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BIOLINGO

Cells and Chemistry

What would be the consequences if the hydrogen bonds are inhibited during the folding of the
protein?
Both b and c are correct

Cells and Communication

Complete the following sentence. Proteins have various roles; among others, ___________
allow the movement of cilia and flagella that can propel many cells.
Motor and contractile proteins.

What am I? A polymer of acetylglucosamine that forms the shell of insects, crustaceans, and
molluscs.
Chitin

What are the characteristics of this molecule that make it polar?


Unequal distribution of charge

Which definition is incorrect?


Cytoskeleton: rigid structure surrounding the plasma membrane.

What am I? A molecule that is not soluble in water and other polar solvents.
Hydrophobe

Complete the following sentence: Proteins can have multiple roles. For example, ______________ are
proteins that catalyze a chemical reaction.
Enzymes

Complete the following sentence: A side effect of covalent bonds is the polarity of the water. The
electronegativity of oxygen explains the unequal distribution of charges in the molecule. Thus, the
oxygen atom has a _________________ charge.
Partially negative

Which definition best describes catabolism?


All of the degradation chemical reactions of a cell

What am I? The amino acid sequence of a given protein.


Primary structure

What am I? The three-dimensional folding of a single chain of amino acids.


Tertiary structure

What am I? A β-glucose polymer consisting of straight chains with β -1, 4 bonds. The molecules
form hydrogen bonds between them.
Cellulose
What am I? A compound consisting of two monosaccharides linked together.
Disaccharide

Define a nucleolus.
An organelle without a membrane that participates in the production of ribosomes.

What am I? A bond where pairs of electrons are shared between two atoms.
Covalent bond

What am I? The protoplasm of the cell that is found between the cellular membrane and the
nucleus.
Cytoplasm

What am I? The set of genetic characteristics of an organism.


Genotype

What am I? A gelatinous substance that covers the cell wall in some prokaryotes.
The capsule

What am I? An organelle of locomotion found in some eukaryotic cells. My structure is made


from a cluster of microtubules surrounded by a plasma membrane.
Flagella

Which definition best describes a prokaryotic cell?


A cell with a nucleoid that does not have specialized organelles.

What am I? Only present in eukaryotes, this structure is composed of a double membrane of


phospholipids that protects the DNA.
Nucleus

What am I? My structure is formed from several chains of polypeptides that form an active
protein.
Quaternary structure

What am I? The whole genetic material of an organism.


Genome

What am I? An α-glucose polymer, linked by α -1, 4- glycosidic bonds, that forms a helix.
Amylose

What am I? A nucleotide triphosphate that carries the chemical energy required for the cell's
metabolism. My structure is composed of a molecule of adenine, a ribose and three phosphate
groups.
ATP

Complete the following sentence: All cells are covered with a membrane or another structure,
thus separating the inside and outside environment of the cell. _____________________ is
found in various organisms. It varies according to the organism and can b
The cell wall

What am I? A protein that serves as a reserve of amino acids.


Storage protein

Define golgi apparatus:


An organelle that synthesizes, modifies, sorts and secretes cellular products.

What is the basic unit of proteins?


Amino acid

Complete the following sentence: The majority of _________ are fibrous proteins. As an
example, collagen and elastin have an essential role in connective tissue such as cartilage.
Structural proteins

What am I? The set of observable characteristics of an organism.


Phenotype

What am I? A structure located outside of the membrane that is present in the majority of
prokaryotes, in plants and fungi. I offer protection against mechanical stress and I give rigidity to
the cell.
The cell wall

Complete the following sentence: There are 20 _____________________, divided into 3


classes according to their chemical properties: hydrophobic, hydrophilic and ionized (basic and
acid).
Amino acids

What am I? A double layer of selectively permeable phospholipids that separates the interior of
the cell from its external environment.
The plasma membrane

Which definition best describes the plasma membrane?


A bilayer of phospholipids that separates the interior of the cell from the external environment.

What am I? A taxonomic classification that divides living organisms in these groups, according
to specific characteristics: Animalia, plantae and fungi.
Regnum

What am I? The theory that explains the mechanisms in which living organisms have diversified
since the appearance of life on earth.
Evolution

Complete the following sentence: Ovalbumin is a/an ____________ of the egg white; it serves
as a source of amino acids for the embryo of the developing bird.
Storage protein

What am I? My role is to detect chemical stimuli.


Receptor protein

What am I? A hydrophobic class of organic compounds derived from fatty acids.


Lipid
Describe the structure of the endoplasmic reticulum.
An extension of the outer layer of the nuclear membrane forming a network of membranes
called cisternae.

Complete the following sentence: The peptide bond is formed through a/an ________ reaction.
Dehydration

What am I? Stored in the cytoplasm of liver and muscle cells, this compound serves as a
reserve of energy.
Glycogen

What am I? A chemical reaction that creates a molecule of water from the starting reagents.
Dehydration

What am I? Composed of two subunits, this organelle participates in the transduction of mRNA
as well as protein synthesis.
Ribosome

Describe the cell wall.


A structural layer, located outside of the cell membrane, that is present in plants, fungi and the
majority of prokaryotes.

What am I? A molecule that serves as a reserve of carbohydrates in plants.


Starch

Complete the following sentence: The smallest living unit is _____ and all living organisms are
composed of it.
A cell

Which definition best describes a virus?


An infectious agent that is an obligate parasite.

What am I? A subatomic particle in the nucleus of an atom carrying a neutral charge.


Neutron

What am I? A heterocyclic nitrogen molecule derived from adenine and guanine nucleotides.
Purine

What am I? An interaction between hydrogen and an electronegative atom such as oxygen or


nitrogen.
Hydrogen bond

What am I? A chemical reaction that breaks a covalent bond by adding a molecule of water.
Hydrolysis

What am I? A subatomic particle in the nucleus of an atom carrying a positive charge.


Proton

Define a cell.
The smallest structural and functional unit of the living.
Where is most of the potential energy stored in ATP? In fact, this energy is available to conduct
cellular reactions.
Bonds between phosphate groups

Which definition best describes diffusion?


A process by which molecules move from a high concentration environment to a low
concentration environment.

What am I? The semiliquid portion inside a cell.


Cytosol

What am I? The structural and functional unit of the living.


The cell

What am I? A process that allows the movement of water from an environment with a low
concentration of solutes to higher concentrations.
Osmosis

Which definition best describes metabolism?


All of the chemical reactions of the cell

Who am I? A protein that is found in certain rigid or fibrous structures such as hair, hooves,
horns and feathers.
Keratin

Complete the following sentence: Proteins have various roles; among others,
_________________ allow the movement of cilia and flagella that can propel many cells.
Motor and contractile proteins

What am I? A compound formed of long α-glucose chains linked by 1-4 bonds between
residues.
Glycogen

What am I? Present in all eukaryotic cells, I am composed of three structures: microtubules,


microfilaments and intermediate filaments. I have a role in the mechanical support of the cell.
Cytoskeleton

What am I? The set of chemical reactions that take place in the cell to maintain life.
Metabolism

Who am I? A protein that confers rigidity to the components of a cell.


Structural protein

What am I? A bond where the atom with the smallest electronegativity transfers its valence
electrons to the atom with greater electronegativity.
Ionic bond

What am I? A chemical reaction that results in the addition of a molecule of water to the
products of a reaction.
Hydration
What am I? In eukaryotic cells, I am the last site where proteins and lipids are modified before
they are put into vesicles and released outside of the membrane by exocytosis.
Golgi apparatus

Which function is not accomplished by carbohydrates?


Fluidity of the plasma membrane

Which definition best describes a eukaryotic cell?


A cell with a nucleus and organelles that are surrounded with a plasma membrane.

What am I? An organic compound derived from ammonia.


Amine

Define nucleoid.
Region containing the genetic material of a prokaryotic cell.

What am I? A protein that allows the movement of cilia and flagella.


Motor protein

What am I? The region in the prokaryotic cell that contains the genetic material.
Nucleoid

What am I? An α-glucose polymer formed from α -1, 6- glycosidic bonds.


Amylopectin

What am I? Made up entirely of β-glucose, I am an important component in the cell wall of plant
cells.
Cellulose

Complete the following sentence: The synthesis of __________ is controlled by insulin and its
degradation by glucagon.
Glycogen

What am I? A process that requires energy in the form of ATP to move molecules against the
diffusion gradient.
Active transport

What am I? A molecule that serves as a reserve of carbohydrates in animals.


Glycogen

What are fimbriae, structures which can be found in prokaryotic cells?


Surface fixation structure of hundreds of bacteria.

Define evolution.
A theory in which living species are derived from the same common ancestor.

What am I? A protein that allows the transport of chemical substances.


Transport protein

What am I? A small molecule that can be a monomer for other forms of carbohydrates.
Monosaccharide

What am I? A process in which molecules can pass through a bilayer going from a high
concentration environment to a low concentration environment.
Diffusion

What am I? The phenomenon by which the cell can maintain an unbalanced yet stable chemical
environment.
Homeostasis

What am I? My structure is the result of hydrogen bonds between the amino acids of a protein
that forms beta sheets and alpha helices.
Secondary structure

What am I? A hydrophilic polymer of amino acids that varies from 2 to 200 amino acids.
Peptide

Complete the following sentence: Casein is the ______________________ of milk; it is the


main source of amino acids of small mammals before weaning.
Storage protein

What am I? A molecule that is soluble in water and other polar solvents.


Hydrophile

Complete the following sentence: Mitochondria are endosymbiotic organelles that are essential
for the regulation of multiple physiological processes in the cell. They produce energy in the
form of _______________.
ATP

Which definition best describes anabolism?


All of the synthesis chemical reactions of a cell

What am I? A protein that serves as a messenger during cellular communication.


Hormone

Which definition best describes homeostasis?


Maintenance of a stable internal state despite external factors

What am I? A protein that protects the body.


Defense protein

What am I? A nucleotide diphosphate that is composed of a molecule of adenine linked to a


ribose and two phosphate groups. I am formed when a phosphate bond is broken in order to
release energy.
ADP

What am I? My structure consists of a nucleus, composed of neutrons and protons, that is


surrounded by a cloud of electrons.
Atom
Membranes and ECM

What am I? A cellular structure whose main role is the adhesion of neighboring cells.
Desmosome

What is the term used for the cytoplasm of muscle cells?


Sarcoplasm

What am I? Being an elastic glycoprotein, I have an elastic structure that is essential for the
lungs as well as the circulatory system.
Elastin

Complete the following sentence: Collagen is the main protein of the extracellular matrix. It is
synthesized in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum, where it associates to form a/an
___________.
Triple helix

What am I? A cell type found in muscle tissue.


Myocyte

What am I? I am composed of two perpendicular centrioles, each formed from 9 triplets of


microtubules. During mitosis, I allow the formation of the mitotic spindle.
Centrosome

What am I? A protein associated with microfilaments that allows anchoring to the cell
membrane.
Spectrin

Complete the following sentence: Microvili are cytoplasmic extensions found on the surface of
intestinal cells. Their role is to increase the exchange surface. Microvilli are reinforced by
_______ which are anchored to a network of intermediate filaments.
Microfilaments

Describe a myofilament.
The structural unit of a myofibril

True or false: Microtubule motor proteins, which transport the vesicles to the (-) extremity of the
MTs, are bringing vesicles to the periphery of the cells (i.e. anterograde transport).
False

What am I? A cell adhesion protein that is calcium-dependent.


Cadherin

What am I? Formed by the cytoskeleton during cell division, this structure allows the division of
homologous chromosomes.
Mitotic spindle

Describe a myocyte.
A cell type found in muscle tissues

What am I? An amphipathic lipid that is composed of a hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tails.
Phospholipid

What am I? A junction that allows sealing between cells.


Tight junction

What am I? A constituent of the cytoskeleton formed from fibrous proteins assembled in


tetramers.
Intermediate filament

What am I? Present at the base of cilia and flagella, this eukaryotic cell structure is made up of
a centriole formed from 9 triplets of microtubules. It allows microtubule nucleation.
Basal body

What is composed of a polycyclic sterol nucleus, a carbon side chain and a polar head?
Steroid

Describe a myofibril.
A muscle fibril

What am I? A protein associated with intermediate filaments. Linked to desmosomes, this


protein is present in epithelial cells.
Keratin

What am I? A molecule made up of three fatty acids and a glycerol.


Triglyceride

What am I? The component of the cytoskeleton that is made from linear polymers of actin
forming a flexible structure resembling a helix.
Microfilament

What am I? A protein associated with microfilaments that binds to G-actin and that allows the
polymerization of G-actin into F-actin.
Thymosine Beta-4

What am I? A protein that stabilizes microtubules by binding to the tubulin subunits of dendrites
and the axon.
MAP2

What am I? A steroid present in the cell membrane of animals.


Cholesterol
What am I? Forming a fibrous structure, this glycoprotein is responsible for the rigidity of the
extracellular matrix.
Collagen

What am I? A protein that binds around thin filaments to block the binding between myosin and
actin.
Tropomyosin

Complete the following sentence: Some chemicals may have an effect on the stability of
microtubules. Among other chemicals, ________ stabilizes the microtubules.
Taxol

Complete the following sentence: The proportion of __________________ in a cell membrane


makes it possible to modulate its fluidity.
Steroids

What am I? A molecule that contains a hydrophobic and a hydrophilic region.


Amphipathic

What am I? A protein associated with microfilaments that allows the formation of lateral
branches.
Arp2/3 Complex

Complete the following sentence: Some chemicals may have an effect on the stability of
microtubules. Among other chemicals, _________ inhibits the assembly of microtubules.
Colchicine

Complete the following sentence: Transmembrane proteins are involved in cell adhesion. Inside
the cell, these proteins are linked to the cytoskeleton. A ____________ occurs when these
proteins are bound with a different molecule on the extracellular side.
Heterophilic bond

What am I? Composed of glycoproteins, polysaccharides and proteoglycans, this substance


surrounds the cell. It is synthesized and secreted by the cell.
Extracellular matrix

Complete the following sentence: Nuclear lamina is a structure that covers the interior of the
nuclear envelope. It is made up of ____________________ and participates in the breakdown
of the envelope during cell division.
Intermediate filament

Complete the following sentence: When the inside of a cell is more concentrated in solutes than
that of its environment, the cell will quickly become ______________________.
Hypertonic or enlarged

What is the term used for the endoplasmic reticulum found in muscle cells?
Sarcoplasmic reticulum
True or false: Microtubule motor proteins, which transport the vesicles to the (+) extremity of the
MTs, are bringing vesicles to the periphery of the cells (i.e. anterograde transport).
True

What am I? A protein associated with microfilaments that allows the crosslinking of actin
filaments.
Fimbrin

What am I? A protein that associates microfilaments with the extracellular matrix.


Integrin

What am I? A glycoprotein in the extracellular matrix that forms resistant fibers. I am abundant
in connective tissues and bones.
Collagen

What am I? In the form of a microfilament, this regulatory protein blocks the myosin-binding
sites when the muscle fiber is at rest.
Tropomyosin

What am I? A constituent of the cytoskeleton that maintains the form of the cell and that has a
diameter of 8-12 nm. It is the most stable structure of the cytoskeleton.
Intermediate filament

What am I? A protein associated with microfilaments that allows the formation of crosslinked
networks.
Filamin

What is the term used for the cell membrane of a striated muscle cell?
Sarcolemma

What am I? A protein that stabilizes the extremity of microtubules.


TIP

Complete the following sentence: When the inside of a cell has the same solute concentration
as its environment, the cell is ______________________.
Isotonic

What am I? A molecule that consists of a lipid on which is fixed a carbohydrate.


Glycolipid

What am I? A steroid present in the cell membrane of fungi and protozoa.


Ergosterol

What am I? A glycoprotein of the extracellular matrix that attaches cells to the matrix.
Fibronectin

Active transportation may use an energy source other than ATP. Where does the energy come
from in secondary active transport via symport?
Concentration gradient of another ion from the same direction
What am I? A motor protein that is associated with microtubules. It is an ATPase that moves to
the negative extremity of microtubules.
Dynein

Complete the following sentence: A growth cone is the prolongation of a neuron towards a
target cell or organ. The growth cone forms two structures which are formed from
_______________: lamellipod and filopod.
Microfilaments

Who am I? I am made of many myofibrils.


Muscle fibre

Complete the following sentence: When the inside of a cell is less concentrated in solutes than
that of its environment, the cell will quickly become ______________________.
Hypotonic or atrophied

What am I? A family of heterophilic cell adhesion proteins that depends on calcium. It is


composed of a simple chain of transmembrane glycoproteins.
Selectin

What am I? A motor protein that is associated with microtubules. It is an ATPase that moves to
the positive extremity of microtubules.
Kinesin
What am I? A component of the cytoskeleton that is formed of a hollow cylinder made of α and β
tubulin heterodimers.
Microtubule

What is the term used for the mitochondrion of a muscle cell?


Sarcosome

What am I? The protein that stabilizes microfilaments to prevent shortening.


CAP

What am I? A molecule that serves as energy storage and thermal insulation.


Triglyceride

Describe a myoblast.
A stem cell that will grow into a muscle cell

What am I? A steroid present in the cell membrane of plants.


Phytosterol

What am I? A stem cell that will form a muscle cell through the process of myogenesis.
Myoblast

What am I? A carboxylic acid with an aliphatic chain that is unsaturated when it contains double
bonds and saturated in the absence of double bonds.
Fatty acid

What am I? Composed of two subunits, this transmembrane receptor protein binds the
extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton.
Integrin

A new protein is discovered. Scientists have determined that the primary structure has very few
hydrophobic regions. What does this tell scientists about the protein?
It is likely to be a globular, soluble protein.

Complete the following sentence: Transmembrane proteins are involved in cell adhesion. Inside
the cell, these proteins are linked to the cytoskeleton. A ____________ occurs when these
proteins are bound with an identical protein on the extracellular side.
Homophilic bond

Metabolism

Complete the following sentence. According to this simplified carbon cycle diagram, the plant
would also need __________ for photosynthesis, in addition to the by-products corresponding
to letter B.
Sunlight

Which of the following correctly presents the order of the


three metabolic stages of cellular respiration?
Glycolysis to Krebs cycle to oxidative phosphorylation

Which of the following is false regarding cellular respiration


and photosynthesis?
All of the above are true

In aerobic respiration, I am the final electron acceptor. What


am I?
Oxygen

I am the starting point of cellular respiration. What am I?


Glycolysis
Complete the following sentence. During the electron transport chain, electrons are passed from
molecule to molecule in the inner membrane of mitochondria. They finally react with oxygen and
protons to form ___________.
H2O

Which photosynthetic organism does not contain chloroplasts?


Microcystis aeruginosa, a cyanobacterium (prokaryotic)

Describe glycolysis.
Series of reactions that converts glucose into pyruvate

The demand for ATP is greater in cardiac cells than in liver cells. What is true regarding
mitochondria in both types of cells?
Increased number of mitochondria in cardiac cells compared to liver cells

Complete the following sentence: _________ is the major form in which sugar is transported
between plant cells. In fact, vascular bundles allow sugar to exit the leaves for distribution in the
rest of the plant.
Sucrose

Complete the following sentence: The inner membrane of the chloroplast surrounds a large
space, which is the __________. It is analogous to the mitochondrial matrix and is packed with
soluble enzymes.
Stroma

Describe an enzyme.
A protein that increases the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction.

Complete the following sentence: _______ is the main product of photosynthesis used to
produce energy whereas ________ is a waste product.
Glucose; oxygen

What occurs during the light reactions in thylakoids?


Split of H2O and release of O2; Reduction of NADP+ to NADPH; Generation of ATP from ADP
by photophosphorylation.

Define a chloroplast.
Organelle of photosynthetic eukaryotic cells in which photosynthesis takes place

Which organelles contain calcium ions?


Mitochondria, Nucleus, Endoplasmic reticulum.

Where is most of the ATP produced in a plant cell?


Matrix of mitochondria

True or false. The photosynthetic electron transport chain pumps H+ between the inner and
outer membranes of chloroplasts.
False. During photosynthesis, H+ are pumped into the thylakoid space, resulting in a lower pH.

Where does glycolysis take place in a cell?


Cytoplasm

Describe the light reactions in photosynthesis.


A process that converts solar energy into NADPH and ATP, while releasing oxygen.

In addition to sunlight, what is also required for photosynthesis?


CO2 and water

Complete the following sentence: The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is activated when
acetylcholine, an agonist, binds to the extracellular domain of the channel. Hence, it
corresponds to a ________________________.
Ligand-gated Ca2+ channel
Different types of calcium influx channels are utilized by cells such as voltage-gated channels in
myocytes and neurons. What activates this type of channel?
Depolarization of the plasma membrane

True or false. Carbon dioxide is a product of photosynthesis.


False. Carbon dioxide is not a product of photosynthesis.

I am the totality of chemical reactions that occurs in an organism. What am I?


Metabolism

True or false. Calcium regulates blood sugar in cells.


False. Blood sugar regulation is not a role of calcium in cells.

Knowing chlorophyll a is part of photosystems I and II, where is this pigment found?
Within the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts

True or False. The amount of mitochondria stays constant throughout a cell's life cycle
False. The amount of mitochondria changes continuously throughout a cell's life cycle

Describe fermentation.
A catabolic process that produces a limited amount of ATP from glucose without an electron
transport chain.

What am I? A compound that directly participates in the light reactions that convert solar energy
into chemical energy. It contributes to the green color of most plants and algae.
Chlorophyll

Describe the function of ATP synthase.


Convert ADP into ATP using the energy of the proton motive force

Complete the following sentence: When energy sources are readily available, mitochondria
allow the maintenance of a high ______:______ ratio in cells.
ATP:ADP

Complete the following sentence: After glycolysis, pyruvate penetrates into the mitochondrion
and is converted into __________ before entering the Krebs cycle.
Acetyl-CoA

Where is most of the ATP produced in an animal cell?


Matrix of mitochondria

Describe carbon fixation, a process that occurs in photosynthetic organisms?


A process in living organisms that converts inorganic carbon (CO2) to organic compounds.

True or false. Bacteria and mitochondria both reproduce using the same kind of asexual
reproduction.
True. Reproduction of bacteria and mitochondria is done by binary fission.

Complete the following sentence: Almost all the mitochondria of fertilized eggs are provided by
the oocyte and not the sperm. Therefore, mutations in mitochondrial DNA are transmitted to the
next generation by ________________.
The mother

I am an organelle with a double membrane that has many roles, such as storing calcium ions.
What am I?
Mitochondrion

Correctly present the order of the three metabolic stages of cellular respiration.
Glycolysis to Krebs cycle to Oxidative phosphorylation

Describe the Calvin cycle.


A process that allows fixation of atmospheric CO2 and conversion of fixed carbons into carbohydrates.

True or false. C4 plants have photosynthetic adaptations to reduce photorespiration.


True. Both phases of photosynthesis are physically separated. The light reactions take place in
mesophyll cells whereas the Calvin cycle occurs in bundle-sheath cells.

In animals, I perform most cellular oxidations and generate the majority of ATP in cells. What am I?
Mitochondrion

Chemical energy from food is converted into reducing agents, i.e. _______ and ______, that are then
used to make ATP.
NADH / FADH2

Complete the following sentence: Under aerobic conditions, most ATP synthesis in cells occur by
___________.
Chemiosmosis

True or false. Mitochondria are the responsible for the breakdown of carbohydrates.
False. Breakdown of carbohydrates does not correspond to a role of mitochondria.

True or false. The oxygen produced during the light reactions is used as a reactant for other metabolic
reactions that occur during photosynthesis.
False. The oxygen diffuses out of the plant and into the atmosphere.

Complete the following sentence: In the chloroplast, the ____________ is the site of the light reactions,
whereas the Calvin cycle takes place in the ____________.
Thylakoid membrane ; Stroma

Photosynthesis involves two processes, each with multiple steps. What are these two stages of
photosynthesis?
Light reactions and Calvin cycle

I am the last metabolic step of cellular respiration. What am I?


Oxidative phosphorylation
I am the metabolic pathway that is common to both cellular respiration and fermentation of a glucose
molecule. What am I?
Glycolysis

Which of the following is more likely to occur if intracellular concentrations of Ca2+ reach dangerously
high levels?
Cell death

Describe the Krebs cycle.


Eight steps that allow oxidation of acetyl CoA to carbon dioxide, generating a pool of chemical energy

I am an intracellular messenger that regulates various cellular processes such as cell proliferation and
muscle contraction. What am I?
Ca2+

The F0F1ATPase is powered by a hydrogen gradient between the intermembrane space and the matrix
of mitochondria. What allows to build this gradient?
Electrons from all steps of cellular respiration leading to oxidative phosphorylation

What occurs both in cellular respiration as well as in photosynthesis?


Chemiosmosis

Complete the following sentence: Glycolysis is the first step of cellular respiration. This metabolic
pathway consists of degrading 1 mole of glucose into _____________________.
2 moles of pyruvate

Describe chlorophyll.
A green pigment found in chloroplasts that allows absorption of light to provide energy.

I am a receptor that allows the release of calcium stored within the endoplasmic or sarcoplasmic
reticulum. What am I?
Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R)

True or false. Cells must regulate calcium ions with care, since intracellular Ca2+ overload can lead to
cell death.
True. The cell will die if homeostatic mechanisms of calcium regulation are compromised.

True or false. CAM plants have photosynthetic adaptations to reduce photorespiration.


True. They open their stomata at night. Hence, carbon dioxide is converted into an organic acid for
storage in the plant until photosynthesis occurs.

What is the purpose of cellular respiration?


Extraction of energy from glucose to allow the synthesis of ATP

Complete the following sentence: Oxidation of _____________ yields the most energy.
Fatty acids

Describe the association between cellular respiration and photosynthesis.


Photosynthesis uses light energy to convert inorganics into high-energy organic molecules. Cellular
respiration breaks down high-energy organic molecules for ATP synthesis.

Which organelle is usually the largest store of calcium that can be released in the cell?
Endoplasmic reticulum

Describe phosphorylation.
A process that reduces the yield of photosynthesis. The plant takes up oxygen and releases carbon
dioxide.

Complete the following sentence: During the electron transport chain, electrons are passed from
molecule to molecule in the inner membrane of mitochondria. They finally react with oxygen and
protons to form ___________.
H2O

Describe oxidative phosphorylation.


Production of ATP using energy derived from redox reactions of an electron transport chain

Complete the following sentence: During oxidative phosphorylation, the respiratory chain pumps H+
into the ___________________ to create a transmembrane proton gradient.
Intermembrane space of mitochondria

Complete the following sentence: During muscle contraction, an action potential reaches the
sarcoplasmic reticulum, which activates a ___________________________ . As a result, the intracellular
calcium concentration increases temporarily.
Voltage-gated Ca2+ channel

I am the structure in which carbon dioxide enters a leaf and where oxygen and water come out. What
am I?
Stomata

I am the most abundant protein in chloroplasts and I catalyze the first step of the Calvin cycle, in which
carbon dioxide is converted to organic compounds. What am I?
Rubisco

Which equation correctly illustrates the process of photosynthesis?


CO2 + H2O Glucose + O2

Complete the following sentence: Algae, plants and some bacteria are ___________: they can fix their
own carbon using light energy to produce carbohydrates.
Photoautotrophs

True or false. Glycolysis is a metabolic step of cellular respiration.


False. Glycolysis is the breakdown of glucose by enzymes, releasing energy and pyruvic acid. Glycolysis
is an oxygen-independent metabolic pathway

Complete the following sentence: In the inner membrane of mitochondria, the energy available from
combining oxygen with electrons carried by NADH and FADH is harnessed by ____________________.
An electron transport chain

What are the three phases that occur during the Calvin cycle?
Regeneration of the CO2 acceptor (RuBP), Carbon fixation, and Carbon reduction.

Complete the following sentence: During the Calvin cycle, _____ molecule(s) of CO2 are needed to
produce ____ molecule(s) of G3P as a net gain.
3;1

Regarding its capacity of photosynthesis, which organism is most likely the odd one out?
Agaricus bisporus, a fungi

I am a way to reduce the number of mitochondria or selectively remove damaged miotochondria. What
am I?
Mitophagy

Describe photosynthesis.
A process that converts light energy into chemical energy that is stored in organic compounds, such as
carbohydrates.

Compare the Krebs cycle in eukaryotes vs prokaryotes.


The Krebs cycle takes place in the mitochondrial matrix of eukaryotes and in the cytoplasm of
prokaryotes.

I am the usual site of photosynthesis in plants and algae. What am I?


Chloroplast

Complete the following sentence: Fungi and animals are ___________: they cannot convert carbon
dioxide to organic molecules. Hence, they must eat other organisms or by-products.
Heterotrophs

What is true regarding the two processes of photosynthesis?


The light reactions occur in the thylakoid membrane whereas the Calvin cycle takes place in the stroma
of the chloroplast.

Complete the following sentence: Chloroplasts obtain high-energy electrons by photosystems that
capture electrons that are excited when sunlight is absorbed by molecules of _____________.
Chlorophyll

Complete the following sentence: ATP synthase is found in mitochondria of animal cells, ___________
of algae and plants as well as in _____________ of archaea and bacteria.
Chloroplasts/the plasma membrane
Complete the following sentence: Plants use light energy to produce glucose from carbon dioxide. If
not used for energy purposes, sugar is stored in the form of _______.
Starch

Which energy organelle is found in both animal and plant cells?


Mitochondria

Complete the following sentence: The Calvin cycle is the second stage of photosynthesis. Carbon
enters this cycle as _______ and leaves it as _______.
Carbon dioxide; G3P

In muscle cells, I am the organelle that stores most of the calcium ions needed for muscle contraction.
What am I?
Sarcoplasmic reticulum

Why is light required in the first stage of photosynthesis?


Light energizes electrons in the reaction centre.

Complete the following sentence: Calbindin, calsequestrin and parvalbumine are _______________.
They participate in calcium cell signaling pathways.
Calcium-binding proteins

I am an energy-coupling mechanism that uses a hydrogen ion gradient across a membrane as energy to
drive cellular work, such as ATP synthesis. What am I?
Chemiosmosis

Complete the following sentence: Different types of calcium influx channels are utilized by cells such as
_________________________ that respond to cell deformation.
Mechanically-activated Ca2+ channel

Complete the following sentence: ________ is the main product of cellular respiration whereas _______
is a waste product.
ATP; CO2
I am a layered structure of the inner membrane of mitochondria that increases surface area. What am I?
Cristae

True or false. Chlorophyll absorbs red and blue light which allows it to look green to the human eye.
True. Chlorophyll absorbs red and blue light and reflects green light, making it appear green.

Complete the following sentence. Radioactively labeled O2 molecules were added to an animal cell
culture. In a few minutes, radioactive oxygen atoms were present in _________.
Water

Which of these statements is false regarding the inner and outer membranes of mitochondria?
Like the outer membrane, the inner mitochondrial membrane contains many porins to allow entry of
pyruvate and fatty acids into the matrix.
In theory, which of the following would allow more production of ATP in a cell?
A final acceptor whose reduction potential is greater than that of oxygen

One of the ten reactions of glycolysis is controlled by PFK, an enzyme that is allosterically regulated by
ATP. Considering the overall result of glycolysis, would ATP inhibit or stimulate the activity of the
enzyme PFK?
When ATP levels are increased, glycolysis, which produces ATP, slows down. Thus, ATP would inhibit
the activity of PFK.

An individual poisoned with cyanide can die within minutes. This poison causes inhibition of complex
IV, making it impossible to carry electrons along the inner mitochondrial membrane. Which statement
is the most accurate regarding its consequence on metabolism in mitochondria?
Even though cells may have abundant oxygen, inhibition of complex IV by cyanide causes dissipation of
the proton gradient, which stops ATP synthesis.

True or false. Gram per gram, fats are a greater source of chemical energy than carbohydrates.
True. In comparison to carbohydrates, fatty acid chains are mostly made up of carbon and hydrogen.
Hence, the presence of numerous OH groups allows them to give many electrons (and hydrogen),
which generates more NADH, FADH2 and thus more ATP.

Found in newborns, brown adipose tissue (BAT) produces nonshivering heat. Their cells are packed with
mitochondria that contain UCP1, which allows protons to leak from the intermembrane space to the
matrix, when activated. Which statement best describes the effects of proton translocation in BAT?
Leakage of H+ dissipates the mitochondrial proton gradient, which converts the energy from substrates
into heat instead of ATP.
True or false. The pH of the matrix in mitochondria is higher than that of the cytosol.
False. The pH of the matrix and the intermembrane space of mitochondria is always lower than the pH
of cytosol.

During a marathon, a runner begins to breathe faster in order to shuttle more oxygen into his muscles.
What happens in a muscle cell that has used up its supply of ATP and oxygen?
The rate of glycolysis would increase and the supply of ATP would be ensured by fermentation.

During oxidative phosphorylation, the respiratory chain pumps H+ into the intermembrane space to
create an electrochemical proton gradient. What is the consequence of this movement of H+ on
mitochondria?
All of the above
One of the ten reactions of glycolysis is controlled by PFK, an enzyme that is allosterically regulated by
ATP. Considering this graph, under which condition is PFK more active?
When ATP concentration is low in a cell

DNP was used as a component of diet pills in the 1930s until the product was banned for its serious
health effects. Knowing this chemical makes the inner mitochondrial membrane leaky to protons,
which statement best describes the danger of DNP?
ATP synthesis is decreased and the body reaches dangerously high temperatures

Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a form of vision loss in young adults caused by mutations
in mitochondrial DNA genes that affect oxidative phosphorylation. Which statement is the most
accurate regarding the transmission of this pathology?
Men cannot pass on the disease to their offspring

E. Coli is a facultative anaerobe, meaning it makes ATP by aerobic respiration but can also resort to
fermentation if oxygen is not available. If E. Coli was moved from an aerobic to an anaerobic
environment, how would its rate of glucose consumption change if ATP were to be generated at the
same rate?
E. Coli would need to consume glucose at a much higher rate compared to the aerobic environment.

Which of these statements is false regarding mitochondria and chloroplasts?


The inner membranes of mitochondria and chloroplasts both contain the energy-generating
systems, including ATP synthase.

True or false. Cellular reactions stop only when the concentration of ATP reaches zero.
False. Cellular reactions stop before the concentration reaches zero. Cells need to maintain a
certain concentration of ATP compared to that of ADP and inorganic phosphate.

What happens to cellular respiration in the absence of oxygen?


The electron transport chain stops working and ATP is not generated.

During aerobic respiration, what allows oxygen to be the final electron acceptor in the electron
transport chain?
Oxygen is the most electronegative acceptor in the electron transport chain

During a marathon, a runner begins to breathe faster in order to shuttle more oxygen into his
muscles. What happens in a muscle cell that has used up its supply of ATP and oxygen?
The rate of glycolysis would increase and the supply of ATP would be ensured by fermentation.

Complete the following sentence. Carbon dioxide that animals exhale is mainly produced during
___________, but also during ___________.
The Krebs cycle / Oxidation of pyruvate