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PRINCIPLES OF THERMAL DESIGN

Thermal quantities Heat exchange in buildings Periodic heat flow

THERMAL QUANTITIES

THERMAL QUANTITIES:

Temperature :

Outward appearance of the thermal state of a body Measured in degree Celsius.

Heat:

a form of energy appearing as molecular movement in substances or as radiant heat(certain wavelength band of electromagnetic radiation) in outer space Unit: Joules

Specific Heat:

Amount of heat required to cause unit increase in temperature of a unit mass of a substance (j/kg deg C) Higher specific heat, more heat it will absorb.

Thermal Capacity:

Product of the mass of a body and the specific heat of its material. Measured as the amount of heat required to cause unit temperature increase of the body (J/degC)

Latent heat of a substance:

Amount of heat energy absorbed by a unit mass of the substance at change of state(solid to liquid/liquid to gas) without any change in temperature.

HEAT FLOW:

Heat energy tends to distribute itself until a uniform thermal field is achieved. It tends to flow from high temperature to low temperature by any of the following means:

Conduction

Convection

Greater the temperature difference, greater will be the rate of heat flow.

HEAT FLOW RATE:

Power is the ability to carry out certain work in unit time. Unit is J/s or watt.

If power is taken as the rate of energy expenditure, same unit can be taken to measure the rate of energy flow.

Energy flow can be: flow of heat through a wall, heat removed by a cooling plant, radiant heat from an electric radiator etc.

Unit of measurement: W or KW

CONDUCTION

Spread of molecular movement constitute flow of heat in conduction through a body in direct contact.

CONDUCTIVITY:

Rate of molecular movement varies with different material , and the property is described as its thermal conductivity( K value).

Thermal conductivity: rate of heat flow through unit area of unit thickness of the material, when there is a unit temperature difference between two sides. Unit: W/m deg C.

Resistivity :Resistance to the flow of heat and is the reciprocal of conductivity (1/k). Conductivity and resistivity are properties of a material.

CONDUCTANCE & RESISTANCE:

Conductivity and resistivity are the properties of a material. Properties of a body of a given thickness are described in terms of Conductance and resistance.

Conductance(C ):

Heat flow rate through a unit area of the body when the temperature difference between the two surface is 1 deg C

Resistance (R) of a body is the product of its thickness and the resistivity of its material.

R= b x(1/k) =b/k

, b= thickness

C=1/R

MULTI LAYER BODY:

If a body consists of several layers of different materials, its total resistance is the sum of the resistances of the individual layers.

Conductance of such a multilayer body(Cb)is the reciprocal of its total resistance(Rb).

Rb=R1 + R2 +R3… =b1/k1 + b2/k2 + b3/k3

= Ʃ b/k

C=1/R

=1/( Ʃ b/k)

Note: Conductance are not additive ,only the resistances.

SURFACE RESISTANCE & SURFACE CONDUCTANCE (f):

In addition to the resistance offered by the body to the flow of heat, résistance will be offered by its surface.A thin layer of air film separates the body from the surrounding air. This is measured using surface/film resistance , denoted by

1/f, where f =surface/film conductance

Unit = m square degC/W W/msquare degc

(Resistance)

(Conductance)

Surface conductance = convective + radiant components of the heat exchange at surfaces. Surface resistance must be taken into account If,

1. heat flow is from air on one side,

2. through the body,

Overall air to air resistance = body’s resistance + surface resistance

Ra = 1/f1 + Rb +1/f0

where 1/f1 = internal surface resistance Rb = resistance of the body 1/f0= external surface resistance

TRANSMITTANCE (U):

The reciprocal of the air to air resistance is the air to air transmittance or U-value.

U= 1/Ra Unit= W/m square degC

Air temperature difference is taken into account ,not the surface temperature.

This quantity is mostly used in building heat loss & heat gain calculations.

U-values for every day construction are obtained from tables already calculated.(Refer appendix 5.4, manual of tropical housing and building).

TRANSMITTANCE OF COMPOSITE WALL:

Transmittance of composite walls are is found in the following ways:

Assume a wall of westerly exposure, consists of the following:

114mm engineering brickwork k= 1.150 w/m degC 50mm cavity Rc= .176m²degC 100mmm dense concrete blocks k= 1.440 W/m degC 25mm wood wool slab k=.093 W/m degC 12mm plastering k= .461 w/m degC Surface resistance 1/fo = .076 m² deg C 1/f1 = .123 m² degC

As a first step , above data is obtained from tables in appendix 5.

Resistance of individual layers, proceeding from outside inwards is calculated:

 Surface Plaster 1/fo =.076 Brickwork Cavity Concrete Wood wool Surface b/k =.114/1.150 =.099 Rc =.176 b/k = .100/1.44 =.069 b/k = .025/.093 = .269 b/k = .012/.461 =.025 1/f1=.123 Total resistance Ra =.837 U =1/Ra = 1/.837 = 1.19 W/ m² degC

CAVITY RESISTANCE (Rc):

If air space or cavity is enclosed within a body, through which heat transfer takes place, it will offer another barrier to the passage of heat.

It is measured as cavity resistance Rc.

For empty cavity,

Rc = internal + external surface resistance.

CONVECTION:

Heat is transferred by the bodily movement of a carrying medium , usually a gas/liquid, either due to temperature difference or by an applied force.

Rate of heat transfer depends on:

I. Temperature difference

II. Rate of movement of carrying medium.

III.Specific heat of the carrying medium.

The rate of heat flow depends on the temperature of the emitting surface and receiving surface and on the quality of the surface: the emittance and absorbance.

Radiation received by a surface can be partly absorbed and partly reflected. Proportion of these two components is expressed by the coefficients absorbance(a) and reflectance( r ). The sum of these two coefficients is always one. a + r = 1

Light colored smooth and shiny surface tend to have higher reflectance. For perfect reflective white surface, r=1, a=0

For the perfect absorber, theoretical black body, r=0, a=1

The coefficient emittannce(e) expresses how much available heat will be emitted( in relation to the black body, for which e=1. Its value is same as for absorbance.

a=e

SOL-AIR TEMPERATURE:

It is the used to get the combined effect of heating by radiation incident on a building plus the effect of warm air.

Ts=To+ (lxa)/fo

Ts= sol-air temperature,deg C To= outside air temperature,degC l= radiation intensity W/m² a= absorbance of the surface fo=surface conductance,W/m² deg C

Cold climate: lesser value of fo helps in reducing heat loss

Warm climate: greater value of fo reduces solar heating.

Reason: incident radiation increases surface temperature above air temperature, thus some heat is dissipated to the out-door.

SOLAR GAIN FACTOR:

It is the used when considering the combined effect of reflective surfaces and thermal insulation. For reducing solar heat gain, a more reflective but less well insulated element, will have the same effect as highly absorbative surface with good insulation.

From sol-air temp. equation, temperature equivalent of the radiation gain( sol-air excess) is:

Ts-To = (lxa)/fo

Thus, the extra heat flow rate(q) per unit area(caused by radiation) is:

From this solar gain factor is

q= (lxa)/fo x U

q/l = axU/fo

Solar gain factor is defined as the heat flow rate through the construction due to solar radiation expressed as a fraction of the incident solar radiation. In warm- humid climate: value should not exceed .04 In hot-dry climate: value should not exceed .03