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 Christopher Anderson HORT 421 224005698 Dr. Botezatu

HORT 421 FINAL EXAM

You are the winemaker at a small Texas winery. You have just processed 3000 L Tempranillo must at 19 brix, TA = 5.2, pH = 4.2. Your boss (the owner) wants you to make a 13% alcohol wine but leaves the rest up to you. Detail all the winemaking steps that you would take to produce a stable, fault free wine. Include choice of yeast, analyses, additions and adjustments with the calculations included, all winemaking steps taken and justiﬁcations for your technical and stylistic choices. (Bullet-point rather than full text is preferred).

SUGAR ADDITION: 1 Brix = 10 g sugar, 190 g/L s.s already

17 g sugar needed per 1% alc/vol, 190/17= 11.18% alc/vol no additions

13% desired: 13 x 17 = 221 g/L sugar needed in wine 221 g/L sugar needed - 190 g/L sugar present = 31 g/L sugar needed in must 31g/L x 3000 L Tempranillo must = 93,000 g sugar = 93 kilograms sugar

ACID ADDITION: Need to lower pH to 3.6 or lower, need TA to be between 5 and 7 g/L

 1 g/L Tartaric acid decreases pH about 0.1 units, need decrease of at least 0.6 units 7 g/L Tartaric acid is added to be safe and put us at a pH of around 3.5 and our TA is 12.2, higher than ideal. 7 g/L * 3000 L Tempranillo must = 21,000 g Tartaric acid = 21 kg Tartaric acid

SO 2 ADDITION: pH of wine is around 3.5 so we want to make sure there is about 30 ppm SO 2 in the wine. First, we would measure this using a titrator. Once the level is measured, we would make the addition necessary. For this example, I’m assuming there is no free SO 2 in the wine and we will add the entire 30 ppm to be safe. Addition of Potassium metabisulﬁte to the wine

30 ppm * 3000 L * 1.75 / 1000 = 157.5 g SO 2 added -Potassium Metabisulﬁte is only 57% SO 2 so we need to multiply by 1.75 to get the right amount of SO 2 in our calculation

OTHER POTENTIAL ADDITIONS: In order to assure that the yeast has enough nitrogen to ferment the wine properly. We would add Fermaid K at a rate of about 38 g/hL. 38 g/ hL * 30 hL Tempranillo must =1140 g Fermaid K =1.14 kg Fermaid K

 Christopher Anderson HORT 421 224005698 Dr. Botezatu

YEAST ADDITION: I choose Alchemy III due to it’s ability to create a ﬂoral and fruity complex red wine. I would use 30 g/hL of Alchemy III coupled with 30 g/ hL of Go-Ferm to boost the yeast. To begin, I would add the yeast to water and then heat the vessel a little to ensure the yeast begins to bloom. I would incorporate little by little some of the must into the vessel as to not shock the yeast when I put it in the vat of must. To the vessel of yeast and water, I would add the Go-Ferm. Once the yeast has ﬁnished blooming enough, I would put it in the vat to start fermentation. 30 g/hL of both Alchemy III and Go-Ferm needed:

30 g/L * 30 hL must = 900 grams of both needed = .9 kg yeast & .9 kg Go-Ferm

DURING FERMENTATION:

I would check parameters such as Free SO2, TA, and pH during fermentation. If

the free SO2 is low, I would add more Potassium Metabisulﬁte to keep the amount

around 30 ppm. If the TA drops, I would add more Tartaric acid. if the pH rises or falls, I would either add Tartaric acid or put in a base to level it out. If fermentation seems to lag or not go correctly, I would add more DAP in the form of Fermaid K

I would check to see if the fermentation is ﬁnished by using ﬁrst a hydrometer

and then verifying the results using an Eboulliometer. During fermentation, I would macerate the must multiple times. The method I would pursue is mechanical cap management. I would punch down the cap multiple times a day to ensure proper phenol and color extraction in the wine.

POST-FERMENTATION:

PRESSING: I would press the wine using a bladder press. After pressing, I would use a centrifugal pump to pump the wine into a stainless steel tank to settle. I choose these particular pumps and presses due to my familiarity with them. SETTLING AND RACKING: I would let the wine settle and then rack the wine to another stainless steel tank, leaving all the lees behind. I would do this to help naturally clarify the wine. OAK MATURATION: I would oak the Tempranillo using oak chips that I would place in a mesh bag and then put in the wine. I would opt to do this instead of putting it in barrels due to the much reduced cost, with the end result similar. STABILIZATION: I would stabilize the wine to remove tartrate crystals. I would bring the wine down to 28 F for about a week and a half, then rack to remove the crystals. FILTERING: Upon ﬁnishing oak maturation, I would look at the wine and determine if it needs ﬁltering. If it is clear and I am happy with the aroma and ﬂavor proﬁles, I would opt not to ﬁlter it to retain these elements. If it is hazy or has an aroma or ﬂavor I am displeased with, I would ﬁlter it. I would probably ﬁlter it only once to preserve the color. BOTTLING: I would hope to have a semiautomatic bottling line where I would be able to ﬁll the bottles up without overﬂowing. I would choose to put this wine in a dark green Bordeaux bottle, due to most Tempranillo being bottled in similar bottles. I would then put the corks in using a manual corker and leave the wine in the bottle until I am ready to sell!