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# ANALOGUE AND DIGITAL ELECTRONICS

## The main focus of the exam questions will be on applications.

You will get a formula sheet similar to the one at given the end of this guide.

1. ANALOGUE ELECTRONICS

##  You must know how what an amplifier does

 Its equivalent circuit and parameters (input and output resistance, voltage gain)
 What is meant by voltage gain
 What is the difference between the open-circuit or unloaded gain and the loaded gain
 Frequency limitations of amplifiers (what is bandwidth, upper cut-off frequency, lower
cut-off frequency)

## 1.2 Operational Amplifiers (OPAMPs)

 You must know how to analyse/design a non-inverting amplifier using an opamp (identify
the circuit and determine the voltage gain, input and output resistance, phase shift and cut-
off frequency)
 You must know how to analyse/design an inverting amplifier using an opamp (identify the
circuit and determine the voltage gain, input and output resistance, phase shift and cut-off
frequency)

## 1.3 Bipolar Transistors (BJTs)

 You must know how to analyse/design a common-emitter transistor amplifier with split
emitter resistor and bypass capacitor (identify the circuit and determine the quiescent
collector current and quiescent output voltage, the small-signal voltage gain, the input and
output resistance, and the lower cut-off frequency)

## 1.4 FET Transistors

 You must know how to analyse/design a common-source FET amplifier with source
resistor (identify the circuit and determine the quiescent drain current and quiescent output
voltage, the small-signal voltage gain, the input and output resistance, and the lower cut-
off frequency)

1.5 Diodes

 You must know how to analyse/design a half-wave rectifier circuit (identify the circuit and
determine the DC output voltage, the load current and the peak-to-peak ripple voltage)
2. DIGITAL ELECTRONICS

## 2.1 Combinational Logic

 You must know the logic symbol, truth table and Boolean logic expression for all the
basic logic gates (AND, NAND, OR, NOR, XOR, XNOR and NOT)
 How to convert between truth-table, logic-expression and logic-circuit representations of a
combinational digital system
 How to simplify/minimise a logic expression using a Karnaugh map
 The binary-code representation of decimal numbers (at least 0 to 15)
 The truth table and the logic implementation of a 2-to-1 1-bit multiplexer

## 2.2 Sequential Logic

 You must know the circuit diagram (using basic gates) and the timing diagram of the
following latches: S-R latch (both active-high and active-low), gated S-R latch and
transparent or D latch
 The main difference between latches and flip-flops
 The various types of flip-flop (J-K, D, T and M/S)
 How to create a toggle flip-flop using J-K, D and T flip-flops
 How to design a binary ripple counter
SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION SHEET

OPAMPS:

- FEEDBACK FRACTION

R1
B 
RF  R1

- INVERTING AMPLIFIER

RF
G  
R1

Rin = R1

Ro ( op)
Ro 
1  AB

1
 BW  f u
B

- NON-INVERTING AMPLIFIER
RF 1
G  1 
R1 B

## Rin = Rin(op)  (1+AB)

Ro ( op)
Ro 
1  AB

1
 BW  G  BW  f u
B

DIODES:

IL
vripple 
fC
BIPOLAR TRANSISTORS:

1V
IC =  IB IC  IE VBE  0.7 V re 
40 I C

## Proper design condition  R1 || R2 <<  RE VE  1 V

RC
G  
RE  re

RC
G   if re << RE
RE

Ro  RC

R1  R2
Rin  R1 R2 
R1  R2

1
fl 
2  C R1 R2

## - COMMON-EMITTER AMPLIFIER WITH SPLIT EMITTER RESISTOR

(RE = RE1 + RE2 ) AND BYPASS CAPACITOR

## Proper design conditions  R1 || R2 <<  RE VE  1 V

RC
G  
RE1  re

Ro  RC

Rin  R1 || R2 || [ (RE1 + re )]

1 1
fl  
2 Rin C1 2 [ RE 2 || ( RE1  re )] C2
FIELD-EFFECT TRANSISTORS:

IG = 0 ID = IS

## - COMMON-SOURCE AMPLIFIER WITH SOURCE RESISTOR

RD RD
G   G   if (1/gm) << RS
1 RS
RS 
gm

Ro  RD

1
fl 
2  C R1 R2