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# Chapter 1

Introduction
to Statistics
with Excel

## © 2002 Thomson / South-Western Slide 1-1

Learning Objectives
• Define statistics
• Become aware of a wide range of
• Differentiate between descriptive and
inferential statistics
• Classify numbers by level of data and
understand why doing so is important
• Become aware of the statistical analysis
capabilities of Excel

## © 2002 Thomson / South-Western Slide 1-2

What is Statistics?
• Science of gathering, analyzing,
interpreting, and presenting data
• Branch of mathematics
• Course of study
• Facts and figures
• A death
• Measurement taken on a sample
• Type of distribution being used to
analyze data
© 2002 Thomson / South-Western Slide 1-3
Population Versus Sample

## • Population — the whole

– a collection of persons, objects, or items
under study
• Census — gathering data from the
entire population
• Sample — a portion of the whole
– a subset of the population

Population

## © 2002 Thomson / South-Western Slide 1-5

Population and Census Data

RD1 Red 12
RD2 Red 10
RD3 Red 13
RD4 Red 10
RD5 Red 13
BL1 Blue 27
BL2 Blue 24
GR1 Gree 35
GR2 n
Gree 35
GY1 n
Gray 15
GY2 Gray 18
GY3 Gray 17

## © 2002 Thomson / South-Western Slide 1-6

Sample and Sample Data

RD2 Red 10

RD5 Red 13

GR1 Gree 35
n

GY2 Gray 18

## © 2002 Thomson / South-Western Slide 1-7

Descriptive vs. Inferential Statistics

## • Descriptive Statistics — using data

gathered on a group to describe or
group only

## • Inferential Statistics — using sample

data to reach conclusions about the
population from which the sample was
taken
© 2002 Thomson / South-Western Slide 1-8
Parameter vs. Statistic

## • Parameter — descriptive measure of

the population
– Usually represented by Greek letters

## • Statistic — descriptive measure of a

sample
– Usually represented by Roman letters

## © 2002 Thomson / South-Western Slide 1-9

Symbols for Population Parameters

## µ denotes population parameter

σ
2
denotes population variance
σ denotes population standard deviation

## © 2002 Thomson / South-Western Slide 1-10

Symbols for Sample Statistics

## x denotes sample mean

2
S denotes sample variance
S denotes sample standard deviation

## © 2002 Thomson / South-Western Slide 1-11

Process of Inferential Statistics

Calculate x
to estimate µ
Population Sample
µ x
(parameter) (statistic)

Select a
random sample
© 2002 Thomson / South-Western Slide 1-12
Levels of Data Measurement

## • Nominal - Lowest level of measurement

• Ordinal
• Interval
• Ratio - Highest level of measurement

## © 2002 Thomson / South-Western Slide 1-13

Nominal Level Data
• Numbers are used to classify or
categorize
Example: Employment Classification
– 1 for Educator
– 2 for Construction Worker
– 3 for Manufacturing Worker
Example: Ethnicity
– 1 for African-American
– 2 for Anglo-American
– 3 for Hispanic-American
– 4 for Oriental-American

## © 2002 Thomson / South-Western Slide 1-14

Ordinal Level Data
• Numbers are used to indicate rank or order
– Relative magnitude of numbers is meaningful
– Differences between numbers are not comparable

## Example: Taste test ranking of three brands of soft

drink
Example: Position within an organization
– 1 for President
– 2 for Vice President
– 3 for Plant Manager
– 4 for Department Supervisor
– 5 for Employee
© 2002 Thomson / South-Western Slide 1-15
Example of Ordinal Measurement

1 f
6 i
2 n
4 i
3 s
5 h

Ordinal Data

## Faculty and staff should receive preferential

treatment for parking space.

Agree Disagree

1 2 3 4 5

## © 2002 Thomson / South-Western Slide 1-17

Interval Level Data
• Distances between consecutive integers
are equal
– Relative magnitude of numbers is
meaningful
– Differences between numbers are
comparable
– Location of origin, zero, is arbitrary
– Vertical intercept of unit of measure
transform function is not zero

## Examples: Fahrenheit Temperature, Calendar

Time, Monetary Units
© 2002 Thomson / South-Western Slide 1-18
Ratio Level Data
• Highest level of measurement
– Relative magnitude of numbers is meaningful
– Differences between numbers are
comparable
– Location of origin, zero, is absolute (natural)
– Vertical intercept of unit of measure
transform function is zero

## Examples: Height, Weight, and Volume

Monetary Variables, such as Revenues, and
Expenses
Financial ratios, such as P/E Ratio, Inventory
Turnover
© 2002 Thomson / South-Western Slide 1-19
Usage Potential of Various
Levels of Data
Ratio
Interval
Ordinal

Nominal

## © 2002 Thomson / South-Western Slide 1-20

Data Level, Operations,
and Statistical Methods
Statistical
Data Level Meaningful Operations
Methods

## Interval All of above plus Addition, Parametric

Subtraction, Multiplication,
and Division

## © 2002 Thomson / South-Western Slide 1-21

Qualitative vs Quantitative Data

## Qualitative Data is data of the nominal or

ordinal level that classifies by a label or
category. The labels may be numeric or
nonnumeric.

## Quantitative Data is data of the interval

or ratio level that measures on a naturally
occurring numeric scale.

## © 2002 Thomson / South-Western Slide 1-22

Discrete and Continuous Data

## Discrete Data is numeric data in which the

values can come only from a list of specific
values. Discrete data results from a
counting process.

## Continuos Data is numeric data that can

take on values at every point over a given
interval. Continuous data result from a
measuring process.

## © 2002 Thomson / South-Western Slide 1-23

Summary of Data Classifications
Data
Data

## nal Ordinal Ratio

Nominal Ordinal Interval
Interl Ratio

Qualitative Quantitative
Qualitative
(Categorical) Quantitative

Numeric
Nonnumeric
Nonnumeric Numeric Numeric
Numeric

Discrete or
Discrete
Discrete Discrete
Continuous or
Continuous