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MBA 3rd

OD interventions are plans or programs

comprised of specific activities designed to effect
change in some facet of an organization. Numerous
interventions have been developed over the years to
address different problems or create various results.
However, they all are geared toward the goal of
improving the entire organization through change. In
general, organizations that wish to achieve a high
degree of organizational change will employ a full
range of interventions, including those designed to
transform individual and group behavior and


Interpersonal interventions in an OD program are
designed to enhance individual skills, knowledge,
and effectiveness. This type of program utilizes
group dynamics by gathering individuals together in
loosely structured meetings. Subject matter is
determined by the group, within the context of basic
goals stipulated by a facilitator. As group members
try to exert structure on fellow members, group
members gain a greater awareness of their own and
other's feelings, motivations, and behaviors. Other
types of interpersonal interventions include those
designed to improve the performance review
process, create better training programs, help
workers identify their true wants and set
complementary career goals, and resolve conflict.

(2)Such interventions usually assume that the most

effective groups communicate well, facilitate a
healthy balance between both personal and group
needs, and function by consensus as opposed to
autocracy or majority rule.
Group diagnostic interventions are simply
meetings wherein members of a team analyze their
unit's performance, ask questions about what the
team needs to do to improve, and discuss potential
solutions to problems. The benefit of such
interventions is that members often communicate
problems of which their co-workers were unaware.
Ideally, such communication will spur problem-
solving and improved group dynamics.
Role analysis technique (RAT) is used to help
employees get a better grasp on their role in an
organization. In the first step of a RAT intervention,
people define their perception of their role and
contribution to the overall company effort in front of
a group of coworkers. Group members then provide
feedback to more clearly define the role. In the
second phase, the individual and the group examine
ways in which the employee relies on others in the
company, and how they define his or her
expectations. RAT interventions help people to
reduce role confusion, which can result in either
conflict or the perception that some people are not
doing their job. A popular intervention similar to RAT
is responsibility charting, which utilizes a matrix
system to assign decision and task responsibilities.


interventions are integrated into OD programs to
facilitate cooperation and efficiency between
different groups within an organization. For instance,
departmental interaction often deteriorates in larger
organizations as different unit’s battle for limited
resources or become detached from the needs of
other units.
Conflict resolution meetings are one common
inter group intervention. First, different group leaders
are brought together to secure their commitment to
the intervention. Next, the teams meet separately to
make a list of their feelings about the other group(s).
Then the groups meet and share their lists. Finally,
the teams meet to discuss the problems and to try to
develop solutions that will help both parties. This
type of intervention, say supporters, helps to
gradually diffuse tension between groups that has
arisen because of faulty communication.
Rotating membership interventions are used by
OD change agents to minimize the negative effects
of inter group rivalry that arise from employee
allegiances to groups or divisions. The intervention
basically entails temporarily putting group members
into their rival groups. As more people interact in the
different groups, greater understanding results.
OD joint activity interventions serve the same
basic function as the rotating membership approach,
but these involve melding members of different
groups to work together toward a common goal.
Similarly, common enemy interventions achieve the
same results by finding an adversary common to two
or more groups and then getting members of the
groups to work together to overcome the threat.
Examples of common enemies targeted in such
programs include competitors, government
regulation, and economic conditions.

(4)One of the most popular comprehensive

interventions is survey feedback. This technique
basically entails surveying employee attitudes at all
levels of the company and then disseminating a
report that details those findings. The employees
then use the data in feedback sessions to create
solutions to perceived problems. A number of
questionnaires developed specifically for such
interventions have been developed.

Structural change interventions are used by OD

change agents to implement organizational
alterations related to departmentalization,
management hierarchy, work policies, compensation
and benefit incentives programs, and other
cornerstones of the business. Often, the
implemented changes emanate from feedback from
other interventions. One benefit of change
interventions is that companies can often realize an
immediate and very significant impact in productivity
and profitability (provided the changes are warranted
and implemented appropriately).
Socio-technical system design interventions are
similar to structural change techniques, but they
typically emphasize the reorganization of work
teams. The basic goal is to create independent
groups throughout the company that supervise
themselves. This administration may include such
aspects as monitoring quality or disciplining team
members. The theoretic benefit of socio-technical
system design interventions is that worker and group
productivity and quality is increased because
workers have more control over (and subsequent
satisfaction from) the process in which they
A fourth OD intervention that became extremely
popular during the 1980s and early 1990s is total
quality management (TQM). TQM interventions utilize
established quality techniques and programs that
emphasize quality processes, rather than achieving
quality by inspecting products and services after
processes have been completed. The important
concept of continuous improvement embodied by
TQM has carried over into other OD Top
Writing in the Academy of Management OD
Newsletter, consultant William G. Dyer stipulated
several conditions that had to be present if an OD
intervention could have any meaningful chance of
bringing about the desired change:

• Ownership and all involved personnel needed to

be genuinely and visibly committed to the effort.
• People involved in OD have to be informed in
advance of the nature of the intervention and
the nature of their involvement in it.
• The OD effort has to be connected to other parts
of the organization; this is especially true of such
areas as the evaluation and reward systems.
• The effort has to be directed by appropriate
managers and guided by change agents (which,
if used, must be competent).
• The intervention should be based on accurate
diagnosis of organizational conditions.
• Owners and managers should show their
commitment to OD at all stages of the effort,
including the diagnosis, implementation, and
• Evaluation is key to success, and should consist
of more than asking people how they felt about
the effort.
• Owners and managers need to show employees
how the OD effort relates to the organization's
goals and overriding mission.

Classifying OD Interventions
There are many, many different types of OD
interventions. These are classified, or grouped
according to:
i) The objectives of the interventions
ii) The targets of the interventions
There are 14 major “families” of OD
1. Diagnostic Activities Fact-finding activities
designed to ascertain the state of the system or the
status of a problem.
2. Team Building Activities designed to enhance
the effective operation of system teams. These can
focus on task-related issues such as the way things
are done, necessary skills and resources, relationship
quality between team members and between team
and leader, and effectiveness.
3. Inter group Activities Designed to improve the
effectiveness of interdependent groups, i.e. those
that must cooperate to produce a common output.
These focus on joint activities and the output of the
groups as a single system rather than 2 subsystems.
4. Survey Feedback Activities Activities that focus
on the use of questionnaires to generate information
which is then used to identify problems and
5. Education and Training Activities designed to
improve skills, abilities and knowledge. Several
activities and approaches are possible, depending on
the nature of the need.
6. Techno-structural or Structural Activities
designed to improve organisational structures and
job designs. Activities could include either:
a) experimenting with new organisational structures
and evaluating their effectiveness
b) devising new ways to bring technical resources to
bear on problems

7. Process Consultation Activities activities that

help the client “perceive, understand and act upon
process events which occur in the client’s
8. Grid Organisation Development Activities a
six - phase model designed by Blake and Mouton
involving the whole organisation. the model starts
with upgrading individual manager’s skills and
leadership abilities, moves to improvement activities,
then to intergroup relations activities..
9. Third -Party Peacemaking Activities
intervention by a skilled third party aimed at helping
2 organisational members manage their
interpersonal conflict.

10 Coaching and Counseling Activities the

consultant works with org. members to a) define
learning goals; b) learn how others see their
behavior, and c) learn new behaviours to better
achieve their goals. Key features are non-evaluative
feedback and joint exploration of alternative

11. Life and Career Planning Activities activities

focused on life and career objectives and how to go
about attaining them. Includes goal setting,
assessment and training

12. Planning and Goal Setting Activities theory

and experience in planning and goal setting, problem
solving models, planning paradigms and “ideal vs.
real” discrepancy models.
13. Strategic Management Activities helping key
policy-makers reflect on the org’s basic mission and
goals, environmental demands, threats and
opportunities. engaging in long-range planning of
both a reactive and a proactive nature. Attention is
focused outside of the org. and to the future.

14. Organisational Transformation Activities

activities focusing on large-scale system changes
that will fundamentally transform the nature of the
organization. Virtually every aspect of the org. is
changed: structure, management philosophy, reward
systems, work design, mission, values and culture

Team Building intervention

This unique customized team building intervention is

designed to get an ineffective team experiencing
distrust, poor interpersonal skills, personality
conflicts, pride, politics, or lack of accountability to
openly address dysfunctional behaviors and achieve
consensus commitments that serve as the
foundation for building a cohesive high-performance

This intervention is facilitated by Dr. Wolf J. Rinke

who has more than 30 years of hands-on
management and leadership experience and has
conducted numerous interventions like this with a
wide variety of companies from established Fortune
500 to start-up entrepreneurial companies

More specifically as a result of participating in this

team building intervention participants will be able

• Communicate more effectively

• Enhance trust
• Reduce conflicts
• Improve morale
• Take ownership and assume responsibility
• Recognize and build on each others strengths
• Build a positive team culture
• Destroy "we-they" perceptions
• Decrease politics, egos and other dysfunctional
• Build rapport
• Increase satisfaction
• Celebrate accomplishments
• Achieve laser like focus
• Be more receptive to change
• Improve leadership skills
• Enhance interpersonal skills
• Focus on results
• Eliminate self-destructive negative behaviors
• Sustain high levels of energy and motivation
• Hold each other accountable
• Achieve dramatic improvements in performance
and productivity
• Function as a cohesive high-performance team

SAMPLE Intervention PROCESS:

Note: intervention is customized to the specific

needs of the team.

Phase 1 Diagnosis
What: Conduct interviews with key decision makers
and each member of the team (approx. 12
individuals )
How: Face-to-face in-depth interviews to identify
strengths, weaknesses and learning opportunities
(1½ hours per interview ).
Why: Identify the "real" needs and challenges of the
team Structure a customized retreat that produces
lasting results, is memorable and fun.

Phase 2 Intervention
What: Deliver a customized transformation
intervention (1 day)
How: Interactive learning session in a retreat setting
(details attached)
Why: Build the foundation for team effectiveness

Phase 3 Follow-up
What: Follow-up and reinforcement
How: Conduct at least one follow-up session 3-6
months after the retreat (½ day)
(Optional-depending on team progress, additional
follow-up session may be required.)
Dr. Rinke will be available via phone or e-mail to all
team members for 12 months after the completion of
the initial retreat.
Team members will receive a free monthly e-
Why: To assess compliance with commitments and
reinforce newly learned behaviors
To achieve lasting behavior change and dramatic
improvements in team performance.

Executive coaching (optional)

What: Coaching sessions on as needed basis for
individuals who decrease team effectiveness
How: Conduct one-on-one coaching sessions (more
Why: To help individuals build powerful new habit
patterns that support and sustain team

SAMPLE Team-Building Intervention OUTLINE

Note: Every intervention is customized to the specific
needs of the team. This outline describes an
intervention of a management team that was
hampered by a lack of trust.

• Introduction
• Mental warm-up exercise
• Overview
• How to get the most (least) out of this TB
• How to achieve team consensus-the Ground
• "The Story"-are teams more effective than
individuals? (Unique experiential learning
• Review stages of team development
• Characteristics of high-performance teams
• Assessment of the management's current level
of team "maturity"
• What stands in your way of performing as a high
performance team? (Unique anonymous
assessment process that makes dysfunctional
challenges public so that they can be
• Trust vs. mistrust - what's in it for you?
• Trust traps-what we do to "trap" our team
• The eight "Cardinal Principles of Trust"
• How to build a solid foundation for trust
• What we need to do to get to the next level of
team performance
• Commitments to get us to the next level
• How to hold each other accountable
• Other issues that stand in our way
• Conclusion, questions and answers, summary

competitive environments, organizations are seeking
information about obstacles to productivity and
satisfaction in the workplace. Survey feedback is a
tool that can provide this type of honest feedback to
help leaders guide and direct their teams. Obstacles
and gaps between the current status quo and the
desired situations may or may not be directly
apparent. In either case, it is vital to have a clear
understanding of strategies for diagnosis and
prevention of important organization problems. If all
leaders and members alike are clear about the
organizational development and change, strengths,
weakness, strategies can be designed and
implemented to support positive change. Survey
feedback provides a participative approach and
enables all members to become actively engaged in
managing the work environment.


 Identify project plan and objectives

 Brief team leaders and employees about the
 Administer survey
 Conduct interviews and focus groups
 Train leaders on facilitating team discussions
 Analyze the data and construct a report
 Provide feedback to leaders
 Team leaders conduct feedback action planning
and meetings
 Leaders present reports on progress and results
to Senior Management
 Follow-up by senior leadership to ensure
progress and accountability


Once the data has been collected and observations

have been clarified, it becomes the leader’s
responsibility to familiarize the team with the
findings. Next the leader involves the team in
outlining appropriate solutions and strategies that
members can “buy into” and support over the long-
haul. When leaders can facilitate collaborative
teaming and become an organizational development
and change agent, people in the team will contribute
creative ideas to enhance their work environment.

It is important for leaders to not underestimate the

time and facilitation skills needed to pass on the
information and foster an action-oriented
environment. The initial meetings and
communication sessions are just the start of a
development process, not a single event. If the
survey feedback is to be effective, it must be
implemented into a comprehensive strategy that
includes goals, responsibilities, time frames,
revisions, and reviews.

Prior to the action meetings, leaders need to gain a

full understanding of the survey data and begin to
structure a plan for the first meeting. Once the
meeting begins, the leader should guide the group's
evaluation of the results and development of
solutions. Following the initial meeting, a summary
should be documented and action plans circulated.
Follow-up meetings are necessary to coordinate and
evaluate changes and progress. Action plans are the
means of fully utilizing the survey feedback, without
it we simply have a snap shot of where the
organization is, with no plan for positive change.

If the team feedback meeting is poorly handled,

there will be low front-end commitment on the part
of the team. Of course group dynamics will be unique
in every situation, and the leader will need to
consider this as the survey data is disseminated.
Tailoring sessions to meet the group characteristics
will provide for a more effective discussion. In any
case, consider a few of these ideas:
 Be optimistic and excited about the information
and how it can be used to better the
 Verbally express positive points.
 Ask for participation by all members and
reinforce their openness and contributions.
 Invite them to explore with you the areas that
need improvement.
 Be supportive and clear about action and follow-
up plans.
 Establish a clear commitment to utilize the
survey feedback long-term and seek further
feedback from the group.
 Most importantly, help the group understand the
purpose and mission of the survey feedback As a
leader, feast on the opportunity of having clear
data and truly listen and involve members in
your organizational development and change


Process consulting is a late 20th century practice.

Classically espoused in the works of Edgar Schein
(especially Process Consultation Revisited), this
model is based on consultation as a "helping
relationship". The mutual nature of this relationship,
with the consultant working with and not for the
client is a keynote of the process consultation
philosophy. Process consultation is generally
contrasted with expert consultation and is frequently
seen by its advocates as a superior style of
management consulting. In practice, however,
almost all management consulting involves a mix of
expert and process models, with the consultant
frequently shifting roles to meet the needs of the
situation. Schein himself notes the need for such
fluidity in practice. Be this as it may, process
consultation certainly has many strengths. As
compared to experts who bring packaged solutions
that may have general validity, but in fact are not
the best prescription for the your organization,
process consultation has the powerful advantage of
being by its nature specifically tailored to your
situation. Some other ways in which this model of
management consulting provides clear and
undeniable benefits are as follows:

Partnership between client and consultant. The

consultant and the client act as equals. The client
provides the knowledge of the organization's nature,
business, and issues; and the consultant provides the
knowledge of the techniques, ways of thinking, and
practices that can solve the problem. The
partnership model ensures against false solutions
that may be trendy, clever, and wholesome, but are
not in fact fully applicable and sufficiently relevant to
the particular organizational development issue.

Proper maintenance of mutual responsibility. The

client owns the problem and determines the solution.
The consultant helps the client to see the issues and
find what needs to be done. By not imposing a point
of view, the process consultant ensures that
real solution, not an attractive but impermanent fix,
is obtained. Increased capacity for lessons learned.
The "masked rider" consultant who provides a silver
bullet may be widely honored and cheered by all
upon riding off into the sunset. But too commonly the
ammunition doesn't last, and someone has to be
called in again. By providing help that learning-
based, process consultation ensures increased ability
by the client to continue to deal with the situation.

Better fit with current organizational needs. In

the process consultation model, the concept of a
learning organization is second nature. The sharing
of problem diagnosis and resolution leads to shared
vision. The expert consultant may have a toolkit of
best practice methods, but the process consultant
will ensure that the tools which are employed will
best fit the organization's needs and interests.

As we enter the 21st century, in which constant

change is the norm and in which continual
improvement is a necessity, process consultation
itself will undergo development and modification.
Indeed, given that the present model has existed
since the 1970s, one can reasonably say it is time for
second generation form of process consultation.

This development will process upon the same lines

that plot the drive of all organizational change and
development. As new forms of organizations and new
interactions between organizations occur, process
consultation will be applied in different ways to meet
new goals. Basically, one can extrapolate the
strengths of this model to 21st century conditions in
the following ways: Orientation toward ongoing
ability and learning. The focus of process
consultation is on solving the problem. But in a world
of constant change and development, there will
always be problems and particular solutions will
never be lasting. In the second generation form of
process consultation, there more is more emphasis
on problem solving ability rather than problem

More involvement and participation. It is a whole

system world; processes that look at and employ
only one part of the organization are insufficient. The
new generation of process consultants will
increasingly work with internal consultants, teams,
and all levels of the organization. By building up
facilitation and consultation skills in the organization
there will be development that means it is able to
meet new challenges and conditions, not just those
which initiated the consultancy. Wider application of
techniques and methods. As everyone becomes
involved in all phases of the organization and
everyone becomes responsible for the organization's
development, there will be a need for more people to
know and to use more principles and more practices
in more situations. For example, dialogue, a staple of
the process consultation effort, will be used not
simply in special situations or just for team-building
purposes but will be a tool of organization and not
just of the consultant, resulting in dialogic
communication as part of the organizational culture.

Links to mission, values and vision. If a 21st

century organization does not know its mission, if it
does not have strong values, or if it does not have a
compelling vision, it will die. The 21st practice of
process consultation will increasingly make use of
these variables in analysis, diagnosis, and
prescription for organizational development. The goal
of the consultancy will not simply be to fix a situation
but the creation of a better organization.

Process consultation will never be the only form of

management consulting. But in many ways it is
particularly suited to 21st century needs and
conditions. As a result, application of the process
consultation model may be relatively more common,
and a second generation form of process
consultation may become more and more significant.
Consultants who combine subject expertise with
process helpfulness may be the ones most suitable
for 21st century organizations, but the need for
process consultation will be enduring.