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AIR OPERATED

DOUBLE DIAPHRAGM PUMP


(WILDEN PUMP)

A PROJECT REPORT
Submitted By

BE-ME-12 GROUP I
SUBGROUPS III

BE- MARINE ENGINEERING

AT

AMET UNIVERSITY
KANATHUR
CHENNAI

DECLARATION
We hereby declare that the project entitled “AIR OPERATED
DOUBLE DIAPHRAGM PUMP-(WILDEN PUMP)” submitted for
the Bachelor of Engineering degree is our original and unique work
and has not formed the basis for any award previously for any other
degree, diploma or any other similar title.

CERTIFICATE

THIS IS TO CERTIFY THAT THIS PROJECT REPORT IS A BONAFIDE RECORD OF


WORK DONE ON FABRICATION OF “AIR OPERATED DOUBLE DIAPHRAGM
PUMP-(WILDEN PUMP)” WHICH IS A PRODUCT OF THE TREMENDOUS
EFFORTS DRAFTED OUT BY THE GROUP OF EIGHT CADETS FROM B.E.
[MARINE ENGINEERING 2012 – 2016] BATCH-12 OF AMET UNIVERSITY AS A
PART OF FINAL YEAR.

SIGNATURE OF INTERNAL EXAMINER SIGNATURE OF PROJECT GUIDE

PROF. K.R.CHIDHAMBARAM
SIGNATURE OF PRINCIPAL-DG COURSES
AMET UNIVERSITY
DATE CHENNAI

THE NAME OF CADETS WHO’S CUMULATIVE


THOUGHTS WERE PUT OUT TO CONTRIBUTE FOR
THE COMPLETION OF THIS PROJECTS ARE

NAMES AND ROLL NUMBERS

1. ARAVINTH.K 1453-B

2. AMAL MOHAN 1446-B

3. CHANDRAPRAVEEN.C 1467-B

4. BALAJI.G 1461-B

5. CHAUHAN ABHIMANYU 1468-B

6. DEVAKUMAR.A.N 1472-B

7. AAKASH MOHAN 1441-B

8. BIBIN.S 1466-B
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

ON THE VERY OUTSET OF THIS PROJECT WE ARE INEFFABLY


INDEBTED TO PROF.K.R.CHIDAMBARAM (PRINCIPAL- D.G COURSES)
FOR BELIEVING IN OUR STRENGTHS AND GIVING US A WONDERFUL
OPPURTUNITY TO SET UP A “AIR OPERATED
DOUBLE DIAPHRAGM PUMP-(WILDEN PUMP)”.
WE WOULD TAKE THIS OPPURTUNITY TO THANK OUR PROJECT
GUIDE PROF. R.SRIDHER FOR HIS CONSTANT SUPPORT AND
MENTORING IN COMPLETING THIS PROJECT. HIS EXPERIENCE AND
EXPERTISE IN THE SUBJECT WAS EXTREAMLY VALUABLE TO US AND
ALSO TO THE SUCCESSFUL COMPLETION OF THE PROJECT.
WE WOULD LIKE TO IMMENSELY THANK MR. JAYAKUMAR FOR
TAKING TIME FROM HIS BUSY SCHEDULE AND PROVIDING HIS
CONSTANT INVOLVEMENT AND GUIDANCE AND GREAT DEAL OF
KNOWLEDGE, WHICH HELPED US IN EVERY STEP .OUR WORK AND
FINER DETAILS INVOLVED IN THE PROJECT WOULD BE INCOMPLETE
WITHOUT HIM.
OUR SINCERE THANKS TO THE SHIP-IN-CAMPUS H.O.D C/E
MR.P.PARAMASIVANFOR HIS VALUABLE GUIDANCE AND SUPPORT
THROUGHOUT.

OUR SINCERE THANKS TO THE WORKSHOP INSTRUCTORS AND ALL


THE STAFF WHO HAVE HELPED US THROUGHOUT THE PROJECT.

WE ALSO ACKNOWLEGDE WITH DEEP SENSE OF REVERENCE, OUR


GRATITUDE TOWARDS OUR PARENTS WHO HAVE ALWAYS
SUPPORTED US THROUGHOUT, MORALLY AND ECONOMICALLY.

FINALLY WE THANK THE ALMIGHTY GOD FOR SHOWERING HIS


BLESSING UPON US..........
OUR PROJECT:-
To fabricate the air operated double diaphragm pump under the guidance
of our mentor.

OUR AIM:-
To have a trial run and analyze the specifications of the pneumatic pump
and make it run successfully.

PLAN OF ACTION:-
Understand the working of the pneumatic pump and make a list of the
components and the tools required, prepare 2D diagrams for the PUMP,
3D animation of the pneumatic pump and complete the fabrication. Trial
and testing to be done on the components and finally assembly in the
SHIP- IN- CAMPUS to be done successfully.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION
NECESSITY OF THE PROJECT
BASIC COMPONENTS OF AODD PUMP
PRINCIPLE OF WORKING
2D DIAGRAM
COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
PLANNING
ASSEMBLY
DISMANTLING
MAINTAINANCE AND SAFETY MEASURES
CONCLUSION
INTRODUCTION

In the second phase of fourth year of BE Marine Engineering at


AMET UNIVERSITY we were given opportunity to do a project
helping us to explore our knowledge and practical skills for the
designing and fabrication of a pneumatic pump and this design is
unique to meet the performance requirements of even the most
demanding pumping applications.
A diaphragm pump is a positive displacement pump that uses a
combination of the reciprocating action of a rubber or diaphragm
and suitable non-return check valve to pump a fluid. Sometimes this
type of pump is also called membrane pump.
There are two main types of diaphragm pump:
In the first type, the diaphragm is sealed with one side in the fluid to
be pumped, and the other with compressed air. the diaphragm is
flexed, causing the volume of the pump chamber to increase and
decrease. a pair of non-return check valves prevent reverse flow of
the fluid.
The second type of diaphragm has one or more unsealed
diaphragms with the fluid to be pumped on both sides. The
diaphragms are again flexed, causing the volume to change. This
type of pump provides a more even flow because of their alternating
pumping mechanism.
General characteristics of the pump:
- They can handle sludge and slurries with a relatively high amount
of grit and solid contents.
- Have good dry running characteristics.
- Have good self priming capabilities.
- Have good suction lift characteristics , some are low pressure
pump with low flow rate; other are capable of higher flow rates,
depending on the effective working diameter of the diaphragm
and its stock length.
- Can handle highly viscous liquids.

This pneumatic pump unit is being installed in the SHIP-IN-


CAMPUS, where the pump would undergo the trial run with a help
of the air bottle & FRL unit . The pump would be subjected to a trial
run pressure up to a maximum of 8.6 bar.

NECESSITY OF PROJECT

Double diaphragm pumps are an excellent choice for pumping bilge


water which are produced onboard. the excellent chemical
resistance, priming capabilities and the possibility of the double
diaphragm pumps to discharge oil/water mixture are essential
features for bilge pump. Not the least this air operated pump can also
run dry without damage.
BASIC CONPONENTS OF AODD PUMP

COMPONENTS:
 Air chamber casings (Qty 2)
 Air distribution system (1 unit)
 Outer diaphragm piston (Qty.2)
 Inner diaphragm piston (Qty.2)
 Valve balls (non-return) (Qty.4)
 Valve seat (Qty.4)
 Discharge manifold (Qty.1)
 Liquid chamber casing (Qty.2)
 Diaphragm (2nos)
 Suction manifold (Qty.1)

PRINCIPLE OF WORKING

1. The air is ported through the air valve piston into the center block,
where two directional ports direct the air to the left or right side of
the pump.
2. The pump has two liquid chambers, two air chambers and two
diaphragms. In each pair of chambers, the liquid and the air
chambers are separated by a flexible diaphragm.
3. When in the air chamber, the air pressure is applied on the back
side of one diaphragm forcing the product out of the liquid chamber
into the discharge manifold.
4. As the two diaphragms are connected by a rod, or shaft, the other
diaphragm is pulled towards the center of the pump. This causes a
suction stroke on the other side.
5. Ball valve open and close alternately to fill chamber, and block
back- flow.
6. At the end of the shaft stroke, the air mechanism (air valve piston)
automatically shifts the air pressure to reverse the air pressure to
(opposite side) reverse the action of the pump.

2-D DIAGRAM OF AODD PUMP


COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
AIR CHAMBER CASING:

The air chamber is the chamber that houses the air which power the
diaphragms. the casing of the air chamber is made tough to handle,
max. pressure of 8.6 bar. The center part of the casing is drilled for
the shaft to move inside. These casings are bolted with air
distribution unit and the casing is provided with one more passage,
through which air from the unit is allowed to fill the chamber.
AIR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM:

The air distribution system is the heart of the pump. The air
distribution unit is the mechanism that shifts the pump in order to
create suction and discharge stoke. This unit consist of air valve
spool and pilot spool, these spool directs pressurized air to one air
chamber while exhausting the other. The air causes the main
shaft/diaphragm assembly to shift to one side. When the shaft
reaches the end of its stock, the inner piston actuates the pilot spool,
which pressurizes and exhausts the large end of the air valve spool.
The repositioning of the air valve spool routes the air to the other
chamber.

LOCK NUT(OUTER DIAPHRAM PISTON):


The outer diaphragm piston provide a means to connect the
diaphragms to the reciprocating common shaft and to seal the liquid
side from the air side of the diaphragm. This outer piston has
theading at the center, which is screwed to the center shaft.

HOLDING PLATES ( INNER DIAPHRAGM PISTON):


The inner piston is located on the air side of the pump and does not
come into contact with the process fluid.
CHECK VALVE BALLS & SEAT:
Air-operated pumps use suction and discharge check valves to
produce directional flow of process fluid in the liquid chamber. The
check valve balls seal and release on the check valve seats allowing for
discharge and suction of process fluid to occur. The removeable seats
provide the ball valves a site to check.
DISCHARGE MANIFOLD:
Process fluid exits the pump from the discharge port located on the
discharge manifold at the top of the pump

LIQUID CHAMBER CASING:


The liquid chamber is filled with the process fluid during the suction
stroke and is emptied during the discharge stroke. It is separated
from the compressed air by the diaphragms.

DIAPHRAGM:
The diaphragm membrane provides for separation of the process
fluid and the compressed air power source. To perform adequately,
diaphragm should be of sufficient thickness and of appropriate
material to prevent degradation or premeation in specific process
fluid application.
SUCTION MANIFOLD:

Process fluid enters the pump from the intake port located on the
inlet manifold at the bottom of the pump.

PLANNING:

Once the project was decided and approved, the team had to make an
organized plan for doing the project in the systematic way.
The pump working and construction was studied thoroughly and
understood that for the construction, process had to be precise.
Firstly, we collected dimensions & parts specifications about a
particular series of AODD pump.
Then, we made 2D diagrams and an animation of the project to
precision and after through study we gave the components for
fabrication.
LIST OF COMPONENTS GIVEN FOR FABRICATION:
 Suction manifold (Qty.1)
 Discharge manifold (Qty.1)
 Liquid chamber casing (Qty.2)
 Air chamber casing (Qty.2)
LIST OF COMPONENTS BOUGHT FROM MARKET:
 Diaphragm ( 2 pairs)
 Inner & outer diaphragm piston (Qty.4)
 Valve ball & valve seat ( Qty .4)
 Air distribution unit & shaft
 Shaft block gaskets
 Clamp bands
 Bolts & nuts
S.NO DESCRIPTION PART NO QTY
1 DIAPHRAGM 005008NP 2NOS
2 NRV VALVE 005010NP 4NOS
3 BALL SEAT 005512NP 4NOS
4 LOCK NUTS NP500AL 2NOS
5 HOLDING PLATES 005504AL 2NOS
6 SUCTION AL5517MS 4NOS
DISCHARGE
CLAMPS
7 CHAMBER CLAMP AL5518MS 2NOS
8 MOUNTING PADS 005021NP 4NOS
9 SUCTION 00CB06SS 8NOS
DISCHARGE
CLAMP BOLTS
These were items that had to be bought from the markets based on
the part number of a particular series (AOD 55), for which the
constant efforts of the team were successful.
ASSEMBLY

1. Firstly, the center block containing air distribution unit, air


chamber casing to be bolted together.
2. Assemble the diaphragm, inner & outer piston with the shaft and
insert it through the center block.
3. Secure the lock nut with the help of a bench wice.
4. Using an adjustable wrench, or by rotating the diaphragm by
hand, fix the other side of the diaphragm assembly
5. Assemble both liquid chamber towards the center section with the
help of one set of large clamp bands, covering the diaphragm and
inner assembly.
6. Place the discharge valve balls, o-rings and seats over the liquid
chamber.
7. Place the discharge manifold over the top of the center block,
covering valve seat and balls.
8. Secure the discharge manifold to the liquid chamber with the help
of two pair of clamps and lock it together.
9. Place the another two sets of ball valve, seat over the suction
manifold and secure the manifold over the bottom of the liquid
chamber , by the help of two pairs of clamps and lock it together.
10. For disassembly, follow the reverse procedure.
DISMANTLING

1. Before starting disassembly, mark a line from each liquid


chamber to its corresponding air chamber. This line will assist
in proper alignment during reassembly.
2. Utilizing a wrench, remove the two small clamp bands that
fasten the discharge manifold to the liquid chamber.
3. Remove the discharge manifold to expose the valve balls and
seats inspect ball cage area of manifold for excessive wear or
damage
4. Remove the discharge valve balls and seats from the liquid
chambers and inspect for nicks, chemical attack or abrasive
wear.
5. Turn pump upside down and remove the two small clamp
bands which fasten the intake manifold to the liquid chambers.
6. Lift intake manifold to expose intake valve balls and seats.
7. Remove one set of large clamp bands which secure one liquid
chamber to the center section using two wrenches.
8. Lift liquid chamber away from center section to expose
diaphragm and outer piston.
9. Using an adjustable wrench, or by rotating the diaphragm by
hand, remove the diaphragm assembly.
10. Due to varying torque values, one of the following two
situations may occur: (A) The outer piston, diaphragm and
inner piston remain attached to the shaft and the entire
assembly can be removed from the center section. (B) The
outer piston, diaphragm and inner piston separate from the
shaft which remains connected to the opposite side diaphragm
assembly.

11. To remove diaphragm assembly from shaft, secure shaft with


soft jaws (a vise fitted with plywood) to ensure shaft is not
nicked, scratched or gouged. Using an adjustable wrench,
remove diaphragm assembly from shaft.

MAINTAINANCE AND SAFETY MEASURES

1. Before any maintenance or repair is attempted, the compressed


air line to the pump should be disconnected and all air pressure
allowed to bleed from pump.
2. Disconnect all intake, discharge and air lines, drain the pump by
turning it upside down and allowing any fluid to flow into a
suitable container.
3. Blow out air line for 10 to 20 seconds before attaching to pump
to make sure all pipeline debris is clear.
4. Do not apply compressed air to the exhaust port – pump will
not function.
5. Do not over-lubricate air supply – excess lubrication will reduce
pump performance. Pump is pre-lubed.
6. Do not exceed 8.6 bar air supply pressure.
7. Before starting disassembly, mark a line from each liquid
chamber to its corresponding air chamber. This line will assist
in proper alignment during reassembly.
8. To stop the pump from operating in an emergency situation,
simply close the shut off valve installed in the air supply line.

9. When assembling the pump, it is absolutely essential to ensure


that the product and air channels are clear and o-rings are
correctly settled.

10. If fluid is not discharged after you start the pump, or if you
hear an abnormal notice any irregularity, shut down the pump
immediately.

CONCLUSION
Thus, the objective of the project, fabrication and installation
of the AIR OPERATED DOUBLE DIAPHRAM PUMP for
pumping bilge was fulfilled.
 This project was a great opportunity for us to test our
technical and practical skills.
We hope that this project will be usefull for ship-in-campus in
future, as well as onboard ships.