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Power, P

NCE 423: HYDRAULICS Where: Where:


It is the rate of doing work per unit of time.


Hydraulic and Energy Grade Lines.
Lecture 3:
Hydraulic Grade Line (HGL)
Hydraulic grade line, also called hydraulic
gradient and pressure gradient, is the graphical
representation of the potential head (pressure Where:
head + elevation head). It is the line to which Q = rate of flow
liquid rises in successive piezometer tubes. The  = unit weight of fluid flowing
Learning Objectives.
line is always at a distance (p/γ + z) above the E = total energy
After this lesson, students should be able to
datum plane.
1. Explain the terms in the Bernoulli’s Energy
Note:
Equation. Characteristics of HGL 1 horsepower (hp) = 746 watts
2. Explain how Bernoulli’s Equation is related to HGL slopes downward in the direction of 1 horsepower (hp) = 550 lb-ft/s
conservation of energy. flow but it may rise or fall due to change in 1 watt = 1 N-m/s = 1 Joule/s
3. Derive the Bernoulli’s Energy Equation. pressure.
4. Calculate an unknown fluid condition (fluid HGL is parallel to EGL for uniform pipe
pressure, velocity, density, height) at one point cross section. For a pump, energy is added. P
along a flow streamline, if conditions are known For horizontal pipes with constant cross For a turbine, energy is extracted. T
at another point along the same streamline. section, the drop in pressure gradient
between two points is equivalent to the
head lost between these points. EXAMPLES.
Required Knowledge in: 1. The water is flowing through a taper pipe of
1. Continuity Equation
Energy Grade Line (EGL) length 100 m having diameters 600 mm at the
2. Types of fluid flow upper end and 300 mm at the lower end, at the
For real incompressible fluid, Energy grade line is always above the hydraulic
3. Bernoulli’s Equation grade line by an amount equal to the velocity rate of 50 L/s. The pipe has a slope of 1 in 30. Find
4. Conservation of energy principle. Viscosity and friction create energy losses. Thus,
the Bernoulli’s Energy Equation for real fluid between head. Thus, the distance of energy gradient the pressure at the lower end if the pressure at
above the datum plane is always the higher level is 19.62 N/cm2.
points 1 and 2 is given as:
(v2/2g + p/γ + z). Energy grade line therefore is
the graphical representation of the total energy
Bernoulli’s Energy Equation. of flow.
2. A pipeline carrying oil of specific gravity 0.87
changes in diameter from 200 mm diameter at a
position A to 500 mm diameter at a position B
For ideal incompressible fluid, it states that in a Characteristics of EGL
which is 4 m at a higher level. If the pressures at
steady, ideal flow of an incompressible fluid, the total EGL slopes downward in the direction of
A and B are 9.81 N/cm2 and 5.886 N/cm2,
energy at any point of the fluid is constant. flow and will only rise with the presence
of pump. respectively and the discharge is 200 L/s,
The vertical drop of EGL between two determine the loss of head and the direction of
Assumptions: points is the head lost between those flow.
Fluid is ideal, viscosity is zero. points.
EGL is parallel to HGL for uniform pipe 3. A fluid is flowing in a pipe 8” in diameter with a
Flow is steady.
cross section. mean velocity of 10 ft/s. The pressure at the
Flow is incompressible.
EGL is always above the HGL by v2/2g. center of the pipe is 5 psi and the elevation of the
Flow is irrotational. Neglecting head loss, EGL is horizontal. pipe above the assumed datum is 15 ft. Compute
the total head in ft if the liquid is:
a. Water
b. Molasses (s=1.5)
c. Mercury (s=13.6)
4. In the figure, a 2” pipe leads downhill from a EXERCISES.
reservoir and discharges into air. If the loss of 1. A 100 mm diameter suction pipe leading to a 2. Oil (s = 0.84) is flowing in a pipe under the 3. A 50-mm diameter siphon is drawing oil (s =
head between A and B is 145 feet, compute the pump as shown, carries a discharge of 0.03 m3/s condition shown. If the total head loss from point 0.82) from an oil reservoir as shown. If the head
discharge. of oil (s=0.85). If the pressure at point A in the 1 to point 2 is 3.0 feet, find the pressure at point loss from point 1 to point 2 is 1.50 m and from
suction pipe is a vacuum of 180 mmHg, find the 2. point 2 to point 3 is 2.40 m, fin the discharge of
total energy head at point A with respect to a Ans. 66.9 lb/in2 oil from the siphon and the oil pressure at point
datum at the pump. 2.
Ans. -3.337 m Ans. -36.9 kPa

5. After entering a pump through a 180 mm


diameter pipe at 35 KN/m2, oil (s=0.82) leaves
the pump through a 120 mm diameter pipe at
120 KN/m2. The suction and discharge sides of
the pump are at the same elevation. Find the
rate at which energy is delivered to the oil by the
pump if the flow rate is 70 L/s.