An Approach for the Optimization of Diffuser-Augmented Hydrokinetic

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An Approach for the Optimization of Diffuser-Augmented Hydrokinetic

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blades free of cavitation

Déborah A.T.D. do Rio Vaz a , Jerson R.P. Vaz a, * , Paulo A.S.F. Silva b,1

a

Natural Resources Engineering Graduate Program, Institute of Technology, Federal University of Pará, Av. Augusto Correa, N 1 Belém, PA 66075-900, Brazil

b

University of Brasília, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Campus Darcy Ribeiro, Brasília, DF 70910-900, Brazil

A R T I C L E I N F O A B S T R A C T

Article history: Due to the Venturi effect caused by a diffuser, which speed-up the velocity through the rotor, shrouded tur-

Received 16 December 2017 bines are able to exceed the Betz-Joukowsky limit if the power coeﬃcient is based on the rotor diameter.

Received in revised form 19 May 2018 However, on hydrokinetic turbines this increased velocity may also promote cavitation on the blade. As this

Accepted 6 June 2018 subject is still not clear on the current literature, this work presents a novel approach for optimizing hydroki-

Available online 21 June 2018

netic turbines free of cavitation under diffuser effect. The model uses the minimum pressure coeﬃcient as

the criterion to keep the pressure near blade tip above water vapor pressure. It includes an extension of Vaz

Keywords: & Wood’s optimization in order to take into account the inﬂuence of the diffuser speed-up ratio regarding

Cavitation

cavitation effect. A changing on the thrust coeﬃcient is assumed to optimize chord and twist angle distri-

Blade optimization

butions along the blade. As a result, the proposed model shows that cavitation is indeed sensitive to the

Hydrokinetic turbines

Diffuser diffuser speed-up ratio, demonstrating that such a phenomenon needs to be considered in the design of

BET diffuser-augmented hydrokinetic turbines. Also, the optimization method corrects the chord without rele-

vant changing in the turbine power coeﬃcient, where the increased power output is about 42% higher than

the bare turbine for a water velocity of 2.5 m/s. In this case, the model is assessed through comparisons

using a 3-bladed hydrokinetic turbine with 10 m diameter, in which the diffuser speed-up ratio is varied.

Furthermore, an evaluation is made with models available in the literature, suggesting good performance

concerning the cavitation analysis on shrouded rotor design with the proposed optimization procedure.

© 2018 International Energy Initiative. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Introduction optimization approach based on Blade Element Theory (BET) for hor-

izontal axis hydrokinetic turbines considering the possibility of cavi-

It is well known that the diffuser technology can increase the tation, where the minimum pressure coeﬃcient is the criterion used

axial velocity through the rotor, improving the power output (Chen, for identifying cavitation on blades. Their model has demonstrated

Ponta, & Lago, 2011; Vaz & Wood, 2018). It means that a compact sys- good behavior, and indeed minimizes cavitation inception. But, it is

tem can convert a greater amount of energy if the power coeﬃcient applied only for bare hydrokinetic turbines. Batten, Bahaj, Molland,

is based on the rotor diameter (Sørensen, 2016). This advance has and Chaplin (2008) developed a BET model for hydrodynamic design

gained attention over the last decades as an alternative to conven- of marine current turbines. In their model, the prediction of cav-

tional energy systems, especially on locations constrained by shallow itation is carried out for certain cases with relatively shallow tip

waters or low stream velocity (Anyi & Kirke, 2010). As a consequence, immersion. It is found that cavitation could be avoided with the

some works in the current literature have reported the use of diffuser use of suitable designs and choice of 2D sections. Even though their

on hydrokinetic or tidal turbines (Belloni, Willden, & Houlsby, 2017; work presented very interesting thoughts on cavitation, studies on

Dominguez, Achard, Zanette, & Corre, 2016; Silva et al., 2017). Among optimization of hydrokinetic blades free of cavitation are not done.

them, only a few takes into account the cavitation in order to design There is an extensive literature on diffuser-augmented turbines.

hydro blades. For example, recently Silva et al. (2017) developed an But, most of them are related to wind rotors. Jafari and Kosasih

(2014) performed a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) study, in

which the augmentation is heavily dependent on the diffuser geom-

etry. They reported that a higher area ratio creates greater pressure

* Corresponding author.

E-mail address: jerson@ufpa.br (J.R.P. Vaz).

reduction at the diffuser outlet, which increases the mass ﬂow rate.

1

Currently at Centre for Computational Engineering Sciences, Cranﬁeld University, Abe and Ohya (2004) combined a numerical and experimental inves-

Cranﬁeld MK43 0AL, United Kingdom. tigation of a shrouded turbine with a ﬂanged diffuser technology.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esd.2018.06.002

0973-0826/ © 2018 International Energy Initiative. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

D. do Rio Vaz et al. / Energy for Sustainable Development 45 (2018) 142–149 143

They found that the turbine thrust coeﬃcient using diffuser is q is the density, p and patm are the local and atmospheric pressures

smaller than for a bare wind turbine. Ohya and Karasudani (2010) respectively, and the relative velocity of water on each blade section

developed a turbine within a diffuser shroud with a broad-ring brim is deﬁned by Vaz and Wood (2016) as

at the exit. The shrouded wind turbine power is increased by a fac-

tor between 2 and 5 over a bare wind turbine in the same operating 2 2

W= [cV0 (1 − a)] + [Yr (1 + a )] . (3)

condition. It shows the importance of the development of models

able to optimize shrouded hydrokinetic blades free of cavitation.

Rio Vaz, Mesquita, Vaz, Blanco, and Pinho (2014) developed impor- The parameter c is the diffuser speed-up ratio, and it is responsible

tant formulations for the performance analysis of wind turbine with for modifying the axial velocity on the rotor. The free-stream velocity

diffuser based on BET. Their results yielded good agreement with corresponds to V0 . The parameters a and a are the axial and tan-

experimental data. Based in their work, Vaz and Wood (2016) stated gential induction factors, respectively, while Y and r are the angular

the equations for the aerodynamic optimization of a wind turbine velocity and radial position of the turbine. The formulation for the

with diffuser. In this case, it is assumed that the same conditions for number of cavitation s is (Shinomiya, 2015)

the axial velocity in the wake of an ordinary wind turbine can be

patm + qgH − pv

applied on the ﬂow far downwind of the diffuser outlet, as proposed s= , (4)

1 2

by van Bussel (1999). 2 qW

Therefore, as the authors are unaware of any study of blade

optimization free of cavitation under diffuser effect, an optimiza- where g is the gravitational acceleration, H is the submerged distance

tion procedure for shrouded hydrokinetic blades is proposed in this and pv is the vapor pressure. Substituting Eq. (4) in Eq. (1), it gets

work. The methodology is an extension of Vaz and Wood (2016) VCAV ≥ W, where the cavitation velocity is

optimization, where the minimum pressure coeﬃcient criterion is

incorporated into the turbine thrust coeﬃcient in order to keep the patm + qgH − pv

pressure near blade tip above water vapor pressure. The chord of the

VCAV = . (5)

− 12 qCp min

blade is determined using a one-dimensional analysis, where a cor-

rection to avoid cavitation is employed. A hydrokinetic turbine with

Note that the cavitation can be avoided whether the relative veloc-

10 m diameter is used to evaluate the effect of the diffuser speed-

ity on each blade section is lower than the local cavitation velocity.

up ratio concerning the cavitation. To assess the proposed approach,

This condition is fundamental for the optimization methodology

comparisons with other models available in the literature are made.

described below in which the chord length is corrected at each

As a result, the model shows that cavitation is sensitive to the dif-

section when VCAV < W. Fig. 1 illustrates the static pressure condi-

fuser speed-up ratio, suggesting that such a phenomenon needs to

tion on a DAHT blade section. In this case, the rotor is located near

be considered in the design of shrouded hydrokinetic turbines. In

the inlet of the diffuser.

addition, the optimization method corrects the chord without rele-

vant changing in the turbine power coeﬃcient. Also, the shrouded

turbine power output increases about 42% when compared with the Optimum design of diffuser-augmented hydrokinetic blades

bare turbine for a water velocity of 2.5 m/s.

The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. The next The optimum expressions for shrouded turbines come from the

section shows the Cavitation criterion used in the model. Section momentum equations with rotational velocities in the ﬂow (Fletcher,

3 presents the mathematical modeling for the Optimum design of 1981; Philipis, 2003; Sørensen, 2016). According to Rio Vaz et al.

diffuser-augmented hydrokinetic blades, in which a simple one- (2014) for modern turbines it is necessary to consider the effect

dimensional axial momentum theory with a diffuser is carried out. of the tangential induction factor, a . The elemental torque can be

This section also shows the expressions for the changing in the thrust obtained directly from the momentum equation applied to the con-

coeﬃcient, which leads to a corrected formulation of the chord dis- trol surface shown in Fig. 2, in which the inﬁnitesimal area at the

tribution free of cavitation. In Section 4, the Results and discussion

are stated, where the performance and comparisons of the proposed

model is presented. Section 5 shows the Conclusions of this study.

Cavitation criterion

typically occurs in hydro turbines, usually leading to vibration, blade

surface damage and performance loss. Therefore, those issues need

to be avoided in hydro rotors. Hence, as the diffuser increases the

ﬂow axial velocity at the rotor plane, it is necessary to include a

restriction to avoid cavitation in the design of hydrokinetic blades.

The most used criterion to minimize or avoid cavitation on hydro

turbines relates the number of cavitation (s) with the minimum

pressure coeﬃcient (Cp min ) through the expression

Cp min + s ≥ 0, (1)

deﬁned by

p − patm

Cp = 1

, (2)

2

2 qW Fig. 1. Simpliﬁed illustration of the static pressure condition on a DAHT blade section.

144 D. do Rio Vaz et al. / Energy for Sustainable Development 45 (2018) 142–149

et al., 2014; Vaz & Wood, 2016)

Fig. 3. Velocity diagram for the section of the rotor blade (Vaz & Wood, 2016).

k

8

CP = ca (1 − a)x3 dx, (6)

k2

0 Also, as described by Silva et al. (2017), cu can be given as

where x = Yr/V0 and k = YR/V0 are the local-speed ratio and the 2

tip-speed ratio, respectively. Eq. (6) will be used to optimize the axial 2pr CT V0

cu = . (10)

induction factor, a, later. B Cn W

So, the main contribution of this work is to combine the opti-

mization approaches recently developed by Silva et al. (2017) and Therefore, to calculate the corrected chord distribution, it is nec-

Vaz and Wood (2016). The former presented a good formulation to essary to replace W by (1 − fS )VCAV in Eq. (10), yielding

avoid cavitation on hydrokinetic blades, however it is applied only

for non-shrouded hydrokinetic turbines. The latter demonstrated a 2

2pr CT V0

very interesting blade optimization equations, but it works only for cc = . (11)

B Cn (1 − fS )VCAV

shrouded wind rotors, obviously without cavitation prediction. Thus,

the diffuser contribution is incorporated into BET by using the trian-

Combining Eqs. (10) and (11), it gets:

gle diagram shown in Fig. 3. The ﬂow velocity at the blade section

is given by c(1 − a)V0 . The elemental normal and tangential force 2

coeﬃcients at any location on a blade are deﬁned as in BET for a bare W

cc = cu , (12)

turbine. Therefore, the optimization procedure proposed here for the (1 − fS )VCAV

chord distribution, cu , is made similarly as in Vaz and Wood (2016),

for which where fS is an arbitrary safety factor deﬁned in the interval 0 ≤ fS < 1

over the blade element for the calculation of the chord length. This

8pra F sin 0 cos 0 safety factor is used here to introduce a margin of security against

cu = , (7)

(1 + a )BCt cavitation risks, in order to ensure (1 − fS )VCAV < W, leading to

cc > cu . Note that Eq. (12) is the same obtained by Silva et al. (2017).

where B is the number of blades, Ct = CL sin0 − CD cos0 is the tan- It is worth noting that the diffuser effect occurs only through c in

gential force coeﬃcient, CL and CD are, respectively, the lift and drag Eqs. (8) and (9). The Prandtl’s tip loss factor F is used in Eq. (7), which

coeﬃcients of the airfoil comprising the element. The ﬂow angle, 0, is deﬁned as the ratio of the total bound circulation of the blades and

is obtained from the velocity diagram shown in Fig. 3 as the circulation of a rotor with an inﬁnite number of blades (Vaz &

Wood, 2016; Wald, 2006). BET calculations made with the Prandtl

(1 − a)V0 factor show good agreement with free wake vortex theory and test

tan 0 = c . (8)

(1 + a )Yr data according to Favacho et al. (2016) and Branlard (2013).

The optimum design for a hydrokinetic blade under diffuser effect

or

is obtained through maximization of the power coeﬃcient using the

a Yr term ca (1 − a) of Eq. (6). This yields

tan 0 = (9)

caV0

d da

[ca (1 − a)] = c (1 − a) − a = 0 (13)

if the local angles of attack are below stall. da da

D. do Rio Vaz et al. / Energy for Sustainable Development 45 (2018) 142–149 145

Design parameters used in the present simulation (Shinomiya, 2015; Silva et al., 2017).

Parameters Values

da

(1 − a) = a . (14)

da Turbine diameter (D) 10.0 m

Hub diameter 1.5 m

Number of blades 3

As reported in Vaz and Wood (2016), combining Eqs. (8) and (9), Free-stream velocity (V0 ) 2.5 m/s

it gives Water density (q) at 25 ◦ C 997 kg/m3

Submergence of the turbine (H) 6m

Patm 1 × 105 Pa

x2 a (1 + a ) = c2 a(1 − a) (15) Pv 3.17 × 103 Pa

Gravity (g) 9.81 m/s2

Safety factor (fS ) 5%

Eq. (15) differentiated with respect to a yields Angular velocity (Y) 35 rpm

2

da x

(1 + 2a ) = 1 − 2a. (16) Results and discussion

da c

In this section, the results of the proposed model are discussed

So, if Eqs. (14) and (16) are combined with Eq. (15), the optimum and analyzed. Design information and operating conditions of the

relationship between a and a becomes: hydrokinetic turbine are presented. For the model, a sensitivity anal-

ysis is performed on a speciﬁc section of the blade, showing the

results obtained for the optimization procedure with and without

a opt = (1 − 3aopt )/(4aopt − 1). (17) cavitation correction on the chord distribution in order to assess the

approach under diffuser effect. In addition, results using the cor-

Eq. (17) is similar to the obtained by Glauert and Durand (1963) rected model are evaluated regarding the insertion of the cavitation

for bare turbines. This occurs because in this approach the diffuser constraint varying radially.

effect is considered only on the axial direction through the parameter

c. Thus, substituting Eq. (17) in Eq. (15), the optimum relationship Operating condition of the hydrokinetic turbine

for the axial induction factor is

To analyze the performance of the model, it is considered the hor-

2

2

x x izontal axis hydrokinetic turbine designed and simulated by Silva

16a3opt − 24a2opt + 9−3 aopt + − 1 = 0. (18) et al. (2017), where the parameters of the turbine are described in

c c

Table 1. Those parameters have been considered due to the possibil-

ity of cavitation at the rotor tip. For the turbine blades, the hydrofoil

Eq. (18) is valid only if the local angles of attack are below stall, NACA 653 − 618 is used, and its hydrodynamic parameters such as

in which a and a are not independent since the force according to lift, drag, and minimum pressure coeﬃcients are obtained by the free

potential ﬂow theory is perpendicular to the local velocity seen by software XFOIL (Drela, 1989), which is a coupled panel/viscous code

the blade (Hansen, 2008; Wood, 2015). Also, it is important to note developed at MIT. XFOIL is a collection of programs for airfoil design

that the present optimization procedure is valid for k > 1 approx- and analysis for incompressible/compressible viscous ﬂows over an

imately, and further details in this regard may be seen in Vaz and arbitrary airfoil. In this code, a zonal approach is used to solve the

Wood (2016) . viscous ﬂow indirectly and an equivalent inviscid ﬂow is postulated

The iterative algorithm for the calculation of optimum chord and outside a displacement streamline that includes the viscous layer,

twist angle, starting at its most external section, is described below, becoming a powerful software for hydro and aerodynamic design,

using the following as input: r, c, CL (a opt ), CD (a opt ) and V0 for a and presenting good agreement when compared with experimental

given k. data (Benini, 2004; Favacho et al., 2016).

146 D. do Rio Vaz et al. / Energy for Sustainable Development 45 (2018) 142–149

Sensibility of the model to the diffuser effect noted that the mass ﬂow through the turbine is affected by changes

of the thrust coeﬃcient in the shrouded turbine. Consequently, the

In order to verify the sensibility of the model, the data in Table 2 increased ﬂow velocity at the rotor plane, induced by the diffuser,

is obtained using BET only for a section at the radial position also lead to an increased power output for the same thrust coeﬃ-

r/R = 0.82. The solidity is s s = 0.029, twist angle is b = 3.29◦ , cient compared to a bare turbine. For example, for V0 = 2.5 m/s,

and chord length with no correction is cu,opt /R = 0.05. Note from the thrust coeﬃcient decreases from 0.888 (c = 1.0 — bare

the results shown in Table 2 that increasing the freestream velocity, turbine) to 0.885 (c = 2.0 — shrouded turbine). Even though

the angle of attack is increased, while the minimum pressure coef- Hansen et al. (2000) have studied shrouded wind turbine, lift-based,

ﬁcient decreases. In this case, the cavitation inception occurs for axial-ﬂow turbines use the same principles as air-craft wings, and

a = 8.8◦ , from which Cp min + s < 0, as depicted in Fig. 4a. This propellers, as further described by Laws and Epps (2016). Hence,

result is consistent with that found by Goundar, Ahmed, and Lee such principles are valid for hydro turbines as well.

(2012), which developed a numerical and experimental study on a

cavitation free hydrofoil applied to marine current turbine rotors. Cavitation effect on the optimization method

They demonstrated that Cp min for a NACA 63815 near the blade

tip can heavily decrease with a between 10◦ and 24◦ . Fig. 4b is To evaluate the cavitation effect on the present approach, the

generated using Eq. (12), which shows the correction on the chord design parameters in Table 1 are used. The results shown in Fig. 6

regarding cavitation. The ratio cc /cu is sensitive to the diffuser are obtained for H = {5.5, 7.5, 9.5} and c = {1.0, 1.5, 2.0}. During

speed-up ratio, c. For values of angle of attack above 8.8◦ , the cav- the analysis, the blade needs to be located as in Fig. 1, where each

itation increases, leading to an increased chord as a consequence. section is positioned in a depth h = H − r in relation to the

This occurs because the optimization procedure modiﬁes the chord water free surface. Fig. 6a is generated without cavitation correc-

in order to avoid the cavitation inception. This may be seen through tion so the condition W > VCAV can be reached, whereas Fig. 6b is

the relative velocity which is sensitive to the diffuser effect, as ver- performed using the correction through Eq. (12) when W < VCAV .

iﬁed in Eqs. (3) and (12). Another important result of the model The submergence of the turbine, H, strongly affect the pressure con-

is the fact that the thrust coeﬃcient, shown in Fig. 5, decreases dition on the blade tip. Observe in Fig. 6a as much as deeper the

when the diffuser speed-up ratio increases remaining below to the turbine rotor, the cavitation velocity, VCAV , increases and so the cav-

Betz-Joukowsky limit. This behavior strongly agree with the result itation inception may be avoided, as demonstrated through Eq. (5).

obtained by Hansen, Sorensen, and Flay (2000), which evaluated a Independent of the submergence H, the optimization model keeps

one-dimensional CFD analysis to study a diffuser-augmented wind the relative velocity always below cavitation velocity (Fig. 6b). This

turbine with a NACA 0015 airfoil on an ideal turbine. It can be is a very important feature because the hydrokinetic rotor can be

Table 2

Parameters for a typical blade section.

2.15 2.8 6.09 15.16 4348119 −0.8729 1.0074

2.30 4.8 8.09 15.19 4354439 −0.9068 1.0034

2.45 6.9 10.19 15.21 4361443 −0.9407 1.0008

2.60 8.8 12.09 15.24 4368816 −0.9746 0.9968

2.75 10.6 13.89 15.26 4376554 −1.0085 0.9942

2.90 12.4 15.69 15.29 4384667 −1.1102 0.9903

3.05 14.0 17.29 15.32 4393209 −1.3475 0.9864

3.20 15.7 18.99 15.35 4402210 −1.5932 0.9826

3.35 17.4 20.69 15.38 4411580 −1.8220 0.9788

Fig. 4. Effect of the minimum pressure coeﬃcient to: (a) the number of cavitation (for c = 1), and (b) the chord ratio.

D. do Rio Vaz et al. / Energy for Sustainable Development 45 (2018) 142–149 147

inception occurs early, and then a correction is needed. Fig. 7a shows

a comparison between the present model, and others available in

the literature, including the classical Glauert’s optimization (Glauert

& Durand, 1963). The model starts the cavitation correction of the

chord distribution at approximately 60% of the rotor span when

c = 1.3. For a radial position of 90% of the blade, the cavitation

correction leads to an increased chord length of 64% compared to

Vaz and Wood (2016) model. It is worth noting that the diffuser

changes the chord length, intensifying the possibility of cavitation

due to the increasing of the axial velocity approaching the blade.

This behavior is followed by Silva et al. (2017), where the chord is

corrected because the term {W/[(1 − fS )VCAV ]}2 in Eq. (12) becomes

greater than 1. Fig. 7b shows the twist angle varying radially. It is

important to note that the diffuser affect the twist angle distribu-

tion, but it is not inﬂuenced by the cavitation. The power coeﬃcient

of the present work does not have much changing compared to Vaz

and Wood (2016) (Fig. 8a). However, clearly it does to Glauert and

Durand (1963) and Silva et al. (2017). The increased power output

Fig. 5. Thrust coeﬃcient as a function of the freestream velocity.

is about 42% when compared to the bare turbine, represented by

Glauert and Durand (1963) in Fig. 8b, for a water velocity of 2.5 m/s.

This result shows that the present optimization corrects the chord

designed free of cavitation for any H. On the blade shape, the major without relevant changing in the turbine eﬃciency, keeping it above

consequence is the increasing of the chord distribution, as depicted Betz-Joukowsky limit if the power coeﬃcient is based on the rotor

in Fig. 7a. diameter. However, if the power coeﬃcient is based on the exit area

Fig. 6. Effect of the speed-up ratio on the relative velocity. (a) uncorrected and (b) corrected model.

Fig. 7. Effect of the speed-up ratio on the (a) chord and (b) twist angle distributions.

148 D. do Rio Vaz et al. / Energy for Sustainable Development 45 (2018) 142–149

Fig. 8. (a) Power coeﬃcient as a function of the tip-speed ratio, and (b) power output as a function of the water velocity.

below Betz-Joukowsky limit. This assumption is further described Latin symbols

by Sørensen (2016). In addition, also the results point out that a a, a axial and tangential induction factors at the rotor

hydrokinetic turbine needs to be carefully designed as the cavitation aopt optimum axial induction factor

indeed increases under diffuser (or duct) effect. B number of blades

cc , c u corrected and uncorrected chord (m)

Conclusions CD drag coeﬃcient

CL lift coeﬃcient

An optimization procedure for the design of diffuser-augmented Ct tangential force coeﬃcient

hydrokinetic blades free of cavitation is presented. The formulations Cn normal force coeﬃcient

are based on the classical BET, whose the main addition being the CP power coeﬃcient

minimum pressure coeﬃcient as the criterion to avoid cavitation Cp pressure coeﬃcient

on optimum hydrokinetic blades. The present method extends Vaz Cpmin minimum pressure coeﬃcient

and Wood (2016) optimization procedure to hydrokinetic case. The dA elementary area (m2 )

model has low computational cost and easy numerical implemen- D drag(N)

tation. Also, it is demonstrated that the cavitation prediction has fS safety factor

good physical behavior. The good performance of the proposed F Prandtl tip-loss factor

optimization is made through comparison with studies developed Fn normal force (N)

by Silva et al. (2017), in which the increased chord distribution Ft tangential force (N)

can avoid cavitation. This approach suggests that the power out- g gravitational acceleration (m/s2 )

put could be increased by 42% for a water velocity about 2.5 m/s, h distance between free surface and blade section (m)

as shown in Fig. 8b, when compared with the classical Glauert’s H submergence of the turbine (m)

optimization (Glauert & Durand, 1963). In addition, when the term L lift(N)

{W/[(1 − fS )VCAV ]}2 in Eq. (12) becomes greater than 1, the chord p local pressure (Pa)

length can increase 64% compared to Vaz and Wood (2016) model. patm atmospheric pressure (Pa)

It is necessary to consider some limitations of the present model, pv vapor pressure (Pa)

such as c must depend on the diffuser eﬃciency, as recently r radial position at the rotor plane (m)

described by Silva et al. (2018), and this relationship requires fur- R radius of the rotor (m)

ther investigation. A new formulation for the tip loss factor must be V0 free-stream velocity (m/s)

assessed, as raised by Vaz and Wood (2016). This is because the dif- VCAV cavitation velocity (m/s)

fuser is assumed to induce a circumferentially uniform axial ﬂow, but w total induced velocity (m/s)

no azimuthal ﬂow through the rotor. This axial ﬂow should reduce W relative velocity (m/s)

the tip loss due to the proximity of the blade tip to the diffuser x local-speed ratio

wall. There should be different tip loss factors for the axial and cir-

cumferential motion. Another limitation is the lack of incorporation Greek symbols

of the pressure coeﬃcient at the diffuser outlet in the modeling. a angle of attack (rad)

This incorporation is very important for verifying the behavior of a opt optimum angle of attack (rad)

the optimization approach during cavitation, as this pressure coeﬃ- c diffuser speed-up ratio

cient is dependent on the velocity increase. Despite such limitations, b twist angle (rad)

the results obtained here present good behavior, demonstrating that bopt optimum twist angle (rad)

diffuser technologies can intensify the cavitation on hydrokinetic k tip-speed ratio

blades, justifying the use of new methodologies to improve current q density of the ﬂuid (kg/m3 )

optimization procedures applied to hydro rotor design. Validation s number of cavitation

of the results with experiments or 3D numerical modeling are pre- ss solidity of the turbine

tended in future works. 0 ﬂow angle (rad)

D. do Rio Vaz et al. / Energy for Sustainable Development 45 (2018) 142–149 149

0opt optimum ﬂow angle (rad) Goundar, J. N., Ahmed, M. R., & Lee, Y. H. (2012). Numerical and experimental studies

on hydrofoils for marine current turbines. Renewable Energy, 42, 173–179.

Y angular speed of the turbine (rad/s)

Hansen, M. (2008). Aerodynamics of wind turbines. Earthscan.

Hansen, M. O. L., Sorensen, N. N., & Flay, R. G. J. (2000). Effect of placing a diffuser

around a wind turbine. Wind Energy, 3, 207–213.

Acknowledgments

Jafari, S. A. H., & Kosasih, B. (2014). Flow analysis of shrouded small wind turbine with

a simple frustum diffuser with computational ﬂuid dynamics simulations. Journal

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