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Engineering Standard

SAES-Q-001 18 February 2018


Criteria for Design and Construction of Concrete Structures
Document Responsibility: Civil Standards Committee

Contents
1 Scope ................................................................ 2
2 Conflicts and Deviations ................................... 2
3 References........................................................ 2
4 General Requirements ...................................... 6
5 Quality Control .................................................. 6
6 Concrete Materials ............................................ 7
7 Design and Execution ....................................... 8
8 Marine and Coastal Concrete Structures ........ 22
Revision Summary................................................. 23

Previous Issue: 7 January 2016 Next Planned Update: 7 January 2019


Revised paragraphs are indicated in the right margin Page 1 of 23
Contact: Abduljabbar, Sami Abdulaziz (abdusa0x) on phone +966-13-8809680

©Saudi Aramco 2018. All rights reserved.


Document Responsibility: Civil Standards Committee SAES-Q-001
Issue Date: 18 February 2018
Next Planned Update: 7 January 2019 Criteria for Design and Construction of Concrete Structures

1 Scope

This standard covers the minimum mandatory requirements governing the design,
specifications, and construction of all onshore structural, offshore structural and
non-structural concrete.
1.1 This standard does not cover the design, Manufacturing, specification, casting,
and erection of precast and prestressed concrete products. Refer to SAES-Q-012
for Precast and Prestressed Concrete Structures.
1.2 This Standard does not cover concrete for fire proofing applications. Refer to
SAES-B-006 for additional information on the use of concrete as fireproofing
material.
1.3 This standard states the minimum requirements that need to be fulfilled for
offshore and marine concrete.

1.4 Special concrete mixes such as self-consolidated concrete (SCC), roller


compacted concrete, previous concrete, heavy weight concrete, light weight
concrete, concrete used for radioactive shielding applications, etc., shall be
reviewed by CSD / Civil Engineering Group.

2 Conflicts and Deviations

Any conflicts between this document and other applicable Mandatory Saudi Aramco
Engineering Requirements (MSAERs*) shall be addressed to the EK&RD Coordinator.

Any deviation from the requirements herein shall follow internal company procedure
SAEP-302.

3 References

The following reference documents shall be considered an integral part of this standard
except otherwise noted. Use the edition in effect on the date of the publication of this
standard unless otherwise noted.
3.1 Saudi Aramco References
Saudi Aramco Engineering Procedure
SAEP-302 Waiver of a Mandatory Saudi Aramco Engineering
Requirement

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards


SAES-A-113 Geotechnical Engineering Requirements
SAES-A-114 Excavation and Backfill
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Document Responsibility: Civil Standards Committee SAES-Q-001
Issue Date: 18 February 2018
Next Planned Update: 7 January 2019 Criteria for Design and Construction of Concrete Structures

SAES-B-006 Fireproofing for Plants


SAES-B-055 Plant Layout
SAES-H-001 Coating Selection and Application Requirements for
Industrial Plants and Equipment
SAES-H-003 Protective Coatings for Industrial Concrete
Structures
SAES-H-004 Protective Coating Selection and Application
Requirements for Offshore Structures and
Facilities
SAES-L-440 Anchor for Buried Pipelines
SAES-M-001 Structural Design Criteria for non-Buildings
Structures
SAES-M-100 Saudi Aramco Building Code
SAES-P-104 Wiring Methods and Materials
SAES-Q-005 Concrete Foundations
SAES-Q-006 Asphalt and Sulfur Extended Asphalt Concrete
Paving
SAES-Q-007 Foundations and Supporting Structure for Heavy
Machinery
SAES-Q-009 Concrete Retaining Walls
SAES-Q-012 Criteria for Design and Construction of Precast and
Prestressed Concrete Structures
SAES-T-911 Telecommunications Conduit System Design
SAES-X-800 Cathodic Protection for Existing Reinforced
Concrete Structures

Saudi Aramco Materials System Specifications


09-SAMSS-075 Caulking Compound (Joint Sealant)
09-SAMSS-097 Ready-Mixed Concrete
09-SAMSS-106 Epoxy Coating of Steel Reinforcing Bars
12-SAMSS-007 Fabrication of Structural and Miscellanies Steel

Saudi Aramco Engineering Reports


SAER-5803 Concrete Repair Manual

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Document Responsibility: Civil Standards Committee SAES-Q-001
Issue Date: 18 February 2018
Next Planned Update: 7 January 2019 Criteria for Design and Construction of Concrete Structures

SAER-6610 In-ground Sulfur Pit Design, Assessment, and


Repair - State-of-the-Art Strategies

Saudi Aramco Standard Drawing


AA-036602 Concrete Masonry

Saudi Aramco Construction Safety Manual

3.2 Industry Codes and Standards

American Concrete Institute

All ACI standards and recommended practices including but not limited to the
following list:
ACI 117 Standard Specifications for Tolerances for Concrete
Construction and Materials
ACI 224.3R Joints in Concrete Construction
ACI 301-10 Specifications for Structural Concrete
ACI 302.1R Guide for Concrete Floor and Slab Construction
ACI 304R Guide for Measuring, Mixing, Transporting and
Placing Concrete
ACI 305R Hot Weather Concreting
ACI 318 Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete
ACI 350 Code Requirements for Environmental Engineering
Concrete Structures and Commentary
ACI 350.1 Specification for Tightness Testing of Environmental
Engineering Concrete Containment Structures
ACI 350.4R Design Considerations for Environmental
Engineering Concrete Structures
ACI 350.5 Specifications for Environmental Concrete Structures
ACI 357.3R Guide for Design and Construction of Waterfront
and Coastal Concrete Marine Structures
ACI 360R Design of Slab on Ground
ACI 440.1R Guide for the Design and Construction of Concrete
Reinforced with FRP Bars
ACI 440.5 Specification for Construction with Fiber-
Reinforced Polymer Reinforcing Bars

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Document Responsibility: Civil Standards Committee SAES-Q-001
Issue Date: 18 February 2018
Next Planned Update: 7 January 2019 Criteria for Design and Construction of Concrete Structures

ACI 530/ Building Code Requirements for Masonry


ASCE 5/TMS 402 Structures
ACI 562 Code Requirements for Evaluation, Repair, and
Rehabilitation of Concrete Buildings
ACI SP-66 Detailing Manual - Details and Detailing of
Concrete Reinforcement

ASTM International
ASTM A123/123M Specification for Zinc (Hot-dip Galvanized)
Coatings on Iron and Steel Products
ASTM A615/A615M Specification for Deformed and Plain Carbon-Steel
Bars for Concrete Reinforcement
ASTM A767/767M Specification for Zinc-Coated (Galvanized) Steel
Bars for Concrete Reinforcement
ASTM A775/A775M Specification for Epoxy-Coated Reinforcing Bars
ASTM A884/A884M Specification for Epoxy-Coated Steel Wire and
Welded Wire Fabric for Reinforcement
ASTM A1064/A1064M Specification for Carbon-Steel Wire and Welded
Wire Reinforcement, Plain and Deformed, For
Concrete
ASTM C39/C39M Test Methods for Compressive Strength of
Cylindrical Concrete Specimens
ASTM C55 Specification for Concrete Building Brick
ASTM C90 Specification for Load Bearing Concrete Masonry
Units
ASTM C129 Specification for Non-Load Bearing Concrete
Masonry Units
ASTM C309 Specification for Liquid Membrane-forming
Compounds for Curing Concrete
ASTM C979/C979M Specification for Pigments for Integrally Colored
Concrete
ASTM C1240 Standard Specification for Silica Fume Used in
Cementitious Mixtures
ASTM C1580 Test Method for Water-Soluble Sulfate in Soil
ASTM D1751 Standard Specification for Preformed Expansion
Joint Filler for Concrete Paving and Structural

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Document Responsibility: Civil Standards Committee SAES-Q-001
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Construction
ASTM D1752 Specification for Preformed Sponge Rubber Cork
and Recycled PVC Expansion Joint Fillers for
Concrete Paving and Structural Construction
ASTM E1745 Standard Specification for Plastic Water Vapor
Retarders Used in Contact with Soil or Granular
Fill under Concrete Slabs

Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute (CRSI)

Manual of Standard Practice

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Organization


AASHTO T291 Standard Method of Test for Determining Water
Soluble Chloride Ion Content in Soil
AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications

4 General Requirements

Concrete construction shall be in accordance with all requirements of ACI 301-10,


except as modified or supplemented in this standard or by contract documents

Any placement of concrete designated in the contract documents as mass concrete or


any placement of structural concrete with a minimum dimension equal to or greater than
900 mm should be considered mass concrete unless otherwise specified in contract
documents and shall comply with ACI 301-10, Section 8.

4.1 Construction of concrete hydraulic (liquid-retaining) structures shall comply


with ACI 350.5.

4.2 Cast-in-place structural concrete reinforced with fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP)


bars shall comply with ACI 440.5 “Specification for Construction with Fiber-
Reinforced Polymer Reinforcing Bars”.

4.3 Concrete that is not covered by this document shall comply with the applicable
ACI document.

5 Quality Control

The contractor shall employ an independent Saudi Aramco approved testing agency to
perform field and laboratory testing which shall include compressive strength tests of
molded concrete cylinders, test for slump, unit weight, air content (where air-

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Document Responsibility: Civil Standards Committee SAES-Q-001
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entrainment is required) and fresh concrete temperature. All testing shall be in


accordance with 09-SAMSS-097, “Ready-Mix Concrete.”

6 Concrete Materials

The concrete materials shall be in accordance with 09-SAMSS-097, “Ready-Mixed


Concrete” and as follows:

6.1 Reinforcement

6.1.1 Reinforcing bars shall be deformed billet steel in accordance with


ASTM A615/A615M, Grade 60.
Commentary Note:

When used as ductile steel elements to resist earthquake effects,


deformed reinforcing bar shall be limited to ASTM A706 Grade 60, or
ASTM A615 Grades 40 and 60 satisfying the requirements of ACI 318.

6.1.2 Coated reinforcements shall be Fusion Bonded Epoxy in accordance


with 09-SAMSS-106.

6.1.3 Welded wire reinforcement shall be plain wire in accordance with


ASTM A1064/A1064M.

6.1.4 Galvanized welded wire fabric shall conform to ASTM A767/A767M


and shall be acceptable reinforcement in lieu of epoxy coated welded
wire fabric coated in accordance to ASTM A884/A884M.

6.1.5 Tie wire shall be black annealed wire, 16 gage (1.29 mm) minimum.
Fasten epoxy-coated reinforcement with tie wires coated with epoxy.

6.1.6 Manufacturing, fabrication, handling, placement and storage of


reinforcement shall be in accordance with ACI 318.
Commentary Note:

Care should be taken to avoid any damage to the coated rebars during
shipment, handling, fabrication and placement of the coated rebars.
The extent of the damage and repair of the coating shall be in
accordance with 09-SAMSS-106.

6.2 Masonry Units

Details and dimensions of the concrete masonry units shall be as shown on


Standard Drawing AA-036602. Manufacturing and testing shall be in
accordance with the following specifications for each type of masonry unit to be

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Document Responsibility: Civil Standards Committee SAES-Q-001
Issue Date: 18 February 2018
Next Planned Update: 7 January 2019 Criteria for Design and Construction of Concrete Structures

supplied under the Purchase Order. Actual finish dimensions for each type of
masonry shall be as specified in the Purchase Order.

6.2.1 Hollow and solid load-bearing concrete masonry units shall be


manufactured and tested according to ASTM C90.

6.2.2 Hollow and solid non-load bearing concrete masonry units shall be
manufactured and tested according to ASTM C129.
Commentary Note:

Masonry units manufactured to ASTM C129 are intended for use as non-
load bearing partitions. They should not be used for exterior walls unless
a moisture-protective coating is used.

6.2.3 Concrete building brick shall be Grade N, manufactured and tested


according to ASTM C55.

6.3 Joints

6.3.1 Joint filler strips for expansion joints shall conform to ASTM D1751 or
ASTM D1752. Type shall be as noted on the design drawings

6.3.2 Joints sealant materials shall conform to 09-SAMSS-075.

6.4 Accessories

Accessories shall meet the requirements of ACI 301-10.

7 Design and Execution

7.1 SAES-B-055, “Plant Layout,” shall be used for minimum horizontal and vertical
spacing or clearance requirements of concrete structures.

7.2 SAES-L-440, “Anchor for Buried Pipelines,” shall be used for the design of
anchor blocks.

7.3 SAES-M-001, “Structural Design Criteria for Non-Building Structures,”


Section 4.2, Loading Requirements, shall be used for minimum design load
requirements on non-building concrete structures.

7.4 SAES-M-100, “Saudi Aramco Building Code,” shall be used for the design of
concrete buildings.

7.5 SAES-M-009, “Design Criteria for Blast Resistant Buildings” shall be used for
the design of blast resistant buildings.

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Document Responsibility: Civil Standards Committee SAES-Q-001
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7.6 SAES-Q-005, “Concrete Foundations,” shall be used to establish minimum


design requirements for concrete foundations, except foundations and supports
for heavy machinery.

7.7 SAES-Q-007, “Foundations and Supporting structures for Heavy Machinery,”


shall be used to establish minimum design requirements for concrete
foundations and elevated supports for heavy machinery.

7.8 SAES-Q-009, “Concrete Retaining Walls,” shall be used to establish minimum


design requirements for concrete retaining walls.

7.9 ACI 318, “Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete,” shall be used
for the design of concrete structures.

7.10 ACI 350, “Code Requirements for Environmental Engineering Concrete


Structures,” shall be used for the design of conventionally reinforced
environmental engineering concrete structures.
Commentary Note:

Liquid retaining structures should be leak tested while their walls are exposed
(Refer to ACI 350.1).

7.11 ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402 shall be used for the design of masonry structures.

7.12 AASHTO, “LRFD Bridge Design Specifications,” shall be used for the
structural design of reinforced concrete bridges, culverts, and pipeline crossing.
Unless otherwise specified, the design shall be based on HS20 truck.
Maintenance and construction crane loads shall also be considered.

7.13 Concrete paving shall be in accordance with the following:


a) Areas subject to spills, wash water, fire water and sidewalk shall be
paved with a minimum thickness of 100 mm of reinforced concrete with
minimum reinforcements of 150 x 150 MW9 x MW9 welded wire fabric.
Areas subject to vehicular traffic shall be in accordance with paragraph b).
Commentary Note:

150x150 MW9xMW9: 150 mm is the spacing between the reinforcement and


MW9 (9 mm²) is the cross sectional area of the rebar.

b) Paving slabs subject to vehicular traffic shall be a minimum thickness of


150 mm of reinforced concrete. The design load shall be as specified in
paragraph 0 of this standard. The design of the paving shall be based on
ACI 360R. Minimum reinforcement shall be 150x150 MW18.7 x MW18.7
welded wire fabric or equivalent.

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Document Responsibility: Civil Standards Committee SAES-Q-001
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c) Concrete paving slope to the catch basins or trenches shall not be less than
1:65 (1.5%). The maximum drop to catch basins from high point of paving
shall be 200 mm.
Commentary Note:

Ensure that slope will not jeopardize the movement of traffic.

d) Where foundations protrude through the paving, 12 mm diameter


reinforcing bars, 800 mm long, shall be placed diagonally in the paving at
all interior corners.

7.14 ACI 440.1R, “Guide for the Design and Construction of Concrete Reinforced
with FRP Bars,” shall be used for the design when Glass Fiber Reinforced
Plastic Bars (GFRP) are specified.

7.15 Concrete shall be either structural or nonstructural, as follows:


a) Structural Concrete: All reinforced concrete including concrete with
minimum reinforcement for temperature and shrinkage control.
The minimum 28-day design compressive strength (ASTM C39) shall be in
accordance with Table 2. Water retaining structures, shall have a minimum
28-day design compressive strength of 35 MPa (5,000 psi).
b) Non-Structural Concrete: Unreinforced concrete of no significant structural
value such as lean concrete for sub-slabs. The minimum 28 day design
compressive strength (ASTM C39) shall be 14 MPa (2,000 psi).

7.16 Exposures

Structural concrete members shall be assigned an exposure class in accordance


with the severity of the anticipated exposure of members in Tables 1.A, 1.B, and
1.C.

Table 1.A - Sulfate Exposures Classes


Exposure Water-soluble Sulfate (SO4) Dissolved Sulfate (SO4)
Class in Soil, Percent by Mass1 in Water, ppm2
S0 SO4 < 0.1 SO4 < 150
S1 0.10 ≤ SO4 < 0.20 150 ≤ SO4 < 1,500
S2 0.2 ≤ SO4 < 2.00 1,500 ≤ SO4 < 10,000
S3 SO4 > 2.0 SO4 ≥ 10,000
S4 Sulfur Pits

1
Percent sulfate by mass in soil shall be determined in accordance with ASTM C1580.
2
Concentration of dissolved sulfates in water in ppm shall be determined by ASTM D516 or ASTM D4130
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Table 1.B - Water Exposures Classes


Exposure
Exposure Environment
Class
Concrete dry in service
W0
Concrete in contact with water and low permeability is not required

W1 Concrete in contact with water and low permeability is required

Table 1.C - Chloride Exposure Classes

Below Ground Exposure3 Above Ground Exposure


Exposure Class

Water Soluble
Water Soluble
Chloride (cl-) in Environmental and
Chloride (cl-) in
Soil, % by Marine Exposure
Ground Water, ppm5
Weight4

 Non-coastal (more than 5 km from the coastline)


 Concrete dry or protected from moisture by damp-proof
C0 Up to 0.1 Up to 2,000 membrane
 Members fully enclosed within buildings
 Coastal (up to 5 km from the coastline, but excluding members
classified under other exposures)
 Concrete permanently submerged in sea water
C16 0.1 to 0.5 2,000 to 10,000
 Concrete subjected to cyclic wet and dry from water other than
seawater (e.g., structures subjected to intermittent brackish
wash water)

More than 0.5 More than 10,000  Coastal (up to 5 km from the coastline, but excluding members
classified under other exposures)
C27
Concrete in contact with Sabkha10  Concrete in tidal8, and splash9 zones in marine environment

Based on the exposure classes assigned from Table 1.A, B and C, concrete mixtures and steel
reinforcement type shall comply with the most restrictive requirements in Table 2.

3
Water soluble chloride in ground water need to be identified if water table is less than one meter below the bottom of the
foundation or structural element
4
Water-soluble chloride ion in soil shall be determined in accordance with AASHTO T291
5
ppm; parts per million measured after soil is compacted.
6
Sewage Treatment Plant is classified as C1 exposure.
7
Water Cooling towers is classified as C2 exposure.
8
Tidal zone – as mentioned in ACI 357.3R-14.
9
Splash zone – as defined in SAES-H-004.
10
Sabkha - as defined in SAES-A-114.
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Document Responsibility: Civil Standards Committee SAES-Q-001
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Table 2 - Requirements for Reinforced Concrete by Exposures Class


Max. Min. f’c Reinforcing
Exposure Cement Type Additional Provisions
w/cm (MPa) Steel
S0 0.45 20 No restriction Uncoated
S1 0.40 28 II or V Uncoated
S2 0.40 32 V Uncoated
V + Pozzolan
S3 0.40 32 Uncoated
or Slag11, 12
S4 0.36 60 V+Slag Uncoated Refer to Section 7.17
W0 0.45 20 No restriction Uncoated
W1 0.40 28 No restriction Uncoated
Max. water-soluble
chloride ion (Cl-) in Additional
concrete, % by weight Provisions
of cement13
C0 0.45 20 I Uncoated 1.00
I + Pozzolan
C1 0.40 32 ECR14 0.15
or Slag
Refer to Section 8
for environmental
concrete
I + Pozzolan Concrete in
C2 0.36 42 ECR 0.15
or Slag sabkah shall be
protected by
appropriate means
such as tanking

Commentary Notes:

The use of slag or pozzolans including Silica Fume or any combination of the above are limited to
structural concrete members only.

Plant paving, sidewalks, erosion protection paving and slabs reinforced with welded wire fabric
are exempted from the use of Pozzolan or slag.

Silica Fume shall be tested prior to use on monthly basis or when changing the source of the
materials to confirm its compliance to ASTM C1240.

Table 1. Underground exposure category is based on performance of geotechnical investigation


as required by SAES-A-113 or availability of prior reports showing soil chemical composition.

11 Pozzolan can be silica fume, fly ash, or natural pozzolan


12
The amount of the specific source of the pozzolan or slag cement to be used shall be at least the amount that has been
determined by service record to improve sulfate resistance when used in concrete containing Type V cement.
Alternatively, the amount of the specific source of the pozzolan or slag cement to be used shall be at least the amount
tested in accordance with ASTM C1012 and meeting the criteria in ACI-318-14, section 26.4.2.2(c).
13
Water-soluble chloride ion content that is contributed from the ingredients including water, aggregates, cementitious
materials, and admixtures shall be determined on the concrete mixture by ASTM C1218 at age between 28 and
42 days.
14
ECR – Epoxy Coated Rebars
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Testing of soil shall be for the natural soil and the capillary rise phenomenon shall be considered if
the soil is imported.

7.17 Sulfur Pits

The following guidelines shall be followed in the construction, repair, and replacement
of sulfur pits:

7.17.1 ACI 350.2, “Concrete Structures for Containment of Hazardous


Materials,” shall be used for the design of sulfur pits.

7.17.2 Design, assessment, and repair of sulfur pits shall follow the guidelines
and procedures of SAER-6610 “In-Ground Sulfur Pit Design,
Assessment, and Repair - State-of-the-Art Strategies.”

7.17.3 Pipe rack or heavy structures shall not be supported on the roof, or
walls of the sulfur pits.

7.17.4 Minimum concrete cover in sulfur pits shall not be less than 75 mm.

7.17.5 High performance self-consolidating concrete with 65% Ground


Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS) and 5% silica fume in
addition to 30% Type I to produce cement high chemical resistant shall
be used for sulfur pit construction or repair. High performance
concrete shall meet the following durability criteria:
a. Minimum compressive strength shall be 60 MPa as measured in
accordance with ASTM C39;
b. Corrected 30 minute absorption of not greater than 1.2%, as
measured by BS 1881: Part 122:1983. The absorption test is to be
conducted by an independent testing authority on cores taken from
cubes or cylinders (or from cast specimens where permitted by the
Principal's Representative), from the trial mixes which shall be
conducted prior to the commencement of the supply of concrete;
c. Chloride permeability test shall be carried out in accordance with
ASTM C1202 or AASHTO T277. The total charged passed shall
not exceed 1,000 coulombs.

7.17.6 For existing sulfur pits that are not built with high performance
concrete described in paragraph 7.17.5 above, use internal durability
lining system of potassium silicate concrete of 50 mm minimum in
thickness or a 200 mm thick of high performance concrete as in
paragraph 7.17.5, the durability liner shall satisfy the following:

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a. Vertical installations shall be anchored to the substrate with “T”-


type stainless steel anchors at a maximum distance of 300 mm
centerlines in addition to steel mesh to mechanically secure the
Potassium Silicate to concrete substrate. Concrete shall be treated
using chemical resistant high temperature membrane such as
urethane-asphalt compound system or equivalent prior to
installation of Potassium Silicate.
b. For slab on grade, castable Potassium Silicate of at least 50 mm
thick shall be installed. “T”- type stainless steel anchors shall be
used at a maximum distance of 400 mm centerlines in addition to
steel mesh to mechanically secure the Potassium silicate to
concrete substrate. Concrete shall be treated using chemical
resistant high temperature membrane such as urethane-asphalt
compound system or equivalent prior to installation of Potassium
Silicate.
c. Potassium silicate and chemical resistant high temperature
membranes shall be applied as per manufacturer data sheets.
d. Durability liner made of high performance concrete shall be
anchored to the existing concrete wall by appropriate anchors at a
maximum distance of 400 mm centerlines grid pattern in addition
to 102 x 102 MW25.7 / MW25.7 providing lap length of 2 full
squares as detailed in SAER-6610.

7.17.7 Use Epoxy Novolac Corrosion Resistant Epoxy Render to protect roof
soffit.
7.17.8 Waterproofing membrane shall be installed on the external surfaces
of sulfur pits that are in contact with soil. Pre-applied HDPE and
self-adhesive HDPE sheets shall be used.
7.17.9 All joints shall be filled with chemical resistant high temperature
membrane such as urethane-asphalt.
7.17.10 A proper drainage system (e.g., French drain) shall be installed on the
external side of the sulfur pits to drain water table.
7.17.11 Waterstops for sulfur pit shall be made of 16 gauge stainless steel plate
material as detailed in SAER-6610.
7.17.12 Roof slab may be constructed of precast concrete.
7.17.13 The design of sulfur pits including concrete mix design, lining system,
water proofing and drainage system shall be reviewed by the Group
Leader, Civil Engineering Group, Consulting Services Department.
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Document Responsibility: Civil Standards Committee SAES-Q-001
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7.18 Reinforcement

7.18.1 Reinforcement placing drawings and bending schedules shall be


prepared in accordance with ACI SP-66 and CRSI Manual of Standard
Practice.

7.18.2 Reinforcement placing drawings and bending schedules shall show


number, grade, size, length, mark, location, and bending diagrams for
reinforcing bars.

7.18.3 Splices in reinforcement shall be detailed, fabricated, and located only


as shown on the design drawings.

7.18.4 Fabrication drawings shall indicate the related PO number, release


number, and design drawing number.

7.18.5 Reinforcement shall be tagged with weather-resistant metal tags.

7.18.6 Each bundle of fabricated bars shall be tagged. The tags shall indicate
reinforcement placing drawing number, release number, mark number,
grade, bar quantity, and bar size.

7.18.7 Each bundle of stock-length straight bars shall be tagged to indicate bar
quantity, grade, bar size, and bar length.

7.18.8 Fabrication tolerance shall conform to ACI 117.

7.18.9 Table 3 defines the minimum concrete cover measured from outer
most rebar (tie bar), that shall be provided for reinforcement of cast-in-
place concrete structures.

Table 3 - Minimum Concrete Cover


Minimum Cover
Concrete Structure
(mm)
Concrete cast against or permanently exposed to earth
a. 75
(including foundations over a sub-slab)
Formed concrete exposed to earth or weather:
Supporting Process Equipment such as concrete pedestal for
b. pipe rack support, pipe sleepers, or supports for horizontal 75
vessels
Buildings, walkway platforms, stairs, AC pads 50
Concrete not exposed to weather or in contact with ground
c.
(which can be inspected from all sides):

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Minimum Cover
Concrete Structure
(mm)
Beams, columns 50
Slabs, walls, joists 25
d. Concrete exposed to sea water, raw water or sewage 75
Between reinforcement and anchor flange/pipe
e. 100
within pipeline anchor blocks
f. Concrete slab over 50 mm sub-slab 50
g. Sidewalks, walkways, etc. 50
h. Sulfur Pits 75

7.19 Formwork

7.19.1 The design and construction of the formwork shall be in accordance


with ACI 347, Saudi Aramco Construction Safety Manual, and shall be
the responsibility of the contractor.

7.19.2 Unless otherwise specified in the contract documents 20-millimeter


(¾-inch) chamfer strips shall be provided at all corners on permanently
exposed surfaces.

7.19.3 Form-release agents shall not be applied if concrete surfaces shall


receive special finishes (e.g., Architectural Finishes) or where the
agent may affect applied coverings. Alternately, inside surfaces of
untreated formwork shall be soaked with clean water and kept moist
before placing concrete.

7.19.4 Form removal shall be in accordance with ACI 301-10 and the
following:
a) For structures for which forms do not provide vertical support
(e.g., footings, piers, columns, walls, or sides of beams), the forms
may be removed 24 hours after completion of placement if
concrete is sufficiently hard to prevent damage by form removal,
and if curing starts immediately.
b) Unless otherwise specified in the contract documents, forms for
self-supporting members may be removed if concrete compressive
strength is at least 80% of the specified 28-day compressive
strength. Refer to ACI 301-10, Section 2.3.4, for determining
compressive strength of concrete for removal of formwork.
c) Unless otherwise approved by the purchaser, forms shall not be
left permanently in place.

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Document Responsibility: Civil Standards Committee SAES-Q-001
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7.19.5 Unless specified otherwise in the contract documents, formed concrete


surfaces shall be constructed in accordance with the tolerances shown
in ACI 117.

7.19.6 Formwork for column and wall shall be provided with adequate
cleanout openings to permit inspection and easy cleaning after
reinforcement has been placed.

7.19.7 All side and bottom surfaces of structures that will be exposed shall be
formed.

7.20 Joints

7.20.1 ACI 224.3R, “Joints in Concrete Construction,” shall be used to


design, construct, and maintain joints and identify sealant materials and
jointing techniques.

7.20.2 Isolation joints shall be placed where pavement adjoins vertical


surfaces (e.g., walls, columns, catch basins, manholes, and equipment
foundations). Isolation joints shall be located in accordance with
contract documents.

7.20.3 Dowels at expansion joints shall be properly aligned to prevent any


restraint on expansion movement at the joint.

7.20.4 The surface of joints shall be cleaned of scale and laitance and
thoroughly wetted, but free of standing water, before placing adjoining
concrete.

7.20.5 Concrete paving shall have control or construction joints located at a


maximum spacing of 6 meters on centers in both directions.

7.20.6 Expansion joints shall be used in paving adjacent to all poured in place
concrete members.

7.20.7 Paving or slab construction joints not specified on the drawings shall
be located at column centerlines and intermediate intervals.

7.20.8 Waterstops shall be provided in joints where watertight construction is


required in accordance with Chapter 5 of ACI 350.4R. Waterstop type
shall be specified and shown on the drawings and shall satisfy the
function and operation of the structure and shall be installed as per the
manufacturer’s recommendations.

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Document Responsibility: Civil Standards Committee SAES-Q-001
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7.21 Concrete Repair

7.21.1 Evaluation, repair, rehabilitation, and strengthening of reinforced


concrete structures should follow ACI 562 “Code Requirements for
Evaluation, Repair, and Rehabilitation of Concrete Buildings” and
SAER-5803, “Concrete Repair Manual.”

7.21.2 SAES-X-800, “Cathodic Protection for Existing Reinforced Concrete


Structures,” should be used if Cathodic Protection is considered for the
repair of existing deteriorated concrete structures.

7.21.3 Repair of Surface Defects


a) Tie holes, honeycombs, and other concrete surface defects shall be
repaired promptly after form removal at a time and in a manner
that shall not delay, interfere with, or impair the proper curing of
the fresh concrete unless otherwise specified or permitted by
Saudi Aramco.
b) Saudi Aramco shall be notified before proceeding with repair if
the defect is any of the following:
1. Depth is greater than 75 mm at the maximum point and
surface area is greater than (100,000 mm²).
2. Depth is greater than ¼ the thickness of the member and
greater than 150 mm in any other direction.
3. Reinforcing steel is exposed.
c) Prepackaged grouts and patching compounds or a patching mortar
similar to the concrete mix without coarse aggregate may be used
with approval from Saudi Aramco.
d) Out-of-tolerance slabs shall be repaired by grinding down high
points and/or raising low points by using an approved self-leveling
compound or repair topping if the areas are exposed.
e) Critical slab areas, identified in the contract documents shall be
replaced if out-of-tolerance. A demolition and replacement plan
for the slab areas shall be submitted to Saudi Aramco for review
and approval before proceeding.

7.22 Embedded Items

7.22.1 All sleeves, inserts, anchor bolts, waterstops, and other embedded
items shall be installed in accordance with the design drawings and

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Document Responsibility: Civil Standards Committee SAES-Q-001
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Next Planned Update: 7 January 2019 Criteria for Design and Construction of Concrete Structures

supported against displacement. Welding of these items to the


reinforcing bars shall not be permitted.

7.22.2 The design and installation of anchor bolts shall be in accordance to


SAES-Q-005 and the materials selection of anchor bolts shall be in
accordance to 12-SAMSS-007.

7.22.3 Projecting steel items (such as grating angles, slide plates, unistrut,
steel plates, etc.) which are attached to the formwork and cast at the
concrete surface shall be hot dip galvanized in accordance with
ASTM A123/A123M or coated with the zinc rich epoxy primer in
APCS-1C of SAES-H-001. Additionally, the steel attachment, which
anchors these items to the concrete, shall be similarly galvanized or
coated.

7.22.4 Reinforcing steel bars, anchor bolts or other steel embedments shall not
be connected to the electrical grounding system. Connection of the
structure reinforcing or imbedded steel to the lighting protection
system shall be as required by SAES-P-111.

7.22.5 Conduits, pipes and other items made from aluminum shall not be
embedded in structural concrete unless effectively coated to prevent
aluminum-concrete reaction.

7.23 Placing Concrete

7.23.1 Concrete shall be placed in accordance with ACI 301-10, ACI 304R
and this standard. For Hot Weather Concreting requirements, see
Section 7.27.

7.23.2 Equipment made of aluminum alloys shall not be used for pump lines,
tremies, or chutes used to discharge concrete from a truck mixer.

7.23.3 Concrete shall not be placed prior to a recorded pre-placement


inspection and authorization to proceed by Saudi Aramco.

7.23.4 Raking shall not be used for movement of concrete after placement.

7.23.5 Vibrators shall not be used to move concrete inside forms.

7.23.6 Re-tempering after concrete is mixed shall not be permitted.

7.23.7 Deposit concrete continuously and as near as practical to the final


position.

7.23.8 Placed concrete shall be consolidated by mechanical vibrating

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equipment according to ACI 301-10, Section 5.3.2.5.

7.23.9 Concrete shall be placed on a clean surface. Standing water shall be


removed prior to placement of concrete.

7.23.10 Placement of mass concrete shall comply with ACI 301-10, Section 8.

7.23.11 Slabs shall be placed in alternating panels.

7.13.12 The interval between concrete deliveries shall be such that no more
than 20 minutes interruption elapse during placement of a single
foundation or slab, unless approved by Saudi Aramco.

7.24 Finishing

7.24.1 The finishing of concrete shall be in accordance with ACI 301-10, and
ACI 302.1R unless otherwise specified in the construction drawings or
job specification.

7.24.2 Equipment bases shall be finished with a floated finish. Stairs, steps,
ramps, and walks shall be finished with a broom finish.

7.25 Curing

7.25.1 Structural concrete shall be cured in accordance with recommendations


of ACI 301-10 unless otherwise specified.

7.25.2 Maximum total dissolved solids in water used for curing shall not exceed
1,000 parts per million.

7.25.3 Water curing shall be continuous until the compressive strength has
reached 70% of the specified strength, but not less than 7 days.

7.25.4 The saturated burlaps shall be covered with a plasticized sheet vapor
barrier, minimum 0.15 mm (6 mils) in thickness and shall be kept in
contact with the concrete surface at all times.

7.25.5 Curing Compound shall be in accordance with ASTM C309 or equivalent.


Vendors shall supply datasheet including third party test reports.

7.25.6 Any structure designated as a hydraulic structure in the contract


documents shall comply with the following:
1) Hydraulic structures shall be cured by a wet-cure procedure only
(e.g., use of ponding, sprinkling, or a moisture-retaining fabric).
2) Moist wood forms in contact with concrete shall not be considered

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as curing for hydraulic structures.


3) Curing shall occur for a minimum of 14 days.
4) Wall forms shall be loosened and water continually sprinkled
between the wall and forms.

7.25.7 Liquid membrane curing compounds shall not be used on surfaces that
shall receive bonded treatments, tiles, paint or other adhered finishes,
epoxy toppings, or additional concrete unless otherwise specified in
contract documents.

7.25.8 Curing and protection of mass concrete shall be in accordance with


ACI 301-10, Section 8.3.1.

7.26 Coating and Protection

7.26.1 A plasticized sheet vapor barrier in accordance with ASTM E1745,


Class A, minimum of 0.25 mm (10 mils) in thickness, shall be placed
beneath slabs on grade. Outdoor sidewalks are exempted from this
requirement.

7.26.2 A 50 mm sub-slab (lean concrete) shall be placed beneath concrete


foundations.

7.26.3 A plasticized sheet vapor barrier in accordance with ASTM E1745,


Class A, minimum of 0.25 mm (10 mils) in thickness shall be placed
below and around the sides of concrete that is placed directly into
excavation without the use of formwork, where coal tar or bitumen
coating cannot be applied.

7.26.4 All concrete surfaces in direct contact with earth shall be coated with
two coats of coal tar or bitumen coating that conforms to APCS-3 or
APCS-10 of SAES-H-001.
Commentary Notes:

APCS-10 shall not be used where soil is contaminated with hydrocarbons


and compatibility test shall be conducted when concrete surface is cured
with acrylic based curing compound.
APCS-3 compatibility test shall be conducted when concrete surface is
cured with bitumen based curing compound.
Non-structural concrete such as lean concrete or thrust anchor blocks
without reinforcement does not require coating.

7.27 Hot Weather Concreting

When hot weather conditions exist, the provisions of ACI 305R shall be met.
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Document Responsibility: Civil Standards Committee SAES-Q-001
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Commentary Note:

Hot weather concrete can be defined as job-site conditions that accelerate the
rate of moisture loss or rate of cement hydration of freshly mixed concrete,
including an ambient temperature of 27°C or higher, and an evaporation rate that
exceeds 1 kg/m2/h.

7.28 Concrete for Underground Ducts

7.28.1 Concrete for underground duct envelopes shall be colored in accordance


with SAES-T-911 and SAES-P-104 for communication and electrical
ducts respectively.

7.28.2 Coloring admixtures shall be in accordance with ASTM C979/C979M.


Concrete envelopes for underground ducts and cover slabs for direct-
buried cables can be colored by adding 6 kilograms of coloring oxide
powder per cubic meter of concrete unless otherwise specified in
contract documents.

8 Marine and Coastal Concrete Structures

8.1 A full environmental Evaluation for offshore and marine concrete structures
shall be performed. The evaluation shall include identification of marine
organisms including rock boring mollusks and sponges that would pose a threat
to the concrete structure and its integrity. Specific susceptibility of the concrete
structure to attack by boring organisms in the Arabian Gulf has been associated
with the use of calcareous aggregates (where the main constituent of the
aggregate is CaCo3) in the concrete.
Commentary Notes:

Marine structure – any facility that is in contact with sea water.


Offshore concrete structure – fixed reinforced concrete, for service in deeper
waters far from the shoreline.

8.2 No offshore or marine concrete structure shall be contracted for construction,


fabrication or installation (in a marine environment) without the following
provisions being satisfied:
1. All marine design parameters shall be specified.
2. All special concreting provisions for fabrication and installation shall be
specified. The proposed concrete materials and/or protection means shall be
supported with literature and case studies. The extent and resistance of the
protection means shall be based on full evaluation of the local environmental
conditions.

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Document Responsibility: Civil Standards Committee SAES-Q-001
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3. The environmental evaluation, marine design specification, and concrete


specification shall be reviewed by the Group Leader, Civil Engineering
Group, Consulting Services Department.
4. The concrete shall contain an approved High Range Water Reducing
admixture such that the free water/cement ratio shall not exceed 0.36 and the
concrete will be of adequate workability for placement.

8.3 The concrete shall contain an approved High Range Water Reducing admixture
such that the free water/cement ratio shall not exceed 0.36 and the concrete will
be of adequate workability for placement.

8.4 The concrete shall contain an effective Hydrophobic Pore –blocking Ingredient
(HPI) system, used strictly in accordance with manufacturers' instructions and
providing a hydrophobic cement matrix throughout, as well as dispersed
polymer particles suitable for use as a pore-blocking agent; acceptance criteria
are as follows:

8.4.1 The HPI system shall produce concrete conforming with all specified
requirements and shall be shown to produce concrete with a corrected
30 minute absorption of not greater than 1 % (one percent), as measured
by BS 1881: Part 122:1983, except that the age at test shall be strictly
7 days. The absorption test is to be conducted by an independent testing
authority on cores taken from cubes or cylinders (or from cast specimens
where permitted by Saudi Aramco), from the trial mixes which shall be
conducted prior to the commencement of the supply of concrete.

8.4.2 Chloride permeability test shall be carried out in accordance with


ASTM C1202 or AASHTO T277. The total charged passed shall not
exceed 1,000 coulombs.
Commentary Notes:
When HPI concrete is used, the following provisions apply:
a. Liners and coatings are not required.
b. No epoxy coated rebars are required. Uncoated steel rebars are
adequate.
c. Backfilling can commence immediately after curing and concrete
compressive strength achieve 70% of required strength.

Revision Summary
7 January 2016 Major revision to align it with the latest edition of ACI 301 and ACI 318. It includes new
criteria that will improve the quality of the overall concrete construction, and improve the cost.
1 January 2018 Editorial revision to modify paragraph 8.2 (3).
18 February 2018 Editorial revision to modify paragraph (1.4) and (7.17.13)
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