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Walls

This set of slides is intended for the use of the individual. If you are not the intended recipient responsible for delivering it to the intended
recipient, are hereby notified that any use, dissemination, distribution or copying of this communication is strictly prohibited.
Wall – Functional requirements of walls
„ Structural stability
„ Sound control
„ Thermal control
„ Fire resistance
„ Environmental concern

Wall – Brickwalls and Blockwalls


Purpose
• To enclose building and partition spaces.
• To provide an attractive appearance.
• Available in a wide range of facing brick types,
colors and textures
Wall – Types of Brickwalls and Blockwalls

„ Clay bricks - engineering,


common & facing bricks.
Concrete bricks
„ Concrete hollow blocks
„ Light-weight (aerated)
www.bia.org
concrete blocks
Wall – Types of Brickwalls
Properties of Brick

• Rectangular and uniform in shape


• Durable
• Strength from 13.8 N/mm -
20.68N/mm
• Resistance to rain penetration
• Porosity - will not absorb more than
16% of its own weight of water after
immersion in water for 24 hrs.

1. Two sizes of brick:


• conventional -
215X102.5X65mm
• modular - 290X90X90
and 190X90X90

2. Approximately 60 bricks are


required for 1 square metre of wall
area
Wall – Brickwalls

Expanded metal mesh


@450 mm

• Expanded metal mesh


(galv. steel)
•Lintels - precast concrete;
galvanised steel, wood
• Steel stiffeners
• Wall anchorage/ties
Wall –Plastering Brickwalls
Plastering
Cement sand plaster accessories:
(20mm for brickwall;
skim coat 3-5mm for • angle bead
smooth concrete wall)
• plaster stop bead
Ready-mixed plaster.
• movement bead
Wall –Plastering Brickwalls
• Key for plastering
Spatter-dash
(1 to 1.5 parts cement to
2 parts clean sharp sand).

• Expanded mesh to reduce cracks between


different materials /old and new walls, or at
concealed conduits.

Scratch coat (1st


Ref:
Good Industry Practice guide to Waterproofing for External Wall – BCA; layer of plaster)
SEC(K) Plastering; laticrete.com.sg
Wall – Damp-proof course (polyethylene)

A DPC is a layer of impermeable material built


into the wall to prevent upward migration of
ground water. Usually a polymer sheet.
Wall – Control Expansion Joints
. Concealed M&E works to be carried out after completion of brick walls

Wall –
Wall –
BlockWalls

Picture obtained from CSR Website

Wall – AAC (Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Blocks


Properties
ƒ Cement, Sand, Lime with added gas-
forming agent. All the above will be store in
Silos.
ƒ The Materials is automatic weight and
measured in special Mixer.
ƒ Then they are pour in a mould and
removed in a few hours and sent to be cut.
ƒ Curing.
ƒ Pack to be transport.

• 1/4 weight of bricks -


• Less than half the construction time
• Act as a Fire Rating block
• Come in various of size 100 – 400 /
600mm
• 2 mm joints (thin-bed mortar)
• 3 mm skim coat plaster

Wall – AAC (Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Blocks


• Durability and Moisture Resistances.
Acrylic polymer based proprietary finishes
are apply to achieve better result.

• Good Acoustic Properties – due to its closed air pockets.


Combine the ACC wall with an insulated asymmetric cavity
system provide excellent sound insulation.

• Can be used as loadbearing and


non-loadbearing wall which can be
used up to 3 storeys high. AS 3700 –2001

• Environmental Impact – can be recycle or sent out as


concrete waste for re-use in aggregates, or the odd pieces
can be used directly as an old piece . Manufacture from
common abundant raw material

• Toxic and Breath-ability – Non toxic


substances, precautions should be taken when cutting and
handling. Less emission of pollutants and no by product or
toxic waste product during manufacturing process.

Wall – AAC (Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Blocks


STC Rating for AAC Blocks

Principle:- STC is highly dependant on the construction of the partition.


A partition's STC can be increased by:
Adding mass
Increasing or adding air space
Adding absorptive material within the partition

STC rating
AAC block with Brick with
density of 500 kg/m3 density of 2000 kg/m3

38 (for 100mm block wall without render) 45 (for half-brick wall)


40 (for 100mm block wall with 8mm
render both sides)

44 (for 200mm block wall without render) 50 (for one-brick thick cavity wall)
47 (for 200mm block wall with 8mm
render both sides)
• Control Joint (ex. Fibreglass
Reinforcement) should be located at
weakness or high stress concentration
such as - Height
- Thickness
- Door and window
- Walls and floor
- Roof
- Foundation
- Abutting columns

Noted : Mesh will not be effective if there are


significant deflection.

• Movement Control Joint – To minimise


Cracking. May be Due to Stress induced
by Structures
Types of movement joint
- Ceiling Joint
- Column / Wall Joint
- Joints Between Blockwalls
- Slip Joints

Wall – AAC (Movement Joints)



1) at intersecting walls and
columns;
2) at changes of wall
height/thickness, or where chases
occur;
3) to coincide with movement
joints in adjacent elements of
structure (floor or roof);
4) at junctions of dissimilar
materials;
5) where architectural or structural
features create a ‘weak’ section.
Differential
Where a movement joint is Deflection of
settlement of
required, but aesthetic or practical the structure
will cause the structure
reasons do not allow (eg, in walls stresses to will cause
stresses to act
where a movement joint may act on the
on the wall.
impair sound insulation), the wall wall.
panel may be reinforced. Bed-joint reinforcement &
movement joints (at 6m c/c)

Wall – AAC (Movement Joints)


Wall –Joints between walls

Soffit of concrete Ceiling tie at 1200mm


beam/slab (maximum spacing)
Joint tie
(max 600mm cc) Block overlap
100 mm
(minimum)
Column/wall Ceiling Joint
Joint thickness to be 1-
3mm using thin- bed
adhesive.

Horizontal joints to be
10mm gap completely filled.
Joints Column/Wall
between Joint
Vertical joints to be
walls completely filled.

Control joints built in at


6000mm centre to centre
(maximum) 1st wall tie should be between 1st &
2nd course
(max spacing for subsequent wall ties
25-30mm thick cement is 600mm)
mortar Minimum length of block
(1:5 to 1:8) Floor slab
to be used is 200mm thick
Slip joint membrane to all
walls resting on floor slab
Slip joints
Wall –Joints between walls
Wall – Slip Joints
Wall – Door Frame
Product Marketing Name: CSR HEBEL
Use and Application: Panel and Block Solutions for construction
Free Way Noise Barrier
Product Marketing Name: CSR HEBEL for external Walls
Use and Application: Panel and Block Solutions for construction
Wall – Fixtures
Video

This set of slides is intended for the use of the individual. If you are not the intended recipient responsible for delivering it to the intended
recipient, are hereby notified that any use, dissemination, distribution or copying of this communication is strictly prohibited.
Wall – Stud Framed Wall
STUD WALL Partition

1. Non load bearing wall


2. Do not use bricks, blocks or cement mortar to
build
3. Internal partition that sub-divides interior
space of a building.
4. Demountable partition means partition that
can be removed easily (without damage to the
structure) and reinstalled for another enclosed
space

USES
1. To create spaces that may change frequently.
Example: office spaces
2. Able to use for multi-purpose usage within a
short duration. Example: area for exhibition

STUDWALL - boral.com
- usg.com
Wall – Characteristics of Stud Framed Wall
1. Lightweight and easily constructed,
no wet trade
2. Consists of framework (aluminium or
galvanised steel) lined with gypsum
board and and infilled with fibre glass,
rockwool.

PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS

1. Resist vibrations from the opening or closing of doors


2. Fire resistance
3. Sound insulation
4. Thermal insulation
Wall – Construction of a Typical Stud Framed Wall

STUDWALL - boral.com
- usg.com
Wall – Construction of a Typical Stud Framed Wall
Wall – Good Practice of Dry Wall
control joint 10-15 mm

stud
studs
door
openi
ng
screw gypsum board Elevation of
Detail of control joint at drywall
drywall
staggered board
joints

„ Gypsum board
„ calcium silicate (flexible type)
„ fibrous plaster cement board
Wall – Stud Framed Wall with Gypsum Boards
600

VIDEO – Hardie
Drywall - Details of Lightweight Boards
Details of Lightweight Boards
T junction – single layer T junction – double layer

Control
Corner detail
Joint
– double layer
Drywall - Details of Lightweight Boards

Control joint kit


Gypsum bd

50 thk rockwool

stud

Control joint (1/2 hr fire rated wall)


Drywall - Details of Lightweight Boards
Drywall -Details of Lightweight Boards
Details of Lightweight Boards
Drywall - Details of Lightweight
Boards
Drywall - Door Frame Junction
Drywall - Door Frame Junction

Door frame Expansion joint


Drywall Products
Advantages of STYROPLAST:

• no skills required
• fast
• light
• very smooth finish
• most flexible panel.
•It can be cut into any
shapes and sizes,
•even when the wall is
erected.

BS 5234 Part 2 : 1992


BS 476 Part 22 : 1971 (Fire Resistance)
BS 476 Part 4 : 1970 (Non-Combustibility)
Wall – Impact Test
Large Body Impact Large Body Impact
Testing Testing

INDENTATION
TESTING
Wall – Impact Test

Force (ft.-lbs.) Required to Penetrate

100

80

60

40

20

5/8” Type X 5/8” FIBEROCK

5/8” Paper-faced drywall 5/8” FIBEROCK VHI


with 0.010” plastic laminate
GlassBlocks

Picture obtained from CSR Website

Wall – Glass Blocks


Wall – Glass Blocks on dry wall
Wall – Glass Blocks
Wall – Glass Blocks – Minimum radius

Expansion
joint
Wall – Glass Blocks - details
Wall – Glass Blocks – expansion joints details

Steel frame at
cill/jamb/head

φ6 tie rod @ 600 cc Expansion material


Mortar + grout 10mm wide (polythene foam)
Expansion joint Sealant on backup material
at @ 4-6m
Wall – Glass Blocks – external wall details
Thank You
Specialist Diploma in Construction Management
Walls

SANDWICH PANEL

What is a composite sandwich panel: How the core


and skin interact to create a lightweight structural panel material.

An SIP panel is much like a common sandwich panel.


A rigid insulating foam core is sandwiched in between skins...
Specialist Diploma in Construction Management
Walls

3E wall
Specialist Diploma in Construction Management
Walls

SIZES
Length 2.700 m, 3 m
Width 900 mm
Thickness 50 mm

Other sizes can be made only by special order

AVERAGE WEIGHT 34 kg/m2


Specialist Diploma in Construction Management
Walls

STYROPLAST WALL
INSTALLATION

Step 1 : Setting out

1.1 Setting out on finished or unfinished


floor in accordance to drawing and marking on
floor/wall.

1.2 Do marking on ceiling by plumb method


from floor mark.
Specialist Diploma in Construction Management
Walls

Step 2 : Fixing of channel


2.1 Place the top/bottom ‘U’ channel according to markings,
in lengths of 2.4 m.

2.2 Fix channels by fastening or masonry screws to hard base


(minimum 3 nos. per channel length)
Specialist Diploma in Construction Management
Walls

Step 3 : Erection of panel

3.1 Cut panel according to required height by


measuring the internal distance between top and bottom
channels, and width in accordance with drawings.

3.2 Erect panel within top and bottom channels.

3.3 Apply a layer of gypsum compound in the groove


of first panel before slotting the second panel’s tongue
into it.
Specialist Diploma in Construction Management
Walls
Specialist Diploma in Construction Management
Walls

Step 4 : Finishing
painting, wall tiles, skirting, etc.
Specialist Diploma in Construction Management
Walls
Specialist Diploma in Construction Management
Walls
Specialist Diploma in Construction Management
Walls
Specialist Diploma in Construction Management
Walls
Specialist Diploma in Construction Management
Walls
Specialist Diploma in Construction Management
Walls

METHODS OF FIXING THE PARTITION

Repairing and setting of channels


Specialist Diploma in Construction Management
Walls

METHODS OF FIXING THE PARTITION

Panels are inserted into the channels


Specialist Diploma in Construction Management
Walls

METHODS OF FIXING THE PARTITION

Coupling of panels
Specialist Diploma in Construction Management
Walls

METHODS OF FIXING THE PARTITION

Conduit is flushed to give a perfect finish


Specialist Diploma in Construction Management
Walls

Example : Selection of dry wall system- simple installation process

Setting out using metal studs


Install one side of dry
board to metal studs as
wall panel
Specialist Diploma in Construction Management
Walls

Example : Selection of dry wall system- simple installation process


Specialist Diploma in Construction Management
Walls

Thank You
Question:-
Explain why the production process of AAC blocks is considered as environmentally
friendly.

Answer
The energy consumed in the production process is only a fraction compared to the
production of other materials

Less emission of pollutants and no product or toxic waste products during


manufacturing process

They are manufactured from common and abundant natural raw materials

Wall –