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V.

#PROSECUTION#OF#CIVIL#ACTION#
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a.#Rule#on#implied#institution#of#the#civil#action#with#the#criminal#action#
•! The" GENERAL" RULE" is" that" the" institution" or" filing" of" the" criminal" action" includes" the" institution"
therein"of"the"civil"action"for"recovery"of"civil"liability"arising"from"the"offense"charged."
•! When" the" offended" party" seeks" to" enforce" civil" liability" against" the" accused" by" way" of" moral,"
nominal,"temperate"or"exemplary"damages"without"specifying"the"amount"thereof"in"the"complaint"
or"information,"the"filing"fees"therefor"shall"constitute"a"first"lien"on"the"judgment"awarding"such"
damages."
•! Where"the"amount"of"damages,"other"than"actual,"is"specified"in"the"complaint"or"information,"the"
corresponding"filing"fees"shall"be"paid"by"the"offended"party"upon"filing"thereof"in"court."Except"as"
otherwise"provided"in"these"Rules,"no"filing"fees"shall"be"required"for"actual"damages."
•! With"respect"to"criminal"actions"for"violations"of"BP"22,"the"offended"party"shall"pay"in"full"the"filing"
fees"based"on"the"face"value"of"the"checks"as"the"actual"damages."
" "
1.#Exceptions#
# # a.#Reservation#of#civil#action#
•! If"the"offended"party"desires"to"reserve"the"right"to"institute"the"civil"action"after"
the"criminal"action"has"been"instituted,"the"reservation"shall"be"made"BEFORE"the"
prosecution"starts"presenting"its"evidence."
# # b.#Waiver#of#prior#institution#
•! Institution"or"the"waiver"of"the"right"to"file"a"separate"civil"action"arising"from"the"
crime"charged"does"not"extinguish"the"right"to"bring"an"independent"civil"action"
# # c.#Independent#civil#actions#under#the#Civil#Code#
•! Under"the"rules,"only"the"civil"liability"of"the"accused"arising"from"the"crime"charged"
is"deemed"included"in"a"criminal"action."Thus,"the"civil"actions"referred"to"in"Art."
32," 33," 34," and" 2176" of" the" Civil" Code" shall" remain" separate," distinct" and"
independent"of"any"criminal"prosecution"which"may"be"based"on"the"same"act."
•! While"the"liability"arises"from"the"same"act,"it"does"not"arise"from"the"same"source."
The" civil" liability" in" the" rules" refers" to" those" arising" from" delict," while" the" civil"
liability" which" proceeds" independently" under" the" civil" code" arises" from" direct"
provisions"of"law."
o! Art."32"pertains"to"violation"of"constitutional"rights"
o! Art."33"pertains"to"defamation,"fraud,"and"physical"injuries"
o! Art."34"pertains"to"failure"to"aid"by"police"
o! Art."2176"pertains"to"quasiRdelicts"
•! Consequences"of"the"Independent"Character"of"actions"under"Art."32,"33,"34,"and"
2176"of"the"Civ"Code:"
o! The" right" to" bring" the" civil" action" shall" proceed" independently" of" the"
criminal"action"and"regardless"of"the"results"of"the"latter"(Sec."3,"Rule"111)"
o! The"quantum"of"evidence"required"is"preponderance"of"evidence"(Sec."3,"
Rule"111)"
o! The"right"to"bring"the"foregoing"actions"based"on"the"Civil"Code"need"not"
be" reserved" in" the" criminal" prosecution," since" they" are" not" deemed"
included"therein"
o! The" institution" or" the" waiver" of" the" right" to" file" a" separate" civil" action"
arising"from"the"crime"charged"does"not"extinguish"the"right"to"bring"an"
independent"civil"action"
o! Even"if"a"civil"action"is"filed"separately,"the"exRdelicto"liability"in"the"criminal"
prosecution"remains,"and"the"offended"party"may,"subject"to"the"control"

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of"the"prosecutor,"still"intervene"in"the"criminal"action,"in"order"to"protect"
the"remaining"civil"interest"therein.""
o! The"rules"on"suspension"and"consolidation"in"Sec."2"does"NOT"apply"
" "
# 2.#Special#rule#for#the#BP#22#cases#
•! The"exception"to"the"reservation"requirement"is"a"claim"arising"out"of"a"dishonored"check"
under" BP" 22," where" no" reservation" to" file" such" civil" action" separately" shall" be" allowed,"
which"means"that"the"filing"of"the"criminal"action"for"violation"of"BP"22"shall"be"deemed"to"
include"the"corresponding"civil"action"and"that"unless"a"separate"civil"action"has"been"filed"
before"the"institution"of"the"criminal"action,"no"such"civil"action"can"be"instituted"after"the"
criminal"action"has"been"filed"as"the"same"has"been"included"therein."
"
NOTE:"Another"instance"where"no"reservation"shall"be"allowed"and"where"a"civil"action"filed"prior"to"the"
criminal"action"has"to"be"transferred"to"the"subsequently"filed"criminal"action"for"joint"hearing"is"a"claim"
arising"from"an"offense"which"is"cognizable"by"the"Sandiganbayan."
"
b.#Effect#of#death#of#the#accused#on#the#civil#action#
# 1.#If#impliedly#instituted#
•! The"death"of"the"accused"after"arraignment"and"during"the"pendency"of"the"criminal"action"
shall"extinguish"the"civil"liability"arising"from"the"delict."
# 2.#If#independently#instituted#
•! the"independent"civil"action"instituted"under"section"3"of"Rule"111"or"which"thereafter"is"
instituted" to" enforce" liability" arising" from" other" sources" of" obligation" may" be" continued"
against"the"estate"or"legal"representative"of"the"accused"after"proper"substitution"or"against"
said" estate," as" the" case" may" be." The" heirs" of" the" accused" may" be" substituted" for" the"
deceased"without"requiring"the"appointment"of"an"executor"or"administrator"and"the"court"
may"appoint"a"guardian"ad"litem"for"the"minor"heirs."
•! The"court"shall"forthwith"order"said"legal"representative"or"representatives"to"appear"and"
be"substituted"within"a"period"of"thirty"(30)"days"from"notice."
•! A"final"judgment"entered"in"favor"of"the"offended"party"shall"be"enforced"against"the"estate"
of"the"deceased."
"
NOTE:"If"the"accused"dies"AFTER"arraignment,"civil"liability"shall"extinguish"civil"liability."If"he"dies"BEFORE"
arraignment," the" case" shall" be" dismissed" without" prejudice" to" any" civil" action" the" offended" party" may"
institute."
"
c.#Kinds#of#acquittal#and#effect#on#civil#liability#
•! The"extinction"of"the"penal"action"does"NOT"carry"with"it"extinction"of"the"civil"action."However,"
the"civil"action"based"on"delict"shall"be"deemed"extinguished"if"there"is"a"finding"in"a"final"judgment"
in"the"criminal"action"that"the"act"or"omission"from"which"the"civil"liability"may"arise"did"not"exist."
•! In"case"of"acquittal,"the"accused"may"still"be"adjudged"to"be"civilly"liable"where:"
1."The"acquittal"is"based"on"reasonable"doubt,"as"only"preponderance"of"evidence"is"required"in"
civil"actions"
2."The"court"declares"that"the"liability"of"the"accused"is"only"civil"
3."The"civil"liability"of"the"accused"does"not"arise"form"or"is"not"based"upon"the"crime"of"which"the"
accused"was"acquitted."
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#
#
#

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d.#Prejudicial#question#
•! A"prejudicial"question"is"an"issue"involved"in"a"civil"case"which"is"similar"or"intimately"related"to"the"
issue"raised"in"the"criminal"action,"the"resolution"of"which"determines"whether"or"not"the"criminal"
action"may"proceed."
•! A"petition"for"suspension"of"the"criminal"action"based"upon"the"pendency"of"a"prejudicial"question"
in"a"civil"action"may"be"filed"in"the"office"of"the"prosecutor"or"the"court"conducting"the"preliminary"
investigation."When"the"criminal"action"has"been"filed"in"court"for"trial,"the"petition"to"suspend"shall"
be"filed"in"the"same"criminal"action"at"any"time"before"the"prosecution"rests."
" "
" 1.#Elements#
•! the"previously"instituted"civil"action"involves"an"issue"similar"or"intimately"related"to"the"issue"
raised"in"the"subsequent"criminal"action,"and"
•! the"resolution"of"such"issue"determines"whether"or"not"the"criminal"action"may"proceed."
"
TEST:"It"must"appear"not"only"that"the"civil"case"involves"the"same"facts"upon"which"the"criminal"
prosecution" is" based," but" also" that" the" resolution" of" the" issues" in" said" civil" action" would" be"
necessarily"determinative"of"the"guilt"or"innocence"of"the"accused."
"
# 2.#Effect#of#a#prejudicial#question#on#a#criminal#action#
•! A"prejudicial"question"can"be"interposed"at"the"Office"of"the"Prosecutor,"butZ"
o! The"question"can"also"be"raised"in"courtZ"
o! If"raised,"the"court"should"merely"suspend"the"criminal"caseZ"
o! The"court"must"wait"for"a"motion,"otherwise,"that"is"a"waiverZ"
o! The"court"cannot"motu"propio"suspend"the"criminal"case."
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