of quality wines. This was possible with the
opening of a railroad linking the city of Mendoza to Buenos Aires.81
Louis Pasteur isolated a pure culture from a single yeast cell.82
• An Australian wine won a gold medal “against the world” at the 83
• A Peruvian wine won the ‘Grand Prix’​ in Paris.84
The first vineyard in Nebraska was planted.85
• The practice of inoculating pure strains for wine fermentation was begun.86
• Zinfandel was the most popular wine in the U.S.87
• The fact that bacteria rather than yeast caused acid reduction in wine was discovered.88
• Napa Valley in California had about 18,000 acres (7,300 hectares) of vineyards. But ​Phylloxera​ later
reduced that to only about 3,000 acres (1,200 hectares).89
• To counter the affects of temperance groups, the Wine and Spirits Association was established.90
Edward Fairchild began commercial production of Concord and Delaware wine near Oklahoma City
in the state of Oklahoma. When the state became dry (imposed alcohol prohibition) in 1907, it
destroyed his winery.91
• The California Wine Association was formed by seven of the largest wine companies. It grew to
produce about 80% of the state’s wine.92
The American consul in Le Havre reported to Washington that a great deal of what was being
shipped to the U.S. as French wine was fraudulent.93 Much of it was probably produced from grapes
grown in the African cony of Algeria. It was possibly even made into wine there before being passed
off as wine produced in France. Fraud was a part of wine in the 19the century.
It was discovered that yeast extracts that did not contain living cells still underwent fermentation.
This ‘fermentation enzyme’​ was named ‘zymase.’​94

We’ve seen the major problem faced by wine in the 19th century. It was​ Phylloxera​. Thomas V.
Munson of Texas had a solution. It was grafting European vines onto American rootstock. Sixteen
years passed before it was accepted. But it’s now standard practice around the world.
A cure has never been found. The aphid has evolved and more resistant rootstock has been
developed. But the struggle continues. Not only against ​Phylloxera b​ ut against emerging insects and
diseases. That was the major part of the story of wine in the 19th century. And it continues today.
We’ve seen highlights of wine in the 19th century. We now turn to what happened to wine in the
20th century​ and beyond.

I. Wine in the 20th Century: 1900 to 1940s

Early 20th Century
The most popular wine in the U.S. in volume purchased was Virginia Dare. It was produced in North
Carolina. Both the whites and reds were blends containing Scuppernong. They were sweet and
commonly used as dessert wines.1
• Robert Koch demonstrated that bacteria isolated from one wine could induce a reduction of acidity
when inoculated into another wine.2
• An entry from Israel’s Carmel Winery won the Gold Medal at the Paris Exhibition. It had been
established just ten years earlier.3
The equation for converting of malic acid to lactic acid was published.4
The first completely automatic machine for making bottles was built. A later model could make over
50,000 bottles per day.5
The ​Phylloxera​ invasion had devastated European vineyards. This cut wine production greatly. To
help supply the demand, the Ottoman Empire exported 89.8 million gallons (340 million liters) of
wine in 1904.6
There were nearly 415,000 acres (167,700 hectares) of vineyards in Algeria. This compared to only
about 26,000 (10,500 hectares) in 1865. Much of it was sent to France and passed off as French
wine. It was sometimes sold as classified chateaux.7
An estimated half million farmers converged in Montpellier, France. They protested against
imported wine. Five people were killed during the riots calling for reducing competition.
• The Champagne Riots began in 1910 and 1911. But rioting and violence continued until the
beginning of WW. I. The cause was conflict over the boundaries encircling the area from which
sparkling wine could be sold as Champagne. A vineyard abutting one side of the boundary could get
prices for its grapes many times higher than one abutting it on the other side. The vines could be
only a few yards apart.9
• There were 11,200 acres (45,000 hectares) of vineyards in Mendoza region of Argentina. There
were only 2500 acres (1,000 hectares) in 1830. About 80% of all vineyards in Argentina were planted
in vinefera vines, mainly Malbec.10
It was suggested that the key to consistency in vine productivity and fruit quality is the proper ratio
of fruit weight to wood.11
Brazilian vineyard owners established a cooperative. But boycotts by those with whom the
cooperative needed to negotiate led to its demise.
• French vineyard owners began to blame the popularity of absinthe for the low prices they received
for their grapes. Consequently, an anti-absinthe movement developed. The Academie de Medecine
had called for a ban in 1903 because of alleged health problems. That included supposed
hallucinations. Temperance groups joined the cause. In 1914, France capitulated to pressure,
primarily from from vineyard owners, and banned the sale of absinthe.14
• John Deininger of Germany patented a vertical screw press “for use with fruit and wet linen.”13
• French troops were given daily wine ration in the First World War to improve their morale and
perhaps also to make them more willing to fight.15
•In Bulgaria, winemaking increasingly prospered after the end of turkish rule.16
• A South African cooperative was formed. It set policies and prices for the entire wine industry in
South Africa.
California grape growers increased their acreage about 700 percent during the first five years of
National Prohibition​ in the U.S. This was to meet the booming demand for grapes for home-made
The Pinotage grape was developed in South Africa by crossing Pinot Noir and Cincault.
Dr. Raymond Pearl discovered that moderate drinkers tended to outlived both abstainers and heavy
drinkers. His published his findings in his book, ​Alcohol and Longevity​. It received little attention
because it was published during National Prohibition.20 Nevertheless, subsequent research has
confirmed his early findings. To learn more, visit ​Alcohol and Health​.
The French government re-drew the boundaries of Champagne to restrict the supply of Champagne
and maintain high prices. Read about the Champagne Riots described for the year 1910.21
• The first use of pectolyitc enzymes for improved juice clarification was recorded.22
• Cold stabilization to precipitate tartrate was first used.23
• The first modern day vineyards in Kazakhstan were planted.24
• Bentonite was first used to clarify wine.25
• California vintners established the Wine Institute.26 It was the year following Prohibition’s ​Repeal
in the US.
France introduced the Appellation d’Origine Controlee (AOC) or regulated place name system in an
effort to fight wine fraud. The system stimulated sales but has stifled creativity and innovation by
wine makers.27
• The Federal Alcohol Administration Act was passed. This enabled the U.S. federal government to
regulate alcoholic beverages.28
• In State Board of Equalization v. Young’s Market Co., the U.S. Supreme Court interpreted the
Twenty-First Amendment. That’s the amendment that repealed National Prohibition. The Court held
that the Amendment gave states an absolute exception to the Commerce Clause in the control and
regulation of alcoholic beverages.29
• Pennsylvania imposed a ‘temporary tax’​ on wine and distilled spirits known as the Jamestown
Flood tax. It was passed to raise revenue to help the city of Jamestown rebuild following a
devastating flood. The city rebuilt quickly but the tax continues to this day. It costs Pennsylvania
consumers of wine and distilled spirits over $160,000,000.00 each year.30
The Greek Wine Institute was established.31
• ​Phylloxera​ and powdery mildew devastated vineyards in New Zealand. By 1938 there were fewer
than 200 acres (81 hectares) remaining.32
• There were over 2,500 acres (1,000 hectares) of vineyards in Chile and exports were high.33

II. Wine in the 20th Century: 1940s to 1980s

The use of diatomaceous earth to filter wine first occurred.34
In early 1940, at least one third of the railroad tank cars in France were commandeered to transport
wine to the front to maintain troop morale.35
The cause of bacterial spoilage in fortified wines was identified as lactic acid bacteria (​Lactobacillus
genera). The importance of acid level control to prevent bacterial spoilage of fortified wines was
The University of California at Davis published a map of California with five classifications of climate
zone. It was based on degree days or heat summation. The map identified each zone with the grape
varieties most suited for it.37
The Heliothermic Index, a temperature summation adjusted for latitude, was developed.38
Quarrying of the gravel in abandoned vineyards began in the Medoc in France. It continues in the
twenty-first century. This destroys any possible use of the land as vineyards in the future.39

• Over 120,000 acres (50,000 hectares) of Malbec grapes were being cultivated in Argentina by the
1950s. The resulting wines would later set international standards for what the variety could
• The first horizontal strike mechanical grape harvester was developed at the University of California
at Davis.
• A winemaker at Australia’s Penfolds winery, Max Schubert, began experimenting with what would
later become known as Penfolds Grange. It is now recognized as Australia’s most iconic wine and
one of the very best in the world.42
• The Georges Aubert winery moved to Brazil from France. This marking the beginning of a later
arrival of multinationals wine companies.43
• The best red wines in the Graves district of Bordeaux were classified. This enhanced their prices.
The whites would be classified in 1959.44
• Baron Philippe de Rothschild began a 20 year political battle to get his chateau raised from its 1855
classification as a Second Growth to a First Growth.45 See listing for 1973.
The first European variety grape vines were planted in New York State. Dr. Konstantin Frank
correctly believed that that they could survive the cold winters of the Finger Lakes region. He was an
immigrant Ukrainian viticulturist.46
The best white wines in the Graves district of Bordeaux were classified. This enhanced their
marketability.47 The reds had been classified in 1953.
• France began expanding into the large scale production of low cost wines.48
• New World wine producers began labeling their wines varietally rather than geographically. This
practice has also become common in much of the Old World.
Unusual weather led to the best Bordeaux vintage in almost 20 years.49
• Alsace received AOC status.50
• Italy established the Denominazione di Origine Controllata or (DOC), a national appellation or
controlled name of origin system.51
• The boxed packaging of wine was invented.53
• Sangria was introduced into the U.S. market.52
• The production of table wine exceed that of fortified wine in the U.S.54
• A patented stainless-steel tank enabling vintners to control the temperature of their freshly
pressed grapes became standard equipment in most wineries during the decade. It’s the Potter
fermenter, invented by Ron Potter.55
• The first European variety grape vines were planted in Michigan.56
Germany passed a wine law to bring the country into conformity with the mandates of the European
Economic Community (EEC).57
Chateau-bottling became mandatory for classified wines in Bordeaux.
• Baron Philippe de Rothschild successfully ended a 20 year political battle to get his chateau raised
from its 1855 classification as a Second Growth to a First Growth.61 See listing for 1953.
• South Africa implemented its Wine of Origin certification system.59
• The first wine in the now famous Marlborough region of New Zealand was produced.60
• The first commercial vineyard was planted in Denmark. The EU has subsequently and inexplicably
limited total growth in the entire country at 245 acres (99 hectares).62
• Zinfandel and Primitivo were identified as being the same.63 This fact was later confirmed by DNA
profiling in 1994.
• Vineyard acreage in the state of New York State reached its peaked and then began to decline.
The historic ​Judgment of Paris​ wine tasting comparing California wines with the best wines of France
was held in Paris. It became the most influential event of wine in the twentieth century in the world
of wine. Judged blind by leading French wine experts, California wines won first place in both red
and white categories.65 Vintners around the world immediately realized that they, too, might be
able to produce wines as great, or even greater, than those produced in the most famous regions of
France. Subsequent events have proved them right. The Judgment of Paris tasting competition
fundamentally revolutionized the world of wine in the 20th century.66 It has been transformed since
that milestone event.
The ‘chemical age’​ index for wine, based on spectral measurements, was introduced.
• Robert M. Parker, Jr., began publishing ​Wine Advocate​ and using his 100-point wine rating system.
Parker’s judgments are widely used by consumers in making decisions about their purchases. They
have a powerful influence on both wine style and prices around the world. His judgments are
credited with the emergence of the so-called ‘garage wines’​ for which there is high demand.68
• The San Francisco Wine Tasting of 1978 was conducted 20 months after the historic Paris Wine
Tasting using the same wines. In this blind competition, the top three wines among both white and
red wines were from California. Thus, California wines further improved their ranking.69
• The European Economic Community imposed rules governing wine production in all its member
• Infrared aerial photography was first used for early detection of ​Phylloxera​ and other soil-borne
problems in California.71
New World wine continued to demonstrate the quality it could achieve. Three years after the
Judgment of Paris competition opened eyes, it occurred again. It was ‘at the Gault-Millau Wine
Olympics [when] another icon of French winemaking fell. A 1971 Penfolds Grange Hermitage, an
Australian Shiraz, walked away with a first prize in Shiraz, a field long dominated by the French.’​72
And California wines continued to receive top awards in various categories. The sponsor of the
event, the French food and wine magazine Gault-Millau, noted that California produced wines that
‘can be considered among the best in the world.’​ And it was clear that California was not alone in
this ability.73

III. Wine in the 20th Century: 1980s to Present

• The production and marketing of medium sweet, lightly sparking rosés greatly increased in
Portugal. In the late 1980s, Mateus accounted for over 40% of the country’s total table wine exports.
Lancers was also a major producer.74
• India began importing vinefera grape vines.75
• Bulgaria was the world’s second largest wine producer.
• Zealand’s Marlborough area is the source of its now world famous Sauvignon Blanc. In 1980 most
of the area was still covered by sheep-grazing.77
• Australia produced almost no Chardonnay.78
• A new program was begun in California to control the spread of Sharpshooters. This is a pest that
infects grape vines with Pierce’s disease. The program released a predator of Sharpshooters into the
• To reduce problems caused by excess production of wine, the European Union (EU) introduced the
practice of crisis distillation. However, the ’emergency practice’​ was used in 22 of the 26 years
between its introduction and 2008.80
• An outstanding vintage in Bordeaux caused a boom in demand for French wine. This was
stimulated by the powerful influence of wine critic Robert Parker. He declared it the ‘vintage of the
century.’​ Several great vintages that decade helped maintain the boom.81
• Cork taint was identified as a wine fault.82
• The fame of the Sauvignon Blanc produced in the Marlborough region of New Zealand largely
began with the establishment of the Cloudy Bay winery.83
• The acreage of Cabernet Franc in California tripled between 1983 and 1988.84
• An outbreak of ​Phylloxera​ occurred in Napa Valley in California.85
A standardized wine aroma wheel was developed. It promoted research on factors influencing the
perception of flavors.86
• Several of the 40,000 wine producers in Austria artificially sweetened their wine with diethylene
glycol. News media mistook the additive for anti-freeze and claimed that Austrian wine was
poisoned. The so-called scandal harmed sales of Austrian wines.87 It might well be argued that the
real scandal was that news media were so careless. They ended up harming many innocent people.
• Viognier vines were first planted in California.88
On the tenth anniversary of the historic ​Judgment of Paris​ wine competition, two replications were
performed with the red wines. (Whites were not judged because they would all be past their prime.)
The California wines aged better and increased their rankings in the blind contests.89
‘Until 1987, it was illegal to age, bottle, and ship port from anywhere but Vila Nova de Gaia. The goal
was to prevent the wine from suffering from the ‘˜Douro burn,’ caused by the high summer
temperatures in the Upper douro. Today, air conditioning makes it possible to prevent the burn…’​
• Ontario implemented the Canadian name of origin system called Vintners Quality Alliance
• The Australian Vine Improvement Association was established.92
• Health and safety warnings on all wine labels became mandatory in the U.S.93
• The Meritage Alliance was formed by a group of vintners in the U.S. It defines and promotes
Meritage, a blended wine.94
The Soviet Union collapsed and move to a market economy. Many vineyards were destroyed and
converted to other crops. This dramatically reducing wine production.95
• The wine industry collapsed in Kosovo when Yugoslavia disintegrated during the 1990s. It
destroyed much of the wine and other infrastructure.96
• The garagistes, a group of highly innovative winemakers emerged in Bordeaux’s St.-Emilion. They
broke with tradition and restrictive rules governing how wines were to be made. Instead, they
produced very concentrated and deeply flavored wines. Influential critic Robert Parker praised these
creations and they commanded very high prices.97
• Worldwide vineyard acreage dropped ten percent in the 1990s. The decline occurred almost
exclusively in Europe.98
• Gallo was the largest producer of wines in the world.99
• British Columbia implemented the Canadian named origin system called Vintners Quality Alliance
• With the return of democracy, the wine industry in Chile began a slow but steady recovery.
• The November 17 edition of the U.S. television program, 60 Minutes, reported on the French
Paradox. This greatly increased awareness of the health benefits of drinking red wine in
moderation.101 It quickly led to an almost one-third increase in red wine sales in the U.S.103 In
reality, the moderate consumption of red wine, white wine, beer, and distilled spirits all contribute
to better health and greater longevity than does either abstaining or drinking heavily. Visit ​Alcohol
and Health​.
• Denmark was prohibited by the European Union from producing wine because of the ‘European
wine lake’​ of over-production.104
• France enacted the Loi Evin, which prohibits advertising alcoholic beverages.105
• Law 164 was passed. It was to strengthen Italy’s DOC legislation which had been passed in
• Thailand lifted its ban on the production of wine.
• Thailand’s first winery was established.109
• Portugal began creating a number of wine routes to promote wine tourism.108
• DNA profiling for the identification of grape variety was used for the first time.110
• The EU entered into a trade agreement with Australia in which that country’s wines were given
preferential tariff treatment. Australia agreed to prohibit the use of generic European wine names
such as Burgundy and Champagne and to identify regions of origin for its wine.111
• It was discovered that the ‘Merlot’​ in Chile is actually the ‘lost grape’​ of Bordeaux known as
Carmenere. This was confirmed by DNA profiling three years later.112
• Sherry (also known as Jerez or Xeres) received the exclusive legal right to use of that name for wine
marketed in the EU.113
• A standard measurement for grape color was developed. It measures total grape anthocyanins,
which determine the color of red wine.114
• The Coalition for Free Trade was established in the U.S. ‘to legalize direct-to-consumer shipments
of wine for out-of-state wineries.’​
• As the prestige of Grange continued to rise, a six-liter bottle of the 1998 vintage sold for
• ‘​Free the Grapes!’​ was organize by five wine industry associations in the U.S. It seeks to remove
restrictions in those states that still prohibit consumers from purchasing wines directly from wineries
and retailers in any state.

Calling Robert Parker the ‘most followed and influential critic of French wines in the world,’​
President Jacques Chirac made him a knight in the Legion of Honor (Legion d’Honneur). This is
France’s highest award. Parker was and remains the most influential wine critic in the world.

Wine in the Twenty-First Century

Constellation Brands, Inc. became the largest producer of wines in the world.
• A program was begun by a researcher of the University of California at Riverside to control the
spread of Glassy-Winged Sharpshooters. Its natural predator was released into the environment.121
• Over the previous 50 years, annual per capita wine consumption fell 60% in France, 45% in Italy,
about one-third in both Portugal and Spain, and about one-quarter in Germany.120
• Denmark was permitted by the European Union to produce wine. Doing so has become easier
because global warming has increased the growing period by about three weeks.122
• By 2002, there were over 2,000 vacuum concentrators being used in Bordeaux alone. These
machines mechanically remove water from unfermented grape juice. This industrial process makes
the resulting wine seem more concentrated than it would be otherwise.123
• Severe weather in Italy caused wine production to drop by half.124
The Pennsylvania Premium Wine Group was formed by fourteen wineries in the state. It created the
Pennsylvania Quality Assurance (PQA) certification system. To receive a PQA seal, a wine must be
‘made to prescribed quality standards as well as be approved by a professional tasting panel.
• The plot of the popular film Sideways included a search for the ‘perfect’​ Pinot. That led to
substantial interest in that varietal.129
• A campaign to ‘drink less, drink better’​ by the Conseil Interprofessionnel des Vins de Bordeaux
(CIVB) was banned. It was taken to court by the apparently neo-prohibitionist National Association
for the Prevention of Alcoholism (NAPA). The court held that the campaign violated French law in
that it ‘incites people to purchase wine.’​126
• The French wine industry was in a state of crisis with declining domestic consumption and rapidly
declining exports. This led to enormous protests across southern France. The government responded
by proposing numerous major changes to make French wine more competitive.127
• The film Mondovino criticized what it considered to be the globalization of wine.128
• The U.S. Supreme Court held unconstitutional (Granholm v. Heald) laws in the states of New York
and Michigan that permitted in-state wineries to ship wine to consumers but prohibited out-of-state
wineries from doing so.130
• A winery was opened in the Gobi Desert of China’s Inner Mongolia.131
• Rising levels of alcohol in wine produced around the world led to widespread debate over its
causes and implications.132
• In the 1976 ​Judgment of Paris​ competition, California wines took top honors. To minimize the
significance of the results, some argued that the French wines would age better. The implication was
that the French wines would win if the competition had been held later. But in the 30th anniversary
tastings, California wines greatly increased their rankings by aging much better.133
• Absinthe became legal again in the U.S. after almost a century-long ban. It had become illegal
because of its supposedly hallucinogenic properties. This belief appears to have been heavily
promoted by French wine producers who faced stiff competition from the increasingly popular
• China was the sixth largest producer of wine in the world.135
• Wine critic Robert Parker insured his nose for $1,000,000.
The healthful Mediterranean diet, which includes the frequent moderate consumption of alcohol,
was recognized as an intangible world cultural heritage (World Heritage). This, by the United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).137
• The U.S. became the world’s largest wine consumer by volume.138
• Although China’s modern wine history is only a few decades old, a blind tasting was held by French
and Chinese experts. Bordeaux was compared to wine from China. Of the five wines ranked highest
by the experts, four were from Ningxia, a region where some of China’s best wines are emerging.
After the results were announced several French judges argued that the competition was unfair. In
any case, the competition demonstrates at the very least that China clearly has the potential to
become a major competitor in the international marketing of top-quality wines.
• Rudy Kurniawan was arrested for (and convicted of) massive wine fraud involving the sale of over
$20,000,000 of counterfeit rare wine. The vast quantities of fraudulent wine that he put into
circulation ‘may have left the market for rare and old wines irredeemably corrupted.’​140
• Wine author Paul Lukacs wrote that ‘The only places producing truly poor-quality wines in any
significant volume are parts of the former Soviet Union as well as eastern and southern Asia…..’​141
• China became the world’s largest consumer of red wine. It consumed 155 million cases of red
wine, more than France’s 150 million and Italy’s 141 million.142 Of course, its per capita
consumption was much lower.
• If California were a nation, it would be the fourth leading wine-producing country in the world
behind France, Italy and Spain.’​143
• Australia’s Yellow Tail is the number one wine imported into the U.S. ‘The US imports more Yellow
Tail each year than the total number of bottles imported from France.’​144
In the U.K., 46 new companies registered as wine producers during the tax year.145

Local History
For centuries, the Philippines has had its own tradition of brewing, fermenting and drinking wines
which are produced in the different parts of the country. Every region has its unique and exotic line
of alcoholic drinks & beverages and such concoction had been locally developed long before.

Philippine wine or Filipino wine is wine produced in the Philippines. Most of the wines produced in
the country are based on locally produced crops such as mangoes and rice with grape-based wines
mostly imported from Australia and European countries.[1] In 2012, it was reported that previous
attempts to produce grapes which are suitable enough for wine making in northern Philippines failed
due to unsuitable soil conditions and high temperatures.[2]
Several communities in the Philippines has wine making traditions which dates back before the
islands' colonization by the Spanish in the 16th century. Among the wines produced in the
Philippines is the tuba which is produced from coconut saps or nipa palms. Lambanog is the distilled
version of tuba by the Tagalogs. Examples of Philippine wine derived from rice is the pangasi by the
Visayans and tapuy by the Igorots. The basi by the Ilocanos is a wine derived from sugar cane
Other varieties of wines produced in the Philippines includes mango rum and wine, and oregano
Launched in 1999 to fill the need of the growing local market of wine drinkers, Novellino offers a line
of good value red and white wines tailored to the taste preference of Filipinos and Asians in general.
Novellino wines are made from pure and natural 100% vitis vinifera grapes harvested from select
vineyards all over the world. Great care and attention is put behind the selection of the vineyards and
the grapes to ensure consistency in our wines’ quality. Rich soil, hilly landscape and a cool yet sunny
climate are just some of the factors that we consider to make each bottle of Novellino special.

Reducing risk of depression
A team from several universities in Spain reported in the journal BMC Medicine that drinking wine
may reduce the risk of depression. The researchers gathered data on 2,683 men and 2,822 women
aged from 55 to 80 years over a seven-year period. The participants had to complete a food
frequency questionnaire every year, which included details on their alcohol consumption as well as
their mental health. The authors found that men and women who drank two to seven glasses of
wine per week were less likely to be diagnosed with depression. Even after taking into account
lifestyle factors which could influence their findings, the significantly lower risk of developing
depression still stood.
Preventing colon cancer
Scientists from the University of Leicester, UK, reported at the 2nd International Scientific
Conference on Resveratrol and Health that regular, moderate red wine consumption can reduce the
rate of bowel tumors by approximately 50%.

Researchers from Harvard Medical School reported that red wine has anti-aging properties.
Specifically, resveratrol was the compound found to have the beneficial effect. The resveratrol in
wine comes from the skins of red grapes. Blueberries, cranberries and nuts are also sources of
resveratrol. Head investigator; David Sinclair said "Resveratrol improves the health of mice on a
high-fat diet and increases life span." Their findings, which were published in the journal Cell
Metabolism offer, were the first compelling proof of the definite link between the anti-aging
properties of resveratrol and the SIRT1 gene. Wine's anti-aging properties have been talked about
for over one thousand years. Monasteries throughout Europe were convinced that their monks'
longer lifespans, compared to the rest of the population, was partly due to their moderate, regular
consumption of wine. A study carried out at the University of London found that procyanidins,
compounds commonly found in red wine, keep the blood vessels healthy and are one of the factors
that contribute towards longer life spans enjoyed by the people in Sardinia and the southwest of
France. The researchers also found that red wine made in the traditional way has much higher levels
of procyanidins than other wines.
Preventing breast cancer
Regular consumption of most alcoholic drinks increases the risk of breast cancer. However, red wine
intake has the opposite effect, researchers from Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles found. In
the Journal of Women's Health, the scientists explained that chemicals in the skins and seeds of red
grapes reduce estrogen levels while raising testosterone in premenopausal women - which results in
a lower risk of developing breast cancer. The authors emphasized that it is not just the red wine that
has the beneficial compounds, but its raw material - red grape. They suggested that when women
are choosing an alcoholic drink to consume, they should consider red wine. They reiterated that they
were not encouraging wine over grapes. The study surprised many researchers. Most studies point
to a higher risk of breast cancer from consuming alcoholic drinks, because alcohol raises a woman's
estrogen levels, which in turn encourage the growth of cancer cells. Study co-author, Dr. Chrisandra
Shufelt, MD, said: "If you were to have a glass of wine with dinner, you may want to consider a glass
of red. Switching may shift your risk."
A team from Loyola University Medical Center center found that moderate red wine intake can
reduce the risk of developing dementia. In this study, the researchers gathered and analyzed data
from academic papers on red wine since 1977. The studies, which spanned 19 nations, showed a
statistically significantly lower risk of dementia among regular, moderate red wine drinkers in 14
countries. The investigators explained that resveratrol reduces the stickiness of blood platelets,
which helps keep the blood vessels open and flexible. This helps maintain a good blood supply to the
brain. Both white and red wines contain resveratrol, but red wine has much more. The skin of red
grapes has very high levels of resveratrol. During the manufacturing process of red wine there is
prolonged contact with grape skins. Lead investigator, Professor Edward J. Neafsey, said "We don't
recommend that nondrinkers start drinking. But moderate drinking, if it is truly moderate, can be
Neafsey and colleagues wrote in The Journal of Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment that
moderate red wine drinkers had a 23% lower risk of developing dementia compared to people who
rarely or never consumed the alcoholic beverage.
Protecting from severe sunburn
Wine and grape derivatives can help reduce the damaging effects of UV (ultraviolet) light, scientists
from the University of Barcelona in Spain reported in The Journal of Agricultural Food and Chemistry.
The authors explained that when UV rays make contact with human skin, they activate reactive
oxygen species (ROS), which oxidize fats, DNA and other large molecules, which in turn stimulate
other enzymes that harm skin cells. Flavonoids, found in wine and grapes, inhibit the formation of
the ROS in skin cells that are exposed to sunlight.
Preventing blinding diseases
Red wine can stop the out-of-control blood vessel growth in the eye that causes blindness,
researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis reported in the American
Journal of Pathology.
Diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration, which is the leading cause of blindness
among Americans aged 50+ years, are caused by an overgrowth of blood vessels (angiogenesis) in
the eye. The researchers explained that resveratrol is the compound in wine that protects vision.
Grapes, blueberries, peanuts and some other plants are rich in resveratrol.
Damage after stroke
Red wine may protect the brain from stroke damage, researchers at Johns Hopkins University School
of Medicine wrote in the journal Experimental Neurology. Professor Sylvain Doré believes that
resveratrol in red wine raises levels of heme oxygenase, an enzyme known to protect nerve cells in
the brain from damage. When somebody suffers a stroke, the brain is ready to protect itself because
of higher enzyme levels. Doré added that nobody yet knows whether it is just the resveratrol that
has the health benefits, or it is the alcohol in the wine which may be needed to concentrate the
levels of the compound.
Improving lung function and preventing lung cancer
Dutch scientists reported on a study that looked at the effects of resveratrol, red wine, and white
wine on lung function. They found that:
Pure resveratrol was good for lung function
White wine was also good for lung function
Red wine made no difference
A reviewer of the study wrote "Resveratrol may well be just the bystander of something else present
in wine. The beneficial effects on lung function are probably related to many compounds present in
wine, and not just resveratrol." According to a number of scientific studies, moderate wine drinkers
appear to enjoy better lung function, the authors added. In another study, a team from Kaiser
Permanente wrote in the journal Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention that red wine
consumption may reduce lung cancer risk. Chun Chao, Ph.D., said "An antioxidant component in red
wine may be protective of lung cancer, particularly among smokers."

Raising levels of omega-3 fatty acids

Wine is better than other alcoholic drinks in raising levels of omega-3 fatty acids in plasma and red
blood cells, according to the IMMIDIET study involving European researchers from various countries.
The study, published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, examined 1,604 adults from
London in England, Abruzzo in Italy, and Limburg in Belgium. They all underwent a comprehensive
medical examination with a primary care physician (general practitioner) and also completed an
annual food frequency questionnaire which included details of their dietary and drinking habits.
They found that regular, moderate wine drinkers had higher blood levels of omega-3 fatty acids,
which are usually derived from eating fish. We know that omega-3 fatty acids protect against
coronary heart disease. The scientists found that drinking wine acts like a trigger, boosting levels of
omega-3 fatty acids in the body.
Preventing liver disease
A study carried out at the UC San Diego School of Medicine concluded that modest wine
consumption reduced the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease by half compared to people who
never drank wine. Their finding challenged conventional thinking regarding alcohol consumption and
liver health. The researchers reported in the journal Hepatology that regular, modest beer or liquor
drinkers had more than four times the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease compared to the wine
Protecting from prostate Cancer
A study published in the June 2007 issue of Harvard Men's Health Watch reported that male
moderate red wine drinkers were 52% as likely to be diagnosed with prostate cancer as men who
never drank red wine. They defined moderate drinking as an average of four to seven glasses of red
wine per week. Initially, the Seattle researchers looked at general alcohol consumption and found no
link to prostate cancer risk. However, when they went one step further and looked at different
alcoholic beverages, they identified a clear association between red wine drinking and lower
prostate cancer risk. Even extremely moderate red wine consumption (one glass per week) reduced
men's risk of prostate cancer by 6%, the authors informed.
Preventing type 2 diabetes
In an animal experiment, scientists at the Chinese Academy of Sciences discovered that a chemical
found in red wine and the skin of red grapes - resveratrol - improved sensitivity to insulin. Insulin
resistance is the most important critical factor contributing to type 2 diabetes risks. The researchers
reported in the journal Cell Metabolism that resveratrol also increased levels of the enzyme SIRT1,
which was found to improve insulin sensitivity in mice. Study leader, Qiwei Zhai said that red wine
may have some benefits for insulin sensitivity, but this needs to be confirmed in further studies.
Memory Protection Against Alzheimer’s Disease: The powerful antioxidant resveratrol protects
against cell damage and prevents age-related mental decline.
Mimics Gym Time: Resveratrol is also responsible for heart-healthy benefits, including improved
physical performance and muscle strength. It also mimics cardiovascular enhancements similar to
exercise. But the benefits are limited, so don’t always trade in your cardio for cabernet.
Cancer Treatment: Researchers aren’t exactly sure how, but another active antioxidant in red wine
known as quercetin works against cancer cells, according to the American Cancer Society. It helps to
induce natural cell death in certain types of cancers, most often colon cancer.
Promotes Long Life: Red wine drinkers have a 34 percent lower mortality rate than beer or vodka
drinkers, according to a 29-year-long study. Resveratrol is the polyphenol that could be responsible
for its longevity benefits. But researchers think any diet rich in polyphenols, which are known to
protect against the development of chronic diseases — they're found amply in red wine — could be
Lowers Risk Of Heart Disease and Stroke: Red wine tannins, which are what make red wine the color
red, contain procyanidins — known for protecting against heart disease. Resveratrol also helps to
remove chemicals responsible for causing blood clots, which is the primary cause of coronary
disease. A daily dose of red wine cuts blood clot-related stroke rates by 50 percent.
Promotes mental health – Red wine can reduce your risks of stroke and getting dementia or
Alzheimer’s disease. The antioxidants in red wine reduces the stickiness of blood platelets, helping
keep blood vessels open and flexible. This helps maintain a good blood supply to the brain, therefore
reducing the risk for brain and mental impairment.
Improve bone strength – Studies have shown that people who drink a glass of wine had greater
bone mineral density in the hip region of their thigh bones, than nondrinkers or heavy drinkers. Bone
mineral density is the measure physicians use to determine bone strength and resilience. This can
reduce the risk for bone diseases such as osteoporosis.
Protects teeth – Red wine and grape seed extracts help remove certain bacteria from teeth. This
particular activity produces acid which damages the teeth over time and causes such dental diseases
as cavities and gingivitis. A glass of red wine may kill these dangerous bacteria in your mouth,
promoting dental health.
Fosters good eyesight – Antioxidants in red wine prevent age-related deterioration of eye muscles.
Wine can help stop the growth of blood vessels in the eye, which is good because if blood vessels
continue to grow, they can cause macular degeneration or failing eyesight.
1. Sleep Deficiency
Many people feel a bit drowsy when consuming wine. This happens because alcohol is not digested
but moves directly through the stomach lining and wall of the small intestine into the bloodstream.
Once alcohol gets into the bloodstream, it goes into every cell of the body, depressing cellular
activity. But this drowsy feeling is short-lived and one or more drinks before bedtime can result in a
lighter sleep versus deeper, more restful sleep. Staying physically active and reducing your alcohol
consumption can help you get better sleep.
2. Obesity
For some people, one glass of wine can turn into a whole bottle. One 5 ounce glass of dry wine has
on average about 100 calories. A 12 ounce wine cooler is higher with about 180 calories on average.
But some fortified wines and dessert wines containing distilled spirits have even more calories. So
while one to two glasses of wine at about 200 calories can fit into your daily caloric goals, keep in
mind that drinking is linked to increased consumption of food and a decreased rate of exercise. Half
a bottle of wine everyday over a week period adds up to 1,750 of mostly nutrient-free calories.
3. Heart Disease
Moderation is important. Up to one drink a day for women and two drinks a day for men may
provide the associated health benefits, like lowering risk for heart disease. But when drinking habits
become higher, you can put yourself at risk of heart disease. Too much alcohol intake can lead to a
rise in blood pressure, result in heart failure or lead to a stroke. Additionally, high intake can result in
increased triglycerides and an irregular heartbeat. For those really interested in a healthy heart,
focusing on eating well and exercising has been shown to improve heart health at higher rates than
the addition of a glass of wine daily.
4. Fertility
Although the potential harmful effects of alcohol during pregnancy, such as birth defects or low birth
weights, are well known, less well-known are the effects on males. For men, excessive alcohol intake
can result in lowered testosterone levels, slowed motility of the sperm and erectile dysfunction. So it
is important for both men and women who are attempting to conceive to reduce or even stop their
intake of alcohol.
5. Pancreatitis
Excessive alcohol intake, including wine, can lead to acute pancreatitis. If you already have chronic
pancreatitis, it can worsen the symptoms. An article in the July 2007 Journal of Pancreatology states
"Although the association between alcohol consumption and pancreatitis has been recognized for
over 100 years, it remains still unclear why some alcoholics develop pancreatitis and some do not.
Surprisingly little data are available about alcohol amounts, drinking patterns, type of alcohol
consumed and other habits such as dietary habits or smoking in respect to pancreatitis preceding the
attack of acute pancreatitis or the time of the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis." But reducing or
abstaining from alcohol may prohibit recurrent acute pancreatitis and reduce the amount of pain
caused during chronic pancreatitis.
6. Liver Disease
One of the most widely understood long-term effect of overindulging in alcoholic beverage is liver
disease. One of the functions of the liver is to filter out impurities from the blood. When alcohol is
drunk in large quantities, this organ has to work overtime. Eventually, after years of alcohol abuse,
the liver may fail to work properly or simply quit functioning altogether. Some individuals who
become alcoholics may suffer from cirrhosis of the liver, which can lead to death. According to the
National Institutes of Health, liver disease was the ninth leading cause of death by disease in the
United States in 2005.
7. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder
Drinking wine or any form of alcohol while pregnant may have long-term effects on a child. Children
that are exposed to alcohol while their mother is pregnant are in effect, drinking the same alcohol
that their mother is. According to Healthwise, an unborn baby may suffer the following negative side
effects of being exposed to alcohol:
Odd facial features
Smaller in size than other children their age
Learning problems
Behavior problems
Birth defects
While there is still discussion about whether it is safe to drink any alcohol during a pregnancy, such
as one glass of wine periodically, doctors generally caution women to abstain from drinking alcohol
for the duration of their pregnancy.

8. Sulfite Reactions
Sulfites are found in many foods, including wine. They can be found in many dairy products, such as
cheese and other foods like dried fruits, spices, jams and jellies. The sulfite content in white wine is
usually higher than that found in red wines. No wine, even organic wine, can be found without
containing some sulfites. Individuals who are allergic to sulfites may suffer from hives, nausea and
anaphylactic shock. The individuals affected by this allergy are most often asthmatics.
9. Prescription Drug Reactions
Wine health risks may be increased when consuming the beverage while taking certain prescription
drugs. Prescriptions now have warning labels so that individuals are aware of the risks before they
mix their prescriptions with wine. Adverse reactions vary, depending upon the prescription taken
and the amount of wine consumed.
10. Migraine Headaches
There is evidence that wine, particularly red wine, may trigger migraine headaches in some
individuals. Tannins and phenolic flavonoids, both found in grape skins, may be the cause. Professor
David Mills of UC Davis announced in his research in 2006 that modifying the fermentation process
may reduce the risk of headaches caused by tannins and phenolic flavonoids.
11. Weight Gain
There is a potential for weight gain when drinking wine or any other alcoholic beverage. Alcohol
contains empty calories and triglycerides, which contribute to increased LDL or "bad cholesterol"
The Manufacturing Process
Wine Production was first seen 6,000 years ago. But it wasn’t until 1857 that Pasteur correctly
described the science behind fermentation and Wine Production. Because crushed grapes contain all
that is needed to create wine, ancient wine producers simply allowed nature to take its course. As
time went on, people realized that by intervening at certain times, they could make a wine with
more predictable characteristics. The process of making wine is a manufacturing process. In general,
the manufacturing process is comprised of the following processes:harvesting and crushing grapes;
fermenting the must; ageing the wine; and packaging.
Harvesting and Crushing Grapes
Although red and white wine production involved slightly different steps that necessitated separate
production lines, the winemaking process was similar for both types. Grapes can be harvested
manually or mechanically—both with advantages and disadvantages; however, manual harvesting
has many more advantages in terms of wine quality outcome. With manual cultivation, only the best
grape clusters are picked, while mechanical cultivation cannot differentiate between a rotten grape
and a good grape. Harvesting by hand, though it is slow, guarantees only the best grapes will be used
to make wine, creating better quality but also a higher price tag due to extra manual labor.
Mechanical cultivation allows for more grapes to be picked at a time and save the winery and
ultimately the purchaser money.
Fermenting the must
After harvesting, all grapes usually transferred to the winery by truck for crushing. The pressed juice
or “must” was pumped or gravity flowed into large temperature-controlled concrete, steel, or oak
tanks for fermentation during which natural and/or added yeast metabolized the grapes’ sugar into
ethanol and carbon dioxide. Fermentation typically lasted one to five weeks. The production of
higher quality wines typically less automated and in smaller volumes. Lower quality wines made in
larger volumes and more “formula” based. High-end premium producers were careful to keep
grapes from different growers in separate fermentation tanks for quality control purposes. Jug wine
producers typically used large, common vats for grapes drawn from several growers.
Aging the wine
After crushing and fermentation, wine needs to be stored, filtered, and properly aged. In some
instances, the wine must also be blended with other alcohol. Many wineries still store wine in damp,
subterranean wine cellars to keep the wine cool, but larger wineries now store wine above ground in
epoxylined and stainless steel tanks. The tanks are temperature-controlled by water that circulates
inside the lining of the tank shell. Other similar tanks are used instead of the old redwood and
concrete vats when wine is temporarily stored during the settling process. (Bralla, 2007) Aging the
wine for the right amount of time creates a more approachable wine—especially in red wines with
lots of tannins—with new oak flavors including sweet vanilla, leather, tobacco, and spices such as
clove, anise, cinnamon, or pepper. Many wine drinkers like the flavors and aromas oak imparts.
Wine softens during barrel aging. Aging for a long time will slowly oxidize the wine in a controlled
Before bottling the wine, more sulfates are added to ensure that additional fermentation will not
occur in the bottle. Then, corks or screw caps seal the wine, with an added capsule making this seal
more secure. Labeling wine has become very important in recent years. Eye-catching labels sell wine,
regardless of if it is a good wine or not. The cover of a book may be beautifully designed, but not a
good book. The same goes for wine, the label on a bottle of wine may be gorgeous, but the wine
may be poorly produced.
Wine Storage and Bottling Quality Control:
The principal quality control difficulties of the wine industry in include the following:
Lack of adequate recordkeeping
Fruit quality
Control of phenol extraction
Oxidative and microbiological degradation
The key to adequate quality control is to monitor how each production activity affects wine
palatability and to make adjustments accordingly. Complete and accurate recordkeeping is the
cornerstone of a successful quality control program. Only when proper up-to-date accounts of wine
production activities are kept can a full understanding of the parameters affecting wine quality

Aging and Storage Quality Control:

Each winery should have an established sanitation program, and periodically monitor the
effectiveness of that program. Such simple procedures as tasting barrel and tank rinse water can be
a significant step in ensuring quality. Alcohol is an excellent solvent. Therefore, any off-character in
the rinse water may be picked up in the wine. Chemical Analysis A procedure should be established
for running a specific set of analyses according to a specific timetable. The analysis performed
depends somewhat upon the philosophy of the winemaker. Several analyses are essential on newly
fermented wines:
Free and total sulfur dioxide (by the aeration-oxidation method, see Zoecklein et al. 1999)
Treatable acidity
Reducing sugar
Protein stability (for whites and low-tannin reds)
Potassium tartrate stability
MLF status, biological stability
Proper and controlled sensory analysis
These are the very minimum analyses which the winery should be capable of performing or willing to
contract. It is important that the winemaker know how each processing step affects his product,
both chemically and organoleptic ally. Formal or semi-formal sensory evaluations should be
conducted regularly using reference samples. For example, wines should be evaluated for
comparison of color and body stripping due to filtration, cold stabilization, etc., both before and
after the procedure is conducted.

Oxygen Pickup
Most winemakers strive to retain as much of the “grape” as possible in their wines. The loss of
aroma components between fermentation and bottle release is a significant problem in this state.
The colder the wine, the greater is the solubility of molecular oxygen in the wine. When the wine is
then allowed to warm, oxidation can occur. This is a principal disadvantage of conventional cold
stabilization for potassium bitartrate stability. Such procedures often result in prolonged
refrigeration of wines, resulting in oxidative degradation and high energy demands. Each winemaker
must know how processing and equipment affect O2 uptake. Free sulfur dioxide analysis is a good
indication of O2 uptake, since sulfurous acid is oxidized by the dissolved oxygen in wine. Therefore, a
rapid decline in the free SO2 level in a short period of time is indicative of O2 pickup.
Such preventive steps as proper equipment, sulfur dioxide additions during or just prior to wine
movements, nitrogen blanketing, CO2 sparging, and flushing lines and receiving tanks, all have their
place in reducing the likelihood of excessive oxidation. (The use of a “Y'” valve on the suction side of
a positivedisplacement pump is an easy way to introduce SO2, gases, fining agents, etc., during
racking). For a discussion on the use of displacement gases, see Enology Notes. There is no substitute
for storing wines in full containers, with the possible exception of barrels. A partial vacuums is
formed in properly sealed barrels over time. Many assumed that barrels should be topped regularly
to prevent oxidation and biological growth. The frequency of barrel topping should be part of the
winery’s HACCP program, and determined based on wine chemistry, style (secondary lees volume),
and barrel sanitation program. As stated, wine temperature is important because of its effect on
oxygen solubility. Knowing storage temperatures and temperature fluctuations is a key to
understanding the aging potential of a wine.

A checklist should be established to ensure that important factors are not overlooked. These should
include the following:
free sulphur levels (FSO2)
dissolved carbon dioxide (DCO2)
dissolved oxygen (DO)
residue sugar/density
stability: protein, color, bitartrate, and microbiological
final sensory analysis or review, including screen for volatile sulfur-like off odors.
It should be noted that wines are generally stable with regard to MLF if the malic acid content is less
than 30 mg/L. Paper chromatography is only semiquantitative and will detect malic acid levels in the
range of 100 mg/L or more. Wines to be either bottled unfiltered would without absolute membrane
porosity should be tested for viable yeast, acetic acid bacteria and lactic acid bacteria. Includes
Brettanomyces spp. Testing procedures include traditional bench top techniques such as plating or
molecular methods such as Scorpion TM. Dissolved oxygen meters must be calibrated regularly can
capable of reading to the hundredths. Residue carbon dioxide may increase the risk of foaming,
necessitating the use of anti-foam adjuncts.

Materials and Quality Control Analysis

Are all materials needed for bottling present and in the proper condition? Clearly distinguish
between critical (functional) and minor (“cosmetic”) flaws.
• Acceptable Quality Levels (AQL): This is a satatistical measures of consistency or quality common
to sampling programs. AQL refers to the maximum number of defects that are considered
acceptable during inspection of a randomly selected sample.
• AQL sampling fixes the probability of lot acceptance at 95%. For example, establishing a AQL of
1.5% for cork equates to ≤15 defects per 1,000 cylinders. A restrictive AQL such as 0.010 (1/10,000)
will require a much larger sample size than a higher AQL such as 1.0 (100/10,000).
• Selection of AQLs depend upon the nature of defect(s) to be detected:
• Major defect (Critical) : 1%
• Minor (Cosmetic) defect 2.5 - 4%
• The set Acceptable Quality Levels (AQL) should be equal to (but not more restrictive) than your
processing capabilities.

Bottling Quality Control

Sanitation Program
The winery should have a set bottling sanitation program and know its effectiveness. Sanitation in
the absence of monitoring is faith-based.
Biological and Oxidative Quality Control
Based upon microbiology, is there a need to sterile package? Options include the following:
sterile bottling (0.45 µm filtration)
0.80 µm filtration
“sterile” pads
chemicals (preservatives or sterilant)
Aside from packaging, the two most important considerations during bottling are biological and
oxidative. Spoilage organisms which are present in the winery can easily find an adequate growth
medium in spilled wine, particularly if the wine is not cleaned up properly.
The major sources of contamination during bottling include the following:
Filter pad drip trays. This is of increased importance due to the use of cellulosic pads, which drip
heavily. Trays must be drained often during bottling runs if wine is being filtered during bottling.
Fill bowls. Leaky spouts, wine blown from snifter valves, wine residue on bell rubbers, etc., can
harbor wine contaminants. It may be desirable, particularly during long runs, to occasionally mist bell
rubbers and filler stems with a 60-70% ethanol solution to inhibit microbial growth.
Corking machines. Corkers are a significant source of potential sanitation difficulties, due to the
likelihood of wine spillage, and are easily contaminated. These units should be completely
dismantled and cleaned before and after each bottling. Ethanol misting of the corker jaws during
bottling can be a significant asset in minimizing biological problems
. Work activity. Increased worker activity in the bottling area increases the spread of airborne wine
microbes. It is desirable to limit the number of employees around the filling and corking area to as
few as possible.
Bottling line sanitation monitoring is essential for minimizing potential problems.
Optimally, sampling should occur at 1 hr intervals during operational run. Bottling line samples
should be held 2-3 days before biological plating (if that is to occur) to allow sulfur dioxide and other
preservatives to impact microbes. If biological plating is to occur the universal question is how much
wine needs to be plated to detect problems?
• Hypothetical Scenario: Assume that >10 cells/L constitutes microbiological instability.
• 100 mL and 750 mL membrane-filtered samples:
Case 1: 20/1000 mL cells x 100 mL = 2.0 cells
Case 2: 20/1000 mL cells x 750 mL = 15 cells
Wine Oxidation
Another potential problem during bottling is wine oxidation. It is not unusual for bottling to impart
from 0.5 to greater than 2 mg of O2/L into the wine. Such addition can have a profound effect on
wine quality and shelf life. It is therefore essential to know your bottling equipment and how it
affects wine oxidation. Such production practices as sulfur dioxide additions just prior to bottling,
ascorbic acid additions, nitrogen sparging, carbon dioxide or nitrogen flushing of bottles prior to
filling, vacuum corkers and fillers, etc., can be useful in limiting O2 problems. The loss of free sulfur
dioxide in wine is proportional to the dissolved oxygen content. Producers not using vacuum fillers
and corkers, or flushing bottles with gas, can have up to 5 mL of air in the headspace of their bottled
wine (750 mL bottles). This amounts to approximately 1 mL (1.4 mg) of oxygen. Four mg of sulfur
dioxide are needed to neutralize the effects of 1 mg of oxygen.
Using this relationship, an additional 5-6 mg of free sulfur dioxide is needed to reduce molecular
oxygen in the headspace. This represents a rather significant loss of free sulfur dioxide which could
otherwise be available as an antimicrobial agent. It should be noted that the reaction of sulfur
dioxide with oxygen is not instantaneous. As such, oxidation of desirable aroma and flavor
components can occur. An advantage of the use of ascorbic acid is that it reacts very rapidly. If the
extent of potential oxidation is high, wines should not be bottled cold, due to the increased solubility
of molecular oxygen. High levels of oxygen are particularly detrimental to wines which contain sorbic
acid (potassium sorbate), due to the development of oxidative products which impart an unpleasant
character to the wines. There is a risk in the cellar operation of picking up oxygen during the mixing
of wine. The risk of picking up dissolved oxygen can be reduced by ensuring that there is good cover
of CO2 gas on the top of the tank during the mixing process, and that all hose and fitting connections
on the pump and tank, particularly on the suction side, are air tight. There is a much greater risk in
picking up oxygen in this cellar operation if wine is being recirculated and chilled through a heat
exchanger. A good CO2 gas cover on the top of the wine maybe helpful. The risk of picking up
dissolved oxygen when using mixing tanks can be reduced by ensuring that there is a good cover of
CO2 gas on the top of the tank during the mixing process, and that all hose and fitting connections
on the pump and tank are air tight. In wines with dissolved carbon dioxide, the CO2 level should be
monitored prior to bottling to assure that proper concentration has been attained and that there are
not foaming issues.

Wine Temperature
The TTB requires proprietors to test representative wines at intervals during the wine bottling
operation for correct fill height. Fill height is highly dependent on wine temperature. Ideally, wine
temperature should be between 60-70°F at bottling. Thermal expansion of wine between 20°C (68°F)
and 40°C (104°F) is 0.08%. As a general rule, wine volume will increase 0.166 mL/1°F in the neck of
most 750-mL bottles. Thus, if a winery bottles at 58°F with 4.5 mL of headspace, that ullage will be
reduced to under 3 ml at 68°F, and internal bottle pressure will have risen significantly. This
generally is alcohol dependent. The higher the alcohol, the greater is the volume increase, resulting
in decreased headspace and corresponding increases in pressure. If lower temperatures are used,
the fill points should be adjusted down to compensate for expansion in the bottle when room
temperature is reached. General tolerances for 750 mL bottles is 2.0 percent, for 350 mL bottles, 3.0
percent at 20° C/68° F.
Label Coding
Label coding is a means by which the winemaker can extend his quality control into the
marketplace. By placing very small notches, one each for day, month, and year on the label, winery
personnel can determine the bottling date and, from there, the complete history of the wine. Label
coding can be done by simply placing a stack of labels in a vise and using a saw to cut a small notch
on each axis. Using a standard – usually a piece of plastic – the vintner can identify the bottling date.
This can be highly important if the winery is forced to have several to many bottling runs of a
particular wine lot. We have had several cases where sheer biological or physical instability occurred
with only one bottling date, of a wine with several bottlings. Had these wineries coded their bottles,
they could have gone into the marketplace and simply removed only that particular bottling date
affected. Instead, they were forced to recall all bottling dates of that particular wine, resulting in a
major credibility problem – to say nothing of the direct economic loss.

Warehousing and Bottle

Release Wines bottled in synthetic closures should be stored upright. Cork-finished wines can be
stored on their closures some time after bottling. Bottle release dates are usually determined based
on marketing decisions. However, bottled wines should be periodically tasted by a panel against
reference samples (held at < 40°F) to determine how the wine is developing. Too early a release date
results in a bottle bouquet that is less than fully developed, too late may mean a large segment of
the consumers could receive the wine after its quality begins to diminish.
Bottle shock
Bottle shock is a rather strange phenomenon where a wines aromatic intensity is reduced after
bottling only to return sometime later. The cause(s) of bottle shock are unknown, but widely
debated and are likely the result oxidative effects. Generally, if wines are tasted immediately during
or shortly after bottling, there is no noticeable effect. However, within the course of a few hours or
days the oxygen present can react with wine components causing a reduction in the aromatic
intensity. Traditionally this loss has been attributed to the production of aldehydes, a product of
ethanol oxidation. Others suggest that bottle shock is the result of another oxidation product,
hydrogen peroxide.
Bottle aging is dependent upon the wine chemistry and the warehousing conditions. It is essential
that the winemaker understand how each processing step affects wine chemistry and, therefore,
wine shelf life. Bottle storage temperature naturally impact wine longevity. For example, it is
estimated that a white wine stored at 55 degrees F and expected to continue to improve for 5 years
may have that time reduced by one half if stored at 70 degrees F. Premium wine quality is the result
of quality fruit and many processing steps. These steps, viewed individually, may be insignificant.
However, collectively they make the difference between standard and outstanding wines. It is the
responsibility of the winemaker to understand how production parameters affect wine quality, and
to make adjustments accordingly.