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Signature Assignment 1

Signature Assignment

Norman Robinson, Melissa Rodriguez, Teresa Sanchez

National University
Signature Assignment 2

Abstract

This paper brings together a variety of learnings from Mr. Jones classroom. After being given

segments of Mr. Jones classroom case study for 3 weeks, the data given was analyzed for

individual students within the class and also the class as a whole. Data for Ray, a student in the

classroom, has been analyzed and data-based decisions have been made to serve this student's

needs. Data for the other six students was also analyzed on other students and the class as a

whole. This paper discusses the decisions that need to be made to serve the students in Mr.

Jones’s classroom based on their individual needs. The last part of this paper goes over UDL

principles and explains its pros and cons.


Signature Assignment 3

Signature Assignment

Part One: Ray

Data

Given the information for the case study profile for Ray, provided over the span of

Weeks 1-3, the following: Strengths, Needs, Interests, and preferred Way of Learning (SNIWL)

have been identified for him.

Student’s Name/Grade: Ray


Disability designation(s): Learning Disability, Hard of Hearing

Strengths Needs Interests Preferred Ways of


Learning

● *Is Responsible ● His hearing aid ● Like to ● Visual


and well is not working work on Learner
mannered properly mechanics ● Kinesthetic
● Likes to study ● Does not ask ● Likes Learner
diagrams for help when putting parts
● *Does fair on needed together
assignments ● Does Not
● Prefers Spanish discuss
over English diagrams
● Has low test
scores
● Has trouble
understanding
English
● #Difficulty
socializing
● #Loss of
memory

“*” indicate Ray is developing as a typical middle school student.

“#” indicate Ray may be developing as an atypical middle school student


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What about these data These data points will be salient in the selection of methodology
points will be salient in because Ray needs visual and kinesthetic lectures. Mr. Jones
the selection of needs to change his lesson plans so that different learners can
methodology? Explain in benefit from it. Ray also has great difficulty being social and
the box to the right. should be given plenty opportunities to work on his social skills in
the classroom.

Models of Teaching.

PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORY MODEL OF TEACHING

Behavioral Psychology Behavioral Family of Models of Teaching

Cognitive/Developmental Psychology Information Processing Family of Models of


Teaching

Humanistic Psychology Personal Family of Models of Teaching

Social Psychology Social Family of Models of Teaching

Based on the data provided about Ray, I would select the Social Family of Models of

Teaching. Ray is able to learn visually and kinesthetically but his social skills are what make an

impact in his grades. If Ray could socialize with other students in the classroom and talked about

assignments then his grades would improve. Additionally, he would also become more confident

in himself. It would also help him with English and improve his self-esteem.

a. There are four models of teaching, Behavioral Psychology, Cognitive/Developmental

Psychology, Humanistic Psychology, and Social Psychology. The Behavioral psychology

model of teaching establishes clear behavior expectations, monitors behavior, and

reinforces appropriate behavior and redirects inappropriate behavior. It is based on how

people and the environment have an effect on each other. This includes holding students

accountable and providing effective praising. The Cognitive/Developmental model of


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teaching is closely associated to counseling approaches and the students to use reason as

a way they assess their actions in school. In this approach students are encouraged to be

engaged in the learning process so learning is easier. The Humanistic model of teaching

focuses on the behavior of a person as a whole. It encourages students to be responsible

to their own learning environment. The Social Psychology model of teaching is based on

the effect of social circumstances. It has a lot to do with the use of social skills to manage

the learning environment and observes how student behavior is influenced by other

people and the social context.

b. Given Ray’s Strengths, Needs, Interests, and Ways of Learning, I selected the Social

Family of Models of Teaching would be model of teaching to primarily draw upon for

Ray’s instruction. I selected this model because if Ray was more social and talked more

in class, his grades would ultimately improve. He needs to be given more opportunities to

speak in the classroom to improve his social skills. I did not select the other models

because Ray’s need for socialization is the one that has had the greatest impact on his

academic performance. Although the other models can be beneficial to Ray in one way or

another, their focus is not on socializing and instead is on an individual's behavior as it is

controlled by the environment, their development, and their behavior as a whole.

Methodology. There are four methodologies within Social Family of Models of

Teaching: partners in learning, team learning, and jigsaw learning. The teaching methodology

we/I think might be best for Ray is partners in learning because it gives Ray an opportunity to

socialize with a student from his class. Ray can also be paired with a student who could help him

understand English better and Ray could help the other student understand the diagrams. I did

not select the other methodologies because they are more people in the group and it will be good
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for Ray to start off with being social with only a few classmates and gradually work up to being

social with more classmates. Partner learning consists of 2-4 students, team learning consists of

4-6 students, and Jigsaw learning is made up on 6 students. Partner learning will give him a

better chance to talk with his classmates without being too embarrassed of his language.

Objectives. Both social and academic goals for Ray are important. One of Ray’s needs is

his lack of not responding when called on and not asking for help when he does not understand

something. By 10-15-19, Ray will be assigned to a group. Within each group, they will engage

with one another including explaining math problems to each other and describing the math

diagrams. Ray will come to his Algebra class and sit with his assigned group members and be

able to share with the class what his group learned or discussed with 80% accuracy on 6

consecutive sessions. This objective will be measured by observing (a) the times Ray sits with

his group members, (b) if Ray is discussing with his group member, and (c) if Ray shares his

group’s learnings with the class. When all 3 conditions have been met, Ray will have been

successful. Another one of Ray’s needs that corresponds to an academic goal is his low test

scores. By 10-15-19, given visual supplies when taking tests, Ray will improve his test scores

with 80% accuracy on 5 consecutive tests. This objective will be measured by the score on Ray’s

test scores and compared to previous test scores.

Assessment and Evaluation. Given the learning objective identified for Ray, his

assessment and evaluation will be measured by the use of standardized tests and teacher

observation. Standardized tests can also be used to “diagnose individual students’ learning

problems or strengths (Nicoll, Lu, Pignong, & McPhee, 2012)” (Slavin, 2018, p. 385). Using

standardized testing will give us a numerical value that we can compare to see if Ray is making

progress in his academic objective. According to Slavin, “Important functions of standardized


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testing include placement, diagnosis, evaluation, and school improvement” (2018, p. 385). To

assess and evaluate if Ray is making progress in his social objective, it will be measured by the

teachers observation. The teacher will take note of the times Ray socializes with his classmates

and responds to questions.

Classroom Management. Based on the strengths, needs, interests, and preferred ways of

learning of the class, Mr. Jones information about his class, and what I have studied regarding

classroom management, Mr. Jones should implement various classroom management ideas.

First, Mr. Jones should change his students seating arrangement so that he has students that will

benefit from sitting close to each other and be able to help each other. Then, Mr. Jones should

provide praise and rewards for students who are working towards meeting, are meeting or

exceeding his expectations. Mr. Jones should also establish caring and understanding

connections between himself and his students to help “establish cooperative tone in the

classroom that reduces disciple problems (Borich, 2014; Freiberg & Lamb, 2009; Hardin, 2012;

Kauffman et al., 2011; Manning & Bucher, 2013)” (Slavin, 2018, p. 270). Additionally, Mr.

Jones should change his teaching style so that he reaches all his students, whether they are

auditory, visual, or kinesthetic learners.

Communication and Collaboration. When teachers have concerns about their students

and want to improve the interventions they implement, it is important to include relevant

individuals in the discussion and planning. For this case study, the individuals I would want to

conference, in relation to Ray, as I am planning are the school principal, school psychologist,

school counselor, and special education teacher. I would want to conference with the school

principal because he/she might have insights on how Ray can get a new hearing aid provided for

him. Conferencing with the school psychologist would be beneficial because there might be
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other tests that Ray could be given. I would want to conference with the school counselor as well

because she/he might be able to talk with Ray about how he feels and also be able to talk to his

parents about what they are going through. Lastly, having a conference with the special

education teacher is important because she/he might have more information of how to help meet

Ray’s needs and suggestions on some strategies Mr. Jones could use in his classroom to help

Ray.

Parent Notification. It is very important for a parent(s) perspective and feelings to be

considered when we communicate and in making decisions about their child. Often times than

not, parent of children in special education may be experiencing grief at the loss of the child they

had or had dreamed about. It is most definitely important for parents to be informed of progress

and needs of their child, and about plans to address concerns.

I would set up conference with Ray and his parents at the time that is most convenient for

his parents. I will ask his parents what they can tell me about Ray’s friends and experience in

school. I’ll ask Ray how he think he is doing in my class. I will be sensitive to the parents’

feeling about Ray’s difficulty and needs. I’ll listen to see how they feel about sharing

information and about their feelings about their son’s brain injury and how it might be affecting

his life. I will explain Ray’s strengths and needs and how he is struggling to be social. I will

explain his lack of asking for help and not responding when being called on but also explain that

he does well on his homework and is responsible and well mannered. I will explain that I plan to

change my instruction style so that students who are auditory, visual, and kinesthetic can learn

from it more effectively. I will ask them for their support in encouraging Ray to make friends in

the classroom and remind him to keep trying because he can improve. I plan to come to an
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agreement on frequent communication between home and school. Communication with parents

would include phone calls, notes sent home, and text messages.

a. Given Ray’s brain damage, the feelings his parent might be experiencing are loss,

unsupportive and grief. I think they might be feeling this way because their child

lost his hearing and has a brain injury and also because they, as parents, do not

have the money to buy him new hearing aids. They might also feel this what

because they might think that Ray won’t be able to learn like any other student

and will have more difficulty succeeding in his education. Plenty considerations

should be given to the parent(s) or guardians perspective and feeling because they

want what is best for their child and should be taken into account in his

educational goals.

b. I would communicate with Ray’s parents at different times throughout the year. I

would communicate with them so that they can be aware and keep track on Ray’s

progress in my class and because they should always be given information about

their child’s educational plan.

c. Some ways I would communicate with Ray’s parents are by setting up meetings,

phone calls home, sending emails and notes home, or by sending text messages.

Part Two: Other Six Students

Marta.

The need that should be addressed first by Mr. Jones is to support Marta with English,

mainly understanding English. By supporting Marta in English, she will develop skills in phonics
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and will increase her vocabulary. Also English support will increase Marta’s English

comprehension and develop literacy skills in speaking and reading.

The teaching Model and Methodology that would most help Marta is the Demonstration

Method: in a demonstration method, visuals such as powerpoints, posters and other visual

materials are used in teaching. “English immersion programs may use carefully designed

strategies to build students vocabularies, simplify instructions, and help English learners succeed

in learning the content” (Slavin, 2018, p. 81). “Just as students have different personalities, they

also have different ways of learning” (Slavin, 2018, p. 91).

If Marta was to be partnered with someone, it would be with Bill. I believe that Bill

would be a good candidate to help Marta because he has excellent grades, is a visual learner, is

social and makes friends easily. Marta and Bill have lived in different countries and have a

common experience of living where a different language is spoken.

Dillon.

Mr. Jones could incorporate Dillon’s interests in computers into his instructional plan for

the class by providing access to the teacher’s lessons, assignments and resources via web.

Dillon’s need to review before introducing new material, lectures, and instruction could be

presented visually.

If Dillon was to work with a partner it would be with Steven. Dillon needs help reviewing

before introducing new material and needs lectures and instruction presented visually. Since

Steven is very intelligent, learns very fast, and is good with computers, he could help Dillon

review the class material and work together on lectures using a computer.

Bill. Mr. Jones could capitalize on Bill’s social and friendly strengths to support other

students by promoting teamwork and collaboration. Because Bill is friendly and is respected by
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his classmates, Bill can lead a group work on a team project, and can contribute using his

strengths to help other students.

I believe that if Bill’s strengths were utilized to help others in the class, it will not only

help other students, but it will be a positive impact for Bill because his strengths would be

reinforced. For example, his help to other students can be used as a way to advocate for what he

is passionate about, which is Algebra. It will also allow Bill to be more connected to other

students, since he travels a lot and does not have time to know people for a long time.

If Bill was to work with a partner it would be with Rukhsana. Bill can help Rukhsana

improve her work so that it is correct. Rukhsana and Bill are both visual learners, and are both

neat, they would be able to connect to the same learning style.

Mr. Jones and Gina. Teachers are state-mandated reporters. Now that Mr. Jones has been

informed about Gina being molested by her mother’s boyfriend, he needs to make a report to the

proper authorities, such as child protective services and also make a report to the school

administrator.

This report should be done immediately. He needs to make a report immediately to avoid

that the perpetrator causes further harm. If Mr. Jones does not report the suspected child abuse

immediately, he could be guilty of a misdemeanor.

I believe that Gina’s molestation has an impact on her attitude because her negative

reactions towards others reflects the stress that she is going through.

If Gina was to work with a partner, it would be with Steven. Gina needs support with

issues impacting her attitude, and needs to develop age appropriate social skills and behavior.

Working with Steven would help Gina develop an understanding and acceptance of students with

disabilities. It will also help her improve her negative attitude towards other students.
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Rukhsana. Some of the experiences that set Rukhsana apart from others in the class was

witnessing persecution, death, and having an interrupting life so much. Rukhsana’s experiences

set her apart from others in the class because she suffered an emotional trauma that affected her

social reactions, and affected her feelings of feeling safe. Rukhsana and her family lived in

danger and fear before they came to America. Rukhsana needs to develop trust with the people

around her. Rukhsana’s experiences might be ameliorated in Mr. Jone’s class by seeking

counseling support, and by positive classroom interactions within students.

Based on the data provided, the teaching model and methodology that would most

ameliorate the effects of Rukhsana’s experiences is the Demonstration method because she is a

visual learner. This type of instruction could be inappropriate for other students in the class

because not everyone is a visual learner, and not everyone learns in the same way. “Acquiring

new skills by observing the behaviors of others is a common part of everyday life. In many

situations children watch others talking, and acting, and they witness the consequences of those

activities as well. Such observations provide models that teach children strategies to use at other

times and places” (Slavin, 2018, p. 113).

If Rukhsana was to work with a partner it would be with Dillon because Rukhsana is

quiet and needs to ask questions, and catch up in school. Dillon listens, takes notes, asks

questions and is friendly with others. By partnering Rukhsana and Dillon, Rukhsana can develop

more social skills and can ask Dillon for help taking notes to succeed in school.

Steven. The need that Mr. Jones should address first for Steven, is to ensure a supportive

classroom environment. A supportive classroom will provide Steven accessibility and acceptance

of differences. Steven is very intelligent and learns fast, but does not have friends. Steven’s IEP

goal is to make friends with the class and Steven needs to develop friendships. Ensuring a
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supportive classroom environment should be addressed first in order for Steven’s IEP goal to be

met.

The teaching model and methodology that would most help steven with this need, within

Mr. Jone’s class is the Discussion Method because it involves communication between

participants. Communicating with other classmates will give Steven the opportunity to become

engage in learning activities, and develop friendships with his classmates. This type of

instruction could be inappropriate for other students in the class because not all students are

verbal learners.

“Individual children develop in different ways and at different rates, and development is

influenced by biology, culture, parenting, education, and other factors. Every teacher needs to

understand how children grow and develop to be able to understand how children learn and how

best to teach them”(Slavin, 2018, p. 23).

If Steven was to work with a partner, it would be with Rukhsana because Rukhsana is

quiet and polite. Steven’s IEP goal is to make friends. Working together, Rukhsana and Steven

can start a friendship.

Part Three: UDL

Pro UDL
People learn in very diverse and unique ways. Universal Design for Learning helps

reduce untold barriers to education that previously were just accepted as norms. The term

“design” can be likened to the design of a building for special needs. Therefore, in Universal

Design Learning the needs of the student and their strengths are the focus of the designed

curriculum. In the classroom UDL has three key features: representation, action and expression,

and engagement. In UDL Representation the mode or media used to convey learning is designed

for the student be it texting, audio-visual, or even tactile learning it gives all a chance to access
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the material at their strongest. UDL Action and Expression is simply best choices for the students

learning curve. For instance, does Johnny prefer to take a written test or verbal? Does Sally

prefer group projects to solo ones? Perhaps Johnny responds better to verbal actions and Sally is

into groups and feels at home with team expressions and accomplishments. Finally, UDL

Engagement prompts teachers to look to engage students interest in learning. The teacher might

make a game out of learning, say monopoly history or somesuch. Furthermore, movement is also

key to engagement and keying students who need movement to classroom learning is important

in the overall UDL structure.

Con UDL

Learning takes discipline and persistence and it is not easy. Sometimes, you can’t always

learn the way you want to. Often by acquiescing to district demands for UDL, we are creating

crutches to lean on for whole student populations. Case in point: are computer programs for

elementary school students that provide mathematics training in a fun format correct for our

students? For instance, the popular math game JiJi. This has all the hits: Jiji provides UDL

Representation via keyboard, sound, and even text, not to mention they throw in graphics. UDL

Action and Expression are all formed around liking the computer with zero social interaction;

who doesn’t like a computer game? They are not actively learning, they are passively playing a

game. I wonder do they even know it is logic at work, and not just winning some video game?

Doubtful. Finally, UDL Engagement rears its ugly head addicting students to wanting to be on

the “computer.” But honestly, is that the way they will learn on the job? Or will some unfriendly

person, that doesn’t have a graphics card tell them to get moving and shovel up those fries? Can

it be that UDL is setting up a false “ease of environment” that doesn’t exist in the real world?

Further, is there something to be gained by the development of the willpower to learn regardless
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of making it nuanced and fun? UDL is here to stay both good and bad aspects, but willpower it

does not encourage.

2. Identify way you could structure multiple means of (a) representation, (b) expression, and (c)
engagement within each model.

Model and 2 Ways you could 2 Ways you could 2 ways you could
Methodology have Multiple Means have Multiple Means have Multiple Means
of Representation of Engagement within of Action and
with this this Methodology Expression within
Methodology this Methodology

Behavioral Family of 1. Create different 1. Create reward 1. Create a reward:


Models of Teaching: keywords and provide incentives like candy library pass for
Elements of Effective positive for the students that answering trivia
Instruction (Hunter)* reinforcement like comply with using history questions on
candy for positive their particular UDL chart.
responses. learner strength to 2. Allow free
2. Video used in solve a problem or movement about class
conjunction with take a test. during free reading;
rewards, tests either 2. Dividing the class only if the students
verbal or written up into groups or solo can stay quiet during
based on student based on student first hour of class
preference. The preference, then using (focus).
reward for getting all positive
facts correct could be reinforcement
stickers. (lollipop) to pursue
work agenda.

Information 1. Create an organizer 1. Organize each 1. Focus on the basic


Processing Family of for daily lessons, with student by likes and concepts of social
Models of Teaching: a reward (free seating dislikes for preferred science as
Advance Organizers on the carpet for an test type. Provide a interconnected with
(Ausubel)* hour) for completing choice of tests and relationships, perhaps
the structure prior to give positive stars a flow chart of
assignment. next to the names of astronomy and
students who pick biology
2. Create a game of their favorite type. 2. Organize student
concentration using 2. Structure the lesson learning chart to
vocabulary from with highlights make a game out of
today's lesson plan (keywords) when you the sequence.
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(social science), say a keyword


everyone that everyone that repeats
completes the vocab definition gets a
gets a star by their snack. Keywords are
name. written on
whiteboard.

Personal Family of 1. Offer reward for 1. Throw a bunch of 1. Toss 52 card deck
Models of Teaching: figuring out there is study materials with stapled
Non-Directive no system, it is a free (videos, audio files, vocabulary on the
Teaching for all or books) on the desk, back, students to pick
(Tenenbaum)* 2. Non-direct students let students choose up the cards. Those
to study history by the best for them. cards of interest to
providing props and 2. Free time for them will be
offering to tell them contemplation of discussed. (52 card
about the prop they what should the class pick up, anyone?)
choose in historical be learning in history. 2. Silently have
context, a sort of students walk around
reward. room touching and
repeating item name
as a way of
memorizing. Perhaps
stuffed animals and
touching the animal
to repeat biology
names of different
animals.

Social Family of 1. The teacher acts as 1. Facilitate the best 1. Test student groups
Models of Teaching: facilitator providing learning materials by on math trivia with
Cooperative Learning reward for groups that typing them out on cue cards, reward is
(Johnson & are working the overhead in bold ranking by door
Johnson)* cohesively. letters, text, video etc. recess order line up.
2. Providing positive Organizing the 2. Working in small
reinforcement to the choices for the groups moving
interdependence of students to work as around the room
group dynamic; teams. cleaning up at the end
giving a peanut to 2. Facilitate group or of the day:this would
each member of the interdependent teach the
group that contributes activities, perhaps the organizational
to the correct answer human chain to have structure of the class.
on a test. them learn about Each group has
DNA. assignment to certain
area, science lab,
library area, reading
zone, etc.
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References

Slavin, R. E. (2018). Educational Psychology: Theory and Practice (12th ed.). New

York, NY: Pearson.