You are on page 1of 48








1 Introduction
2 Description of equipments
2.1 Spring
2.2 Electromagnet
3 Design and drawing
3.1 Machine Components
4 Working principle
5 Merits & demerits
6 Applications
7 List of materials
8 Cost Estimation
9 Conclusion


Figure TITLE

1 Block diagram

2 Overall diagram

There are disclosed an automatic gear change control apparatus

for an automobile and a method of controlling such apparatus. A
rotational output of an internal combustion engine is connected to
drive wheels of the automobile and a load device. When a gear
shifting-up of an automatic transmission is to be effected, the load
applied by the load device is increased, or the load is connected to
an output rotation shaft of the engine via a selectively-connecting
device, thereby reducing the rotational speed of the output rotation
shaft of the engine to a required level. In this work, two
electromagnetic coils are coupled to the gear rod of the two ends.
The two buttons are used to activate the electro-magnetic coil so
that the gear will be shifted.



A motorcycle (also called a motor bicycle, motorbike, bike, or

cycle) is a single-track, two-wheeled motor vehicle powered by an

engine. Motorcycles vary considerably depending on the task for

which they are designed, such as long distance travel, navigating

congested urban traffic, cruising, sport and racing, or off-road

conditions. In many parts of the world, motorcycles are among the

least expensive and most widespread forms of motorized


In the two wheelers the transmission is carried out by

manually. This may result in fatigue during driving in cities

or traffic areas.

At present due to the extended difficulties in manual operations, the technology has
shifted from manual to automatic; few of them include ABS system, active steering
system etc., in order to increase passenger safety and comfort. In an environment
where movement, component and every assembly operation must be immediately and
automatically recorded, checked and documented for maximum efficiency. Gasoline
engines develop useful torque over a limited engine-speed range. To be able to use
thee available torque over the range of vehicle speed, gears are needed to reduce or
increase the engine speed accordingly. The conventional manual transmission uses a
driver-operated clutch, typically operated by a pedal or lever, for regulating torque
transfer from the internal combustion engine to the transmission, and a gear stick,
either operated by hand (as in a car) or by foot (as on a motorcycle). It enables the
driver to select any gear ratio ("gear") at any time. But in case of the motorcycles and
some types of racing cars, it only allows the driver to select the next-higher or next-
lower gear. This type of transmission is called a sequential manual transmission.
Sequential transmissions are used in auto racing for their ability to make quick shifts.
Modern commercial gearboxes are synchromesh type which use ratcheting drums and
shift forks to select different gears. An automatic gearbox is one type of motor vehicle
transmission that can automatically change gear ratios as the vehicle moves, freeing
the driver from having to shift gears manually.

Most automatic

1. Time of driver’s reaction

2. Time of clutch operation

3. Time of gearshift mechanism operation

4. Time based on gearbox design.

Automated mechanical gearboxes are the logical choice for improving the shift time
of a fixed-ratio gearbox. Integration of the clutching and the gear-shifting mechanisms
seamlessly is the major advantage of this type of gearboxes. After the actuation
command by the driver, the Gear Control Unit(GCU) cuts engine power(through
ignition and fuel cut), disengages the clutch, actuates the gearshift mechanism and re-
engages the clutch, all in a few hundredths of a second. Also, the shift rpm can be
easily controlled and the drop in the engine rpm during a gear shift can be matched
with the shift time to keep the engine in the maximum torque band at all times.
Furthermore, an automated manual gearbox can control the "launch RPM" and can
shift automatically for drag strip or acceleration events. Thus, the engine can be kept
in the power band for virtually all of the time. An Automated gear-shifting mechanism
can be quicker than the manual during an autocross, since the driver no longer needs
to take care of the clutch or the throttle while shifting, allowing him to tackle the track
more confidently and quickly. Pneumatic shifting systems have been designed
previously but usually involve heavy components, complex electronics and limited
functionality. The proposed system aims to be a performance-oriented, easy-to-
customize replacement for multiple types of vehicles. transmissions have a defined set
of gear ranges. Besides automatic, there are also other types of automated
transmissions such as continuous variable transmissions (CVTs) and semi-automatic
transmissions that free up the driver from having to shift gears manually by using the
transmission's computer to change gear. These are usually actuated by manual
linkages or hydraulic means. Performance vehicles on the other hand, use sequential
gearboxes with dog clutches to engage gears. Turbo-boost is normally lost between
gear changes in a manual whereas in an automatic the accelerator pedal can remain
fully depressed. This however is still largely dependent upon the number and optimal
spacing of gear ratios for each unit. A new technology called automatically actuated
manual transmission, bridges the gap between automatic and manual transmissions
and provides benefits of both. There are significant benefits in shift times, torque,
engine rpm, clutch actuation and vehicle acceleration over traditional manual
actuation. Methods of actuation range from solenoid actuators to pneumatic or
hydraulic systems. All transmission designs had one goal in common- to make
shifting easier. The driver gear shifting strategy influences significantly in the vehicle
dynamic behavior, performance and fuel consumption because it changes the
transmission system inertia and the engine speed. This effect becomes even more
pronounced in performance or competition driving. The time during which the power
delivery from the engine to the wheels is interrupted due to a gear change being
actuated is referred to as the "shift time". More time a vehicle loses in completing
gearshifts, greater is the final lap time. The typical autocross vehicle incorporates a six
speed gearbox, yet reaches a (course- limited) top speed in competition of only about
110 kph. Selecting a final drive for this top speed would result in 5 gearshifts in less
than 4 seconds. As a result, final drive ratio is very sensitive to shift delay time.
Although vehicle mass, engine performance and traction still play a major role,
typical vehicle acceleration is significantly limited by the time it takes to complete a
gearshift. The time taken to complete a gearshift is dependent on the following




A spring is a flexible elastic object used to store mechanical

energy. Springs are usually made out of hardened steel. Small

springs can be wound from pre-hardened stock, while larger ones.

A spring is a mechanical device, which is typically used to store

energy and subsequently release it, to absorb shock, or to

maintain a force between contacting surfaces. They are made of

an elastic material formed into the shape of a helix which returns to

its natural length when unloaded this is called return spring.

Springs are placed between the road wheels and the vehicle body.

When the wheel comes across a bump on the road, it rises and

deflects the spring, thereby storing energy therein. On releasing,

due to the elasticity of the spring, material, it rebounds thereby

expending the stored energy. In this way the spring starts vibrating,

with amplitude decreasing gradually on internal friction of the

spring material and friction of the suspension joints till vibrations

die down.

In 1918, French inventor Louis Octave Fauchon-Villeplee

invented electric cannon which bear a strong resemblance to the

linear motor. He filed for a US patent on 1 April 1919, which was

issued in July 1922 as patent no. 1,421,435 "Electric Apparatus for

Propelling Projectiles". In his device, two parallel busbars are

connected by the wings of a projectile, and the whole apparatus

surrounded by a magnetic field. By passing current through

busbars and projectile, a force is induced which propels the

projectile along the bus-bars and into flight.

During World War II the idea was revived by Joachim

Hänsler of Germany's Ordnance Office, and an electric anti-aircraft

Electromagnet was proposed. By late 1944 enough theory had

been worked out to allow the Luftwaffe's Flak Command to issue a

specification, which demanded a muzzle velocity of 2,000 m/s

(6,600 ft/s) and a projectile containing 0.5 kg (1.1 lb) of explosive.

The Electromagnet were to be mounted in batteries of six firing

twelve rounds per minute, and it was to fit existing 12.8 cm FlaK 40

mounts. It was never built. When details were discovered after the
war it aroused much interest and a more detailed study was

carried out, culminating in a 1947 report which concluded that it

was theoretically feasible, but that each Electromagnet would need

enough power to illuminate half of Chicago


A . Electromagnet consists of two parallel metal .s (hence the

name) connected to an electrical power supply. When a

conductive projectile is inserted between the .s (from the end

connected to the power supply), it completes the circuit. Electrons

flow from the negative terminal of the power supply up the

negative ., across the projectile, and down the positive ., back to

the power supply.

This current makes the .Electromagnet behave similar to an

electromagnet, creating a powerful magnetic field in the region of

the .s up to the position of the projectile. In accordance with the

right-hand rule, the magnetic field circulates around each

conductor. Since the current is in opposite direction along each .,

the net magnetic field between the .s (B) is directed vertically. In

combination with the current (I) across the projectile, this produces
a Lorentz force which accelerates the projectile along the .s. There

are also forces acting on the .s attempting to push them apart, but

since the .s are firmly mounted, they cannot move. The projectile

slides up the .s away from the end with the power supply.

A very large power supply providing, on the order of, one

million amperes of current will create a tremendous force on the

projectile, accelerating it to a speed of many kilometres per second

(km/s). 20 km/s has been achieved with small projectiles

explosively injected into the .Electromagnet. Although these

speeds are theoretically possible, the heat generated from the

propulsion of the object is enough to rapidly erode the .s. Such

a .Electromagnet would require frequent replacement of the .s, or

use a heat resistant material that would be conductive enough to

produce the same effect.



The .s and projectiles must be built from strong conductive

materials; the .s need to survive the violence of an accelerating

projectile, and heating due to the large currents and friction

involved. The recoil force exerted on the .s is equal and opposite to

the force propelling the projectile. The seat of the recoil force is still

debated. The traditional equations predict that the recoil force acts

on the breech of the .Electromagnet. Another school of thought

invokes Ampère's force law and asserts that it acts along the

length of the .s (which is their strongest axis). The .s also repel

themselves via a sideways force caused by the .s being pushed by

the magnetic field, just as the projectile is. The .s need to survive

this without bending, and must be very securely mounted.


The power supply must be able to deliver large currents,

sustained and controlled over a useful amount of time. The most

important gauge of power supply effectiveness is the energy it can

deliver. As of February 2008, the largest known energy used to

propel a projectile from a .Electromagnet was 32 million joules..

The most common forms of power supplies used in .Electromagnet

are capacitors and compulsators.

The .s need to withstand enormous repulsive forces during firing,

and these forces will tend to push them apart and away from the

projectile. As ./projectile clearances increase, arcing develops,

which causes rapid vaporization and extensive damage to the .

surfaces and the insulator surfaces. This limited some early

research .Electromagnet to one shot per service interval.

The inductance and resistance of the .s and power supply

limit the efficiency of a .Electromagnet design. Currently different .

shapes and .Electromagnet configurations are being tested, most

notably by the United States Navy, The Institute for Advanced

Technology, and BAE Systems.


Massive amounts of heat are created by the electricity

flowing through the .s, as well as the friction of the projectile

leaving the device. The heat created by this friction itself can cause

thermal expansion of the .s and projectile, further increasing the

frictional heat. This leads to three main problems: melting of

equipment, safety of personnel, and detection by enemy forces. As

briefly discussed above, the stresses involved in firing this sort of

device require an extremely heat-resistant material. Otherwise

the .s, barrel, and all equipment attached would melt or be

irreparably damaged.

In practice the .s are, with most designs of .Electromagnet,

subject to erosion due to each launch; and projectiles can be

subject to some degree of ablation also, and this can limit

.Electromagnet life, in some cases severely.


In relation to .Electromagnet physics, the magnitude of the

force vector can be determined from a form of the Biot-Savart Law

and a result of the Lorentz force. It can be expressed

mathematically in terms of the permeability constant (μ0), the

radius of the .s (which are assumed to be circular in cross section)

(r), the distance between the counterpoints of the .s(d) and the

current in amps through the system (I) as follows

The formula is based on the assumption that the distance(l)

between the point where the force (F) is measured and the

beginning of the .s is greater than the separation of the .s (d) by a

factor of about 3 or 4 (l > 3d). Some other simplifying assumptions

have also been made; to describe the force more accurately, the

geometry of the .s and the projectile must be taken into



.Electromagnet are being pursued as weapons with

projectiles that do not contain explosives, but are given extremely

high velocities: 3500 m/s (11,500 ft/s, approximately Mach 10 at

sea level) or more (for comparison, the M16 rifle has a muzzle

speed of 930 m/s, or 3,000 ft/s), which would make their kinetic

energy equal or superior to the energy yield of an explosive-filled

shell of greater mass. This would allow more ammunition to be

carried and eliminate the hazards of carrying explosives in a tank

or naval weapons platform. Also, by firing at higher velocities

.Electromagnet have greater range, less bullet drop and less wind
drift, bypassing the inherent cost and physical limitations of

conventional firearms - "the limits of gas expansion prohibit

launching an unassisted projectile to velocities greater than about

1.5 km/s and ranges of more than 50 miles [80 km] from a practical

conventional Electromagnet system."

If it were possible to apply the technology as a rapid-fire

automatic weapon, a .Electromagnet would have further

advantages in increased rate of fire. The feed mechanisms of a

conventional firearm must move to accommodate the propellant

charge as well as the ammunition round, while a .Electromagnet

would only need to accommodate the projectile. Furthermore, a

.Electromagnet would not have to extract a spent cartridge case

from the breech, meaning that a fresh round could be cycled

almost immediately after the previous round has been shot.


Electrical resistance is a major limitation because when

dumping large amounts of electrical energy into a conductor the

majority of the energy is converted to heat due to resistance and

therefore effectively lost as it is not driving the projectile. This could

be overcome through the use of a superconducting material.


The coils have an electrical resistance, and resistive losses

are often very significant indeed.

The energy in the magnetic field itself does not simply

dissipate; much of it returns to the capacitor when the electric

current is decreasing. Unfortunately it does this in the reverse

direction (via a 'ringing' mechanism due to inductance of the coils),

which can seriously damage polarized capacitors (such as


In the circuit the magnetic field keeps the current in the coil

flowing after the capacitor has discharged, so that it keeps

discharging and builds up a negative voltage (see Lenz's law). This

is similar to an LC oscillator.

The capacitor charging to a negative voltage can be

prevented by placing a diode across the capacitor terminals.

Some designs bypass this limitation by using couple of

diodes. Then, diodes reverse polarity to charge capacitors instead

with proper polarity again, effectively re-using remaining coil


A coilElectromagnet is a type of synchronous linear electric

motor which is used as a projectile accelerator that consists of one

or more electromagnetic coils. These are used to accelerate a

magnetic projectile to high velocity. The name Gauss

Electromagnet is sometimes used for such devices in reference

to Carl Friedrich Gauss, who formulated mathematical descriptions

of the electromagnetic effect used by magnetic accelerators.

CoilElectromagnet consist of one or more coils arranged

along the barrel that are switched in sequence so as to ensure that

the projectile is accelerated quickly along the barrel via magnetic

forces. CoilElectromagnet are distinct from .Electromagnet, which

pass a large current through the projectile or sabot via sliding

contacts. CoilElectromagnet and .Electromagnet also operate on

different principles.


While playing with my can crusher, I noticed that a can

placed off center tended to be pushed out of the solenoid. A little

searching of the patent literature convinced me that I had

inadvertently created a very poor, single stage, coil

Electromagnet. Presented below is a summary of what I have

found so far.

Propellant powered Electromagnet are typically limited to

muzzle velocities on the order of 2,000 meters per second. This

limit is inherent to the use of expanding gas to drive the projectile

down a barrel. Barrels simply can't withstand the temperatures

and pressures required for higher expansion rates of the propellant

combustion products (normally CO2 and NOx). One attempt at a

Electromagnet for higher velocities used differential pistons (a

large one, driven by methane/oxygen combustion, connected to a

small one for compression of the drive gas) to provide a high

pressure of hydrogen gas (hydrogen is the lightest, and hence

fastest expanding, of all gasses). While some success was

achieved, the apparatus was cumbersome and the velocities were

still limited. For some applications, particularly orbital launching,

this is insufficient (earth escape velocity is 11,200 m/s).

Two basic types of electromagnetic Electromagnet are

described in the patent literature, the . Electromagnet and the coil

Electromagnet. Both use stored energy sources to produce a

large magnetic field and a high electric current through a driving

armature. The interaction of the current with the magnetic field

generates a force which propels the armature (and any projectile

connected to it). Beyond that, they differ substantially, and each

has practical difficulties which has prevented them from being

more than laboratory curiosities.






The automatic gear changer in two wheeler is consists of the

following components to full fill the requirements of complete

operation of the machine.

 Control unit

 Electromagnet

 Gear system



Here we have two Electromagnet arrangements which are arranged

on either side of the vehicle pedal rest for applying the gear. The

Electromagnet is fixed at the end of the flat pedal rest. The plate rest has

pivot at the center. The Electromagnet are operated with the help of

electric power supply and it is controlled by the control unit (nothing but

a switch). One of the Electromagnet is used to apply the gear and another

one for reducing the gears. The gears are applied on the vehicle

depending up on the speed of the vehicle. According to the speed the

driver can change the vehicle just by pressing the button instead of

changing the gear by gear lever.






 Quick response is achieved

 Simple in construction
 Easy to maintain and repair
 Cost of the unit is less
 Continuous operation is possible without stopping


It may increase slight weight to the vehicle.




It is applicable in all types of two wheelers which has gear


Time Study:
1 Project Selection 15 days
2 Block diagram planning 20 days
3 Auto cad drawing 20 days
4 Material Procurement 1 month
5 Machining of accessories 08 days
6 Fabrication of assembly 15 days
7 Trials & Troubleshooting 15 days
8 Testing 10 days
9 Electronic Circuit development& 20 days
10 Documentation 10 days
12 Conclusion 01 hour




The various factors which determine the choice of material

are discussed below.

1. Properties:

The material selected must posses the necessary properties

for the proposed application. The various requirements to be

satisfied. Can be weight, surface finish, rigidity, ability to withstand

environmental attack from chemicals, service life, reliability etc.

The following four types of principle properties of materials

decisively affect their selection

a. Physical

b. Mechanical

c. From manufacturing point of view

d. Chemical
The various physical properties concerned are melting point,

thermal Conductivity, specific heat, coefficient of thermal

expansion, specific gravity, electrical conductivity, magnetic

purposes etc.

The various Mechanical properties Concerned are strength

in tensile, Compressive shear, bending, torsional and buckling

load, fatigue resistance, impact resistance, eleastic limit,

endurance limit, and modulus of elasticity, hardness, wear

resistance and sliding properties.

The various properties concerned from the manufacturing

point of view are,

 Cast ability

 Weld ability

 Surface properties

 Shrinkage

 Deep drawing etc.

2. Manufacturing case:

Sometimes the demand for lowest possible manufacturing

cost or surface qualities obtainable by the application of suitable

coating substances may demand the use of special materials.

3. Quality Required:

This generally affects the manufacturing process and

ultimately the material. For example, it would never be desirable to

go casting of a less number of components which can be

fabricated much more economically by welding or hand forging the


4. Availability of Material:

Some materials may be scarce or in short supply. It then

becomes obligatory for the designer to use some other material

which though may not be a perfect substitute for the material

designed. the delivery of materials and the delivery date of product

should also be kept in mind.

5. Space consideration:

Sometimes high strength materials have to be selected

because the forces involved are high and space limitations are


6. Cost:

As in any other problem, in selection of material the cost of

material plays an important part and should not be ignored.

Some times factors like scrap utilization, appearance, and

non-maintenance of the designed part are involved in the selection

of proper materials.




Lathe, drilling, welding, grinding, power hacksaw, gas cutting cost


The overhead charges are arrived by”manufacturing cost”

Manufaturing Cost =Material Cost +Labour Cost

Overhead Charges =20%of the manufacturing cost


Total cost = Material Cost +Labour Cost +Overhead Charges

Total cost for this project =




The project carried out by us made an impressing task in the

field of automobile department. It is very useful for driver while

drive the vehicle at any places without any tension.

This project has also reduced the cost involved in the

concern. Project has been designed to perform the entire

requirement task which has also been provided.


1. Design data book -P.S.G.Tech.

2. Machine tool design handbook – Central machine tool

Institute, Bangalore.

3. Strength of Materials - R.S.Kurmi

4. Manufacturing Technology - M.Haslehurst.

5. Design of machine elements- R.s.Kurumi