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INSTRUCTION MANUAL

CHARA. OF PHOTO ELECTRIC CELL

Manufactured / Marketed By

,
SN. 37/2, "Ashtavinayak Indl. Estate",
Parvati Nagar, Dhayari-Narhe Road,
Next to Pari Robotics, Narhe, Pune - 41
Email: xtreme.pune@gmail.com
Web Site: www.xtremesolutions.org.in
CHARACTERISTICS OF PHOTO ELECTRIC CELL
AIM: -
To Study Characteristics of Photo electric Cell

APPARATUS: -
Photo electric Cell Experimental Set-up (or Photo-electric Cell, Light Source,
DC Regulated Power Supply), Voltmeter, Micro-ammeter, etc

THEORY: -
Photo Cell works on the principle of photoelectric effect. When light is
incident on the surface of certain metals, electrons are emitted by the surface. This
is called photoelectric effect. A photo diode consists of an evacuated tube with two
electrodes.
Photoelectric Effect:
When light incident on plate E, electrons are emitted from its surface. The
positive potential at cathode C accelerates these electrons towards C and current
flows through external circuit. It is observed that current flows even when the
applied voltage is zero & a negative potential –V0 has to be applied to reduce the
current to zero. V0 is called the stopping potential. As the intensity of the incident
radiation increases, the current increases even for constant voltage however V0
remains the same. These observations cannot be explained using the classical
concept of light as an electromagnetic wave. Einstein gave the explanation of
photoelectric effect based on the concept of photon & thereby established the
concept of wave-particle duality of radiation.

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Photoelectric cell or photocell, device whose electrical characteristics
(e.g., current, voltage, or resistance) vary when light is incident upon it. The most
common type consists of two electrodes separated by a light-sensitive
semiconductor material. A battery or other voltage source connected to the
electrodes sets up a current even in the absence of light; when light strikes the
semiconductor section of the photocell, the current in the circuit increases by an
amount proportional to the intensity of the light. In the phototube, an older type of
photocell, two electrodes are enclosed in a glass tube—an anode and a light-
sensitive cathode, i.e., a metal that emits electrons in accordance with the
photoelectric effect. Although the phototube itself is now obsolete, the principle
survives in the photomultiplier tube, which can be used to detect and amplify faint
amounts of light. In this tube, electrons ejected from a photosensitive cathode by
light are attracted toward and strike a positive electrode, liberating showers of
secondary electrons; these are drawn to a more positive electrode, producing yet
more secondary electrons—and so on, through several stages, until a large pulse
of current is produced. Besides its use in measuring light intensity, a
photomultiplier can be built into a television camera tube, making it sensitive
enough to pick up the visual image of a star too faint to be seen by the human
eye. The photovoltaic type of photoelectric cell, when exposed to light, can
generate and support an electric current without being attached to any external
voltage source. Such a cell usually consists of a semiconductor crystal with two
zones composed of dissimilar materials. When light shines on the crystal, a voltage
is set up across the junction between the two zones. A phototransistor, which is a
type of photovoltaic cell, can generate a small current that acts like the input
current in a conventional transistor and controls a larger current in the output
circuit. Photovoltaic cells are also used to make solar batteries. Since the current
from a photocell can easily be used to operate switches or relays, it is often used in
light-actuated counters, automatic door
openers, and intrusion alarms. Photocells in
such devices are popularly known as electric
eyes.

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Emission of electrons by substances, especially metals, when light falls on
their surfaces. H. R. Hertz discovered the effect in 1887. The failure of the classical
theory of electromagnetic radiation to explain it helped lead to the development of
the quantum theory. According to classical theory, when light, thought to be
composed of waves, strikes substances, the energy of the liberated electrons
ought to be proportional to the
intensity of light. Experiments showed that, although the electron current produced
depends upon the intensity of the light, the maximum energy of the electrons was
not dependent on the intensity. Moreover, classical theory predicted that the
photoelectric current should not depend on the frequency of the light and that
there should be a time lag between the reception of light on the surface and the
emission of the electrons. Neither of these predictions was borne out by
experiment. In 1905, Albert Einstein published a theory that successfully explained
the photoelectric effect. It was closely related to Planck’s theory of black body
radiation announced in 1900. According to Einstein’s theory, the incident light is
composed of discrete particles of energy, or quanta, called photons, the energy of
each photon being proportional to its frequency according to the equation (E=hv
by Plank’s theory), where E is the energy, v (upsilon) is the frequency, and
h is Planck’s constant (h = 6·6 x 10-34 Js). Each photoelectron ejected is the
result of the absorption of one photon. The maximum kinetic energy, KE, that any
photoelectron can possess is given by KE = v (hupsilon)-W, where W is the
work function, i.e., the energy required to free an electron from the material,
varying with the particular material. The effect has a number of practical
applications, most based on the photoelectric cell

INSTALLATION AND ADJUSTMENT:


1. Adjust the best work situation: The light should shine on the middle area of
the
Phototube cathode plate. Users can make slight adjustment in the position of
Lamp, if required to get a maximum current display, while other conditions are not
changed.

CAUTION: DO NOT TOUCH TO LAMP COVER, AS IT MAY BE HEATED

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PRECAUTIONS:
1. This instrument should be operated in a dry, cool indoor space.
2. Phototube particularly should not be exposed to direct light; the room should be
only dimly light.
3. The instrument should be kept in dust proof and moisture proof environment, if
there is dust on the phototube; color filter, lens etc. clean it by using absorbent
cotton with a few drops of alcohol.
4. The color filter should be stored in dry and dust proof environment.
5. After finishing the experiment remember to switch off power and cover the
drawtube with the lens cover provided. Phototube is light sensitive device and
its sensitivity decreases with exposure to light and due to ageing.

For I-D Characteristics:


PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the mains cord to AC mains of kit & Light Source.
2. Connect the patch cord between photo-electric cell & Power supply panel.
3. Adjust lamp in such a way that the spot of light would be at approximately
center of the Photo-electric Cell.
4. Keep certain constant voltage across the photocell (Approx 20-40Volt).
5. Keep light source close to photocell.
6. Measure the photo electric current.
7. Now by varying the distance between photocell & the lamp, note down the
photo current at different positions of lamp.
8. Record observations for different voltages; & same as procedure 5 to 7.
9. Plot the graph of photoelectric current (I) on Y-axis Vs. Distance (1/DL) on
X-axis.

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OBSERVATION TABLE:

D = Distance between the source of light & photo cell (in cm)
I = Photo-electric current (in µ Amp)
V = Applied Voltage across photocell (in Volts)

Voltage across photocell V1 = ……V Voltage across photocell V2 = ……V


Sr.
No. 1 1
D (cm) 2
(cm − 2 ) I (µA) D (cm) 2
(cm − 2 ) I (µA)
D D

Nature of Graph: -

For I-V Characteristics

PROCEDURE: -

1. Connect the mains cord to AC mains of kit & Light Source.


2. Connect the patch cord between photo-electric cell & Power supply panel.
3. Adjust lamp in such a way that the spot of light would be at approximately
center of the Photo-electric Cell.
4. Keep certain constant distance between lamp & photocell.
5. Vary voltage across photocell using the voltage variable potentiometer.
6. Note down the photo current recorded in micro-ammeter at every step of
voltage (say 1V for each step).
7. Plot the graph of photoelectric current (I) on Y-axis Vs Applied voltage (V) on
X-axis.

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OBSERVATION TABLE: -
D = Distance between the source of light & photo cell (in cm)
I = Photo-electric current (in µ Amp)
V = Applied Voltage across photocell (in Volts)

Sr. D = ……. Cm D = …… cm

V (Volts) I (µA) V (Volts) I (µA)

Nature of Graph: -

7 PHOTO ELECTRIC CELL CHARACTERISTICS | XTREME SOLUTIONS, PUNE-41