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WRITING TASK 2

ĐỀ BÀI: People are living longer. Some people think that it causes big
problems. Others, however, think the aging population has many advantages
for business, government and society in general. Discuss both views and give
your opinion.

(250) Many people believe that the longer life span of humans can create many thorny
problems. Nevertheless, others suggest that this can also bring many benefits to business,
government and society. This essay discusses both view points and features my opinion.

There are reasons why many think that the ageing population is a problem. Firstly, it adds
pressure on the welfare state when budgets are stretched thin when the greying
population drives up medical and pension payments. Secondly, that people live longer
may lead to a higher retirement age, which means people would be in the job market for a
longer duration. If the world of work fails to create new jobs, this takes a toll on youth
employment prospects.

On the contrary, others believe in the benefits that the ageing population can create. From
a business perspective, companies can capitalise on products and services that cater for
older people. More importantly, our ageing population can be an economic powerhouse,
which undoubtedly benefits any government. In the longevity economy, more people can
take part in economic activities and spend money, which is positive for the economic
growth. For society, since older people are a living museum of old values and traditions,
their longer life expectancy helps survive good values and traditions which always face
the risk of being neglected.

In conclusion, I believe that longer lives pose challenges to the earth which is already a
very crowded place. However, this is an irreversible trend which also carries with it many
benefits.
30.09.2017 The best way to reduce youth crimes is to educate their parents
with parental skills. To what extent you agree or disagree?

(250) Many say that equipping parents with parenting skills is an optimum choice to
drive down the rate of juvenile delinquency. Although I agree that parental skills are
important, I do not think that they are the best way to reduce youth crime.
There are reasons why people consider parenting skills the best option. These
skills embrace the ability to listen and empathise, which can keep the child away from
evil thoughts. For example, if a boy can confide to their parents that he starts to have
sexual curiosity, he can get advice on ways to deal with sexual urges. This may help him
avoid committing sexual offences. In addition, parental skills also include the ability to
maintain a healthy relationship with partners or spouses. This is important as juvenile
delinquency is often linked to dysfunctional families.
However, I do not believe that teaching parents parental skills is the best way to
reduce youth crime. Many parents already struggle with a myriad of responsibilities and
do not have enough time with their children. Without time, even the best parental skills
can become rusty due to the lack of practice. Moreover, social and voluntary work is a
more inclusive way to prevent youth crime since it includes orphans and homeless youth.
For these people, the suggested solution becomes useless because they do not have or live
with their parents in the first place.
In conclusion, I wholeheartedly believe that parenting skills are important;
nevertheless, there are better ways to prevent juvenile delinquency.
Some people think that employers should not care about the way their
employees dress, because what matters is the quality of their work. To what
extent do you agree or disagree?
In the modern workplace, dress codes are changing as employers focus more on results
than on the rules that employees must follow. While I agree that the way people dress
should be seen as irrelevant in many work contexts, I believe that dress codes still exist
for good reason in certain professions.
On the one hand, many employers have stopped telling their staff how to dress,
and I see this as a positive trend. Some of the most successful companies in the world,
including technology giants like Google and Facebook, are famous for the relaxed office
environments that they try to create. Employees are encouraged to dress casually, and
even the company executives and leaders are rarely seen wearing anything other than T-
shirts and jeans. However, while managers and programmers are free to dress how they
like, they are expected to produce work of outstanding quality. It is clear from the
performance and global dominance of such companies that strict dress codes are
completely unnecessary in the technology sector.
However, I would also argue that rules regarding employees' clothing are still
relevant in other work situations. We expect certain professionals, such as nurses, police
officers and airline pilots, to wear uniforms. These uniforms may have a practical or
safety function, but perhaps more importantly they identify the person’s position or role
in society. Similarly, a lawyer, politician or school principal may choose to wear formal
clothing in order to portray an image of authority, trustworthiness and diligence. I believe
that most of us prefer to see these professionals in smart, formal attire, even if it is not
strictly necessary.
In conclusion, I support the trend towards relaxed dress codes for workers, but I do not
see it as applicable to all occupations or sectors of the economy.
As well as making money, businesses also have social responsibilities. Do you
agree or disagree?
Model answer 1
The idea that, besides making money, enterprises also need to have public responsibilities
remains a source of controversy. In my opinion, while generating profit is the top priority
for each company, I agree that they should also conduct their business in a socially
responsible manner.
On the one hand, the efforts of companies to maximize their profits may have some
benefits for society as a whole. [1] Firstly, the higher the profits earned by enterprises, the
more taxes they pay to the government. As a result, authorities may have more revenue to
spend in key fields, including education and health care, which leads to an improvement
in the quality of life of the whole community. [2] Secondly, by earning huge profits
companies have the opportunity to grow their business. For example, firms could use
their capital to expand their production, creating new job opportunities within the
community.
On the other hand, there are strong reasons why businesses should also accept that they
have social responsibilities. [1] The first reason is that their activities have an effect on
the environment. Without controls, production processes may result in serious
environmental degradation, such as global warming stemming from factory emissions or
the irresponsible disposal of industrial waste. For example, if factories installed waste
treatment systems instead of discharging chemical wastes into rivers, water pollution
could be controlled. [2] Another reason is that enterprises should help those who are less
fortunate, since they have the money to do so. For example, big corporations such as
Unilever and Vinamilk have enhanced their public image through philanthropic actions
such as providing scholarships and giving charitable donations.
In conclusion, although I recognise that making profits is the fundamental principle of
business, I would argue that all businesses should profoundly reflect upon their social
responsibilities.
Model answer 2:
Businesses have always sought to make a profit, but it is becoming increasingly common
to hear people talk about the social obligations that companies have. I completely agree
with the idea that businesses should do more for society than simply make money.
On the one hand, I accept that businesses must make money in order to survive in a
competitive world. It seems logical that the priority of any company should be to cover
its running costs, such as employees’ wages and payments for buildings and utilities. On
top of these costs, companies also need to invest in improvements and innovations if they
wish to remain successful. If a company is unable to pay its bills or meet the changing
needs of customers, any concerns about social responsibilities become irrelevant. In other
words, a company can only make a positive contribution to society if it is in good
financial health.
On the other hand, companies should not be run with the sole aim of maximizing profit;
they have a wider role to play in society. One social obligation that owners and managers
have is to treat their employees well, rather than exploiting them. For example, they
could pay a “living wage” to ensure that workers have a good quality of life. I also like
the idea that businesses could use a proportion of their profits to support local charities,
environmental projects or education initiatives. Finally, instead of trying to minimize
their tax payments by using accounting loopholes, I believe that company bosses should
be happy to contribute to society through the tax system.
In conclusion, I believe that companies should place as much importance on their social
responsibilities as they do on their financial objectives.
Animals should be treated with the same respect as humans. Do you agree
with this view?
Viewpoints Opposing viewpoints
They are living creatures, they have Animals could not be compared to
personalities, feelings just like humans humans
Some people say human beings differ
from animals because we have culture and
we have conscience
I think there isn't such a large difference
between human beings and animals. It is
true we have the ability to make choices,
and some of us are highly intelligent. But
many scientific studies have shown that
animals, such as the octopus and the
dolphin, are also very clever. They can
make decisions based on the information
they have. Perhaps humans are intelligent
enough to control animals, but that does
not mean animals completely lack
intelligence.
However, it is my strong conviction that humans and animals are worthy of the same
respect and deserve to be treated with the same consideration.
The fact that humans exist with them only means that they are all equals in the eye of
divine providence, they should therefore be respected and protected. Furthermore, it
appears that animals have feeling and conscience, for example, having a pet as a
companion can teach one a sense of responsibility. A striking example of their
intelligence is the fact that pets are often specially trained to help their blind and deaf
owners.

Some universities now offer their courses on the Internet so that


people can study online. Is this a positive or negative development?
It is true that online courses are becoming a common feature of university education.
Although there are some drawbacks of Internet-based learning, I would argue that there
are far more benefits.
The main drawback of the trend towards online university courses is that there is less
direct interaction. Students may not have the opportunity to engage face-to-face with
their teachers, and will instead have to rely on written forms of communication.
Similarly, students who study online do not come into direct contact with each other, and
this could have a negative impact on peer support, discussion and exchange of ideas. For
example, whereas students on traditional courses can attend seminars and even discuss
their subjects over coffee after lessons, online learners are restricted to chatting through
website forum areas. These learners may also lack the motivation and element of
competition that face-to-face group work brings.
Despite the negatives mentioned above, I believe that online university courses are a
positive development for various reasons. Firstly, they allow learners to study in a
flexible way, meaning that they can work whenever and wherever is convenient, and they
can cover the material at their own pace. Secondly, the cost of a university education can
be greatly reduced, while revenues for institutions may increase as more students can be
taught. Finally, online learning offers open access to anybody who is willing to study,
regardless of age, location, ability and background. For example, my uncle, who is 65
years old, has recently enrolled on an online MBA course in a different country, which
would have been impossible in the days before Internet-based education.
In conclusion, while I recognise the possible disadvantages of online learning, I consider
it to be a positive development overall
IELTS Writing Task 2 (24 June 2017): Scientists predict that cars will be
driven by computers, not people in the near future. Why? Do you think it is a
positive or negative development?

(250 words) Scientists envision a future where cars steer themselves while passengers
sleep. This essay presents several grounds for this prediction and discusses the pros and
cons of this reality.
Advancing technology is the most important driving force behind the future of
autonomous cars. What’s more, competition among automakers plays an important role
in realising the vision of self-driving cars.
As regards the cons, when cars are programmed to navigate without human intervention,
human drivers will lose jobs. This adds burden on the economy because of soaring
unemployment. The impact on families of these unemployed drivers can be severe due to
a loss of major family incomes. Furthermore, self-driving cars are prone to hacks. This
scenario is frightening as cyber-terrorists may gain access to car systems, kidnapping
school children (travelling together on school buses) or causing massive road accidents.
Regardless of the disadvantages, autonomous cars will bring a lot of advantages. Firstly,
people will be able to spend their travelling time working or taking a rest. This is good
for their health because driving can cause tiredness; in addition, people can use their time
more efficiently. Secondly, self-driving cars may be safer than those driven by humans
because cars do not drink, get sleepy or distracted.
In conclusion, it goes without saying that driverless cars are just around the corner as
many deep-pocketed companies are pouring money into the technology. Just as any other
game-changing inventions, autonomous cars may transform the world we are living in
ways that go beyond our imagination.
➢ Nowadays people’s life is changing rapidly and, as a result, family
relationships are affected. Do the advantages of this outweigh the
disadvantages? Give your opinion and examples from your own
experience.

➢ Measures have been put in place to improve road safety by reducing the
speed limits. Some people believe there are better alternatives. Discuss
both views and give your own opinion.

➢ Newspapers will remain the main source of news in the future and the
Internet will not have any effect. Do you agree or disagree with this
statement? Give reasons for your answer and include examples from
your own experience.

In many countries senior positions have higher salaries compared to those of


young workers of the same company. Some people think this isn’t justified. Do
you agree or disagree?

While some believe that rewarding those in managerial positions with higher pay packets
is appropriate, not everyone agrees with this view. Personally, I am leaning towards the
latter position due to negative impacts caused by significant difference in salaries within
a company.

For one, executive officers should know that higher than sufficient salaries are not
necessary. Indeed, the higher the remuneration they receive, the more likely the company
to suffer from devoid of financial capability. Furthermore, they often gain powers that
money can’t buy. For instance, they often make important decisions over how to make
their company thrive. They are also entitled to allocate company’s budget and designate
tasks to other workers. In lieu of these non-financial entitlements, they should refrain
from earning more than reasonable amounts as salaries.

Unreasonably high salaries granted to the executives can also afflict other employees. In
fact, it is foreseeable that many employees would feel powerless or
even disappointment when they find out about the huge salary gap between the executive
officers’ and theirs. Accordingly, some may leave the company, and others may go on to
strike and demand a pay increase. However, those actions hardly be productive nor
worthy to do. Therefore, unfair salary systems like this would yield unhealthy working
environment for both employers and employees.

In conclusion, I oppose to provide those in managerial roles with obscene amounts of


compensation because it can cost the company its prosperity and discourage other
employees to work hard. Thus it is recommended for the company to decide on the
salaries of executive officers and general workers by adopting a more motivating salary
system.
In some countries, many more people are choosing to live alone
nowadays than in the past. Do you think this is a positive or negative
development?
In recent years it has become far more normal for people to live alone, particularly in
large cities in the developed world. In my opinion, this trend could have both positive and
negative consequences in equal measure.
The rise in one-person households can be seen as positive for both personal and broader
economic reasons. On an individual level, people who choose to live alone may become
more independent and self-reliant than those who live with family members. A young
adult who lives alone, for example, will need to learn to cook, clean, pay bills and
manage his or her budget, all of which are valuable life skills; an increase in the number
of such individuals can certainly be seen as a positive development. From an economic
perspective, the trend towards living alone will result in greater demand for housing. This
is likely to benefit the construction industry, estate agents and a whole host of other
companies that rely on homeowners to buy their products or services.

However, the personal and economic arguments given above can be considered from the
opposite angle. Firstly, rather than the positive feeling of increased independence, people
who live alone may experience feelings of loneliness, isolation and worry. They miss out
on the emotional support and daily conversation that family or flatmates can provide, and
they must bear the weight of all household bills and responsibilities; in this sense,
perhaps the trend towards living alone is a negative one. Secondly, from the financial
point of view, a rise in demand for housing is likely to push up property prices and rents.
While this may benefit some businesses, the general population, including those who live
alone, will be faced with rising living costs.

In conclusion, the increase in one-person households will have both beneficial and
detrimental effects on individuals and on the economy

Some believe that people should not continue to work once they reach the age
of retirement. Do you agree or disagree? Give reasons for your answer and
include relevant examples from your experience.

In recent years, with the improvement in healthcare sector and better living standards,
people are able to live longer and contribute to the economic progress of a nation more,
compared to the past. Some see this as an entirely positive development, while others
point out the drawbacks of working beyond the retirement age.

Delaying retirement enables individuals to actively contribute to the society. On a


personal level, working past retirement age provides an avenue for individuals to remain
not only physically but also mentally active. Moreover, this option empowers the ageing
population to be financially independent and economically self-sustainable past
retirement age. In countries with growing ageing population such as Singapore, for
instance, citizens are given an option to work beyond their retirement age based on the
demands of their job and their capability to handle these tasks. Hence, working beyond
retirement age empowers workers, ensures economic progression of the nation, and
alleviates the challenges faced by an ageing population.
On the flip side, working beyond the retirement age may result in adverse health impacts
on workers and a decrease in productivity levels. In Japan, the suicide rates have recently
been increasing due to rising stress levels at work faced by the ageing population who are
pushed to work beyond their optimal capacity. Escalating stress levels from work leads to
various health complications putting a strain on the healthcare system. Hence, working
beyond retirement age may worsen the overall welfare of individuals and adversely
impact the economy.

To sum up, though working beyond retirement age imposes health hazards leading to
reduction in productivity levels, the benefits far outweigh the disadvantages. By assessing
the capability of individuals and tailoring their jobs to their health profile, firms and
companies could still actively involve their workers to be productive beyond their
retirement age.

Advertising
1. Positives of Advertising

● Advertising is a key part of modern business; Companies need to tell customers about their products
and services / notify, inform
● Advertisements inform us about the choices we have==> without advertising we would have less choice

● Advertising is a creative industry / advertising industry that employs many people,=therefore providing
jobs opportunities and income for many people. So, without advertising, there would be higher
unemployment rate.=> without advertising there would be higher unemployment
● Advertising is a form of modern art==> advertisements are often funny, artistic or thought- provoking

● People enjoy adverts

2. Negatives of Advertising

Advertising manipulates people

It aims to persuade people that buying a product will make them happier/ advertisers aim to convince us
that buying things leads to happiness
Advertisers focus on selling a brand image

They use glamorous, successful people

We now live in a consumer culture

We are persuaded to follow the latest trends and fashions

We are encouraged to associate certain brands with a higher status


Children can easily be influenced by advertisements.==> advertisers often aim their marketing at
children==> children put pressure on patents to buy them things
3. Opinions about Advertising

Advertising should be regulated by governments

Advertising aimed at children should be controlled or even banned/ prohibited ; Unhealthy foods should
not be marketed in a way that attracts children

Products that can be risk to health/ packaging for junk food should display clear health warnings

In some countries it is illegal to advertise cigarettes on television; Warnings must be displayed on


cigarette packets

However, advertising is necessary in free market economies; It creates demand for


products;Governments should only censor false information or products that are harmful

==> overall, Advertising is necessary but it needs to be controlled to curb

4. Vocabulary
Print ads in a newspaper or commercials on radio and TV

Hefty fines can result from false advertising= falsely presenting a product when levied (thu thuế, to levy a
tax on: đánh thuế)by the Federal Trade Commissio

Disclaimers( lòi phủ nhận )are often hidden in very small print on product packaging and in out-of-the
way spots in ads

Advertising is ingrained in American culture, from children's programs on Saturday morning to talk
shows and prime time TV. Advertising even invades movies through product placement. ( sự sắpđặt , bố
trí It's not an accident when a movie hero holds up a can of Coke instead of Pepsi.

Advertising influences how people feel about themselves -- often in a negative way. Based on the
images they see in advertising, women often feel they should be thin and beautiful and hold down full-
time jobs ( có công việc ổn định while also being full-time mothers. Advertising communicates that men
should be handsome, tall, athletic, caring husbands, thoughtful fathers and vỉrile sung sức at all times.
These images are often unrealistic and unattainable ==>To make you feel insecure, so that they can
then emotionally manipulate you. Once they achieve to make you feel ugly, they sell you beauty
products so you can improve on your ugliness. Once they manage to make you believe that you are not
important, they sell you expensive clothes so you can attract the attention of others. And so on and so
forth.
In the age of the Internet, those ads can quickly go viral and reach millions of people within days. Those
types of advertisements can cause a company to lose its loyal customers and prevent potential
customers from purchasing from the business

Children see fit-looking adults munching on various junk foods and assume that they are healthy as they
do not understand the concept of advertising; Advertisements encourage children to their parents to
buy the products they see in commercials, regardless of whether they need them or not and whether
they are useful or not. Many throw tantrums and use different tactics to force the adults to get them
what they want.As mentioned earlier, children are likely to misinterpret the messages that are conveyed
in commercials; Many advertisements seen today involve dangerous stunts which children try to imitate
as they do not understand the statutory warnings that come with the ads.

;As mentioned, young, healthy-looking models are used, hiding the fact that these foods are some of the
unhealthiest in the world.

Liberal ideas, used too liberally, unbiased ; pop up = suddenly appear; to market =to promote= to
advertise; target audience = intended audience; follow, foolishly run after,
The fact is that no matter where one looks, there are always beautiful women with the perfect bodies
and faces marketing products. Due to their desire to look like such women, girls can develop eating
disorders like bulimia, anorexia, etc
( cuồng ăn, biếng ăn,etc)

Flashy ads on TV, magazines, the Internet and other forms of media only generate impulse buying

Advertising is actually a multi-faceted tool that can help a business accomplish a myriad of objective

Nevertheless, from my personal point view, I saw this phenomena as interesting cases that advertising
should be regulated especially for children market. Further, government as important key should take a
part in this regulation area to protect customers from product which is triggered to risk our health.
According to World Health Organization and Food Drugs Association, they have already issued a new
regulation of cigarettes advertisement which is allocate certain rules for protecting customers.
Alternatively, warning must be displayed on cigarettes packets by those laws. However, advertising is
necessary in free market economies which is created demand for product. In any case, government
should only censor false information on product that are harmful

To put them in a nutshell, I think both of companies and customers need advertisement to know the
product detail before but it. By tight regulation and strong controlling of laws from government, both of
them will feel more safety that advertising is not only focus on selling brand image but also help
customers to become more educated to choose the right product

advertisers often aim their marketing at the young age groups. Children, for instance, can easily be
influenced by advertisements. So this put pressure on their parents to buy them things by pestering and
nagging. Another problem is that many advertisements manipulate people too badly. Capturing the
minds of consumers is the main intention of the advertisements. Thus by persuading people that buying
a product will make them happier and with higher social status

In conclusion, there are convincing arguments both for and against advertising, but I believe there are
both positive and negative aspects of advertising. And I recommended that Advertising should be
regulated and advertisements which aimed at children should be controlled or even banned

Firstly, it creates public awareness of various products or services offered by companies and inform
them about the choices they have. This helps consumers to make right decision to choose a product that
leads to customer satisfaction.

Advertising manipulates people to buy things without thinking. Companies often exaggerate the
capabilities of their products to seduce ( cám do ) the customers and also involve glamorous or famous
personalities to bring more attention

The possessing of material goods and wealth as a determinate of our status and self-worth is a huge
emphasis of advertising. It works by convincing people that the amount of money they have, and the
quality of the goods that they own will gain them social acceptance.

Animal right

Arguments for Animal testing

Animals are used in important scientific research;

It is necessary to do medical tests on new drugs; laboratory mice may be given an illness so that the
effectiveness of a new drug can be measured
Animal testing helps to advance medical and scientific knowledge; Many important medical discoveries
involved experimentation on animals;

Researchers aim to minimize the suffering that animals experience; Testing for the cosmetics industry is
now banned in many countrie

Arguments against Animal Testing/ experimentation, research


The benefits of research using animals do not justify the suffering caused; Scientists should use
alternative methods of research

The lives of animals / all creatures should be respected, animals have the same rights as humans to live a
fully, natural life,
Humans have no moral right to do experiments on animal

and subject them to the trauma


Opinions on animal experimentation
Agree with the banning of the use of animal testing fo non - medical products
A Necessary evil needed where new drugs and medical procedures are concerned
Nowadays animal experiments are widely used to develop new medicines and to test the safety of other
products. Some people argue that these experiments should be banned because it is morally wrong to
cause animals to suffer, while others are in favour of them because of their benefits to humanity.Discuss
both views and give your own opinion.

It is true that medicines and other products are routinely tested on animals before they are cleared for
human use. While I tend towards the viewpoint that animal testing is morally wrong, I would have to
support a limited amount of animal experimentation for the development of medicines.

On the one hand, there are clear ethical arguments against animal experimentation. To use a common
example of this practice, laboratory mice may be given an illness so that the effectiveness of a new drug
can be measured. Opponents of such research argue that humans have no right to subject animals to
this kind of trauma/ suffering , and that the lives of all creatures should be respected. They believe that
the benefits to humans do not justify the suffering caused, and that scientists should use alternative
methods of research.

On the other hand, reliable alternatives to animal experimentation may not always be available.
Supporters of the use of animals in medical research believe that a certain amount of suffering on the
part of mice or rats can be justified if human lives are saved. They argue that opponents of such
research might feel differently if a member of their own families needed a medical treatment that had
been developed through the use of animal experimentation. Personally, I agree with the banning of
animal testing for non-medical products, but I feel that it may be a necessary evil where new drugs and
medical procedures are concerned.

In conclusion, it seems to me that it would be wrong to ban testing on animals for vital medical research
until equally effective alternatives have been developed.

(270 words, band 9

Vocabulary
Drugs=medicines, medical treatments: phép điều trị bệnh, biomedical engineering, kỹ thuật y sinh,
medications dược phẩm; unethical, immoral, inhumane, cruel,; proponent =supporter =. Advocates
#opponent; diseases, constraints, conditions; effective cures,treatments
Animals are used to develop medical treatments, determine the toxicity of medications, check the safety
of products destined for human use, and other biomedical, commercial, and health care uses. Research
on living animals has been practiced since at least 500 BC

Opponents of animal testing say that it is cruel and inhumane to experiment on animals, that alternative
methods available to researchers can replace animal testing, and that animals are so different from
human beings that research on animals often yields irrelevant result

It’s unethical to sentence 100 million thinking, feeling animals to life in a laboratory cage and
intentionally cause them pain, loneliness, and fear

Animal experiments prolong the suffering of people waiting for effective cures by misleading
experimenters and squandering precious money, time, and resources that could have been spent on
human-relevant research

To squander the opportunity


Animal research has played a vital part in nearly every medical breakthrough over the last decad

All veterinary research has relied on the use of animal research

imal research in their development.

Modern surgical techniques including hip replacement surgery, kidney transplants, heart transplants and
blood transfusions were all perfected in animals Chuyền máu

Thanks to animal research, primarily in mice, cancer survival rates have continued to rise

"Many medical advances that we now take for granted such as antibiotics, blood transfusions, vaccines
or asthma medication could never have been achieved without animal research

Approximately 90pc of medicines that pass tests on animals fail in people. That’s an enormous waste of
money, animal lives, scientific resources and hope. The development of cutting-edge non-animal
methodologies that can accurately predict what happens in human beings involves exciting, progressive
and effective science

Arguments for Vegetarianism


Vegetarians do not eat foods that are produced by killing animals

Many people choose a vegetarian diet for moral or health reasons, many feel that all animals are
creatures with emotions, feelings and the ability to feel pain
A healthy diet is possible without eating meat, many scientists say that if we eat the right vegetables and
fruits==> Eating meat is unnecessary to maintain a good standard of health

A vegetarian diet may reduce the risk of disease like cancer

Many people question the treatment of animals in factory farms

Arguments against Vegetarianism

Vegetarians do not eat a balanced diet, there is no study which guarantees the absolute health by
eating veges alone

In many cultures, meat is the main ingredient in traditional meal

Meat-eaters argue that animals are below humans in the food chain; It is completely natural for us to kill
them for food

Our aim should be to improve farming methods

Farms should produce organic food

Vocabulary
Raising animals in factory farm conditions is cruel. Vegetarian< vegan; butcher/ slaughter

Meat production causes more emissions than transportation; Beef production uses 100 times the
amount of water that vegetable production requires

People say that meat is convenient in getting their protein intake and that that's important for their
dietary needs. What they don't realize is that there many plant based foods they could substitute that
provide the necessary protein we need for our body as well

In many cultures all across the world, meat is the center of our food. Here in the US, Americans love
their bacon and burgers. It's hard to think about a lifestyle in which we no longer consume meat
because (I'm speaking as an American) we have been so accustomed to eating meat and told our whole
lives that we should. The culture of being a vegetarian or a vegan is seen to be outside of the norm and
thus is met with criticism.
One troubling aspect of vegetarianism, specifically vegans, is that it can be inadequate due to nutrient
deficiencies
Meats can also be high in saturated fats so they have been linked to health problems such as
cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

meat is a rich source of protein which helps to build muscles and bones. Vegetarians often have to take
supplements to get all the essential vitamins and minerals. Finally, it may be the case that too much
meat is harmful, but we can easily limit the amount we have without having to cut it out of our diet
completely.

To sum up, I do not agree that everyone should turn to a vegetarian diet. Although the overconsumption
of meat could possibly be unhealthy, a balanced diet of meat and vegetables should result in a healthy
body

Every one of us should become a vegetarian because eating meat can cause serious health problems.

To what extent do you agree or disagree

Vegetarianism is becoming more and more popular for many people, particularly because of the harm
that some people believe meat can cause to the body. However, I strongly believe that it is not necessary
for everybody to be a vegetarian.

Vegetarians believe that meat is unhealthy because of the diseases it has been connected with. There
has been much research to suggest that red meat is particularly bad, for example, and that consumption
should be limited to eating it just a few times a week to avoid such things as cancer. Meats can also be
high in saturated fats so they have been linked to health problems such as cardiovascular disease and
diabetes.

However, there are strong arguments for eating meat. The first reason is that as humans we are
designed to eat meat, which suggests it is not unhealthy, and we have been eating meat for thousands
of years. For example, cavemen made hunting implements so that they could kill animals and eat their
meat. Secondly, meat is a rich source of protein which helps to build muscles and bones. Vegetarians
often have to take supplements to get all the essential vitamins and minerals. Finally, it may be the case
that too much meat is harmful, but we can easily limit the amount we have without having to cut it out
of our diet completely.

To sum up, I do not agree that everyone should turn to a vegetarian diet. Although the overconsumption
of meat could possibly be unhealthy, a balanced diet of meat and vegetables should result in a healthy
body

Positives of Zoos advantages

Zoos paly an important role in wildlife conservation

They can help to protect endangered species; Many zoos have extensive breeding programs in place to
help eliminate genetic bottlenecks ( sự tác nghẽn) , especially when dealing with cẻtain animals species
that are close to extinction
Zoos allow scientists to study animals and their behaviors

Zoos are educational, interesting and fun; Children, in particular, enjoy learning about animals and
nature.; It is a way to engage children in science, bring families together, and help save certain animal
species that are close to extinction.

Zoos provide job opportunities; Zoos do more than just provide a place for animals to reside. They are a
place that provides jobs, creates tourism opportunities, and can even be an economic basis for a
community. The Woodland Park Zoo in Seattle has an annual budget that
Negatives of Zoos disadvantages the cons

Zoo animals are kept in artificial environments; They are kept in cages, behind steel bars or have limited
space

Zoo animals rely on humans; Breeding programs create dependencies. They lose the freedom to hunt
for food; If the animal is part of a predator species, most newborns that are born in captivity will die if
they are released because of the dependencies they have on the captivity.

They best way to save endangered species is by protecting natural habitats.

Some people believe that zoos are unethical; Zoos exhibits animals with the aim of making money; We
have no right to use animals for entertainment and profit; Holding any animal in captivity has
questionable ethics. ( not certain, wrong in some way)

Vocabulary
The pros and cons of zoos are important to consider from a modern standpoint( Quran Diễm, lap
Trương ) Our views about zoos may have changed, but is it still ethical to support animal captivity; to
protect, preserve, conserve wild animals
The modern zoo plays a critical role in education children and families about the different animals with
whom we share this planet.

There are several animals which are poached ( kill or catch animals) frequently because of certain items.
Having a zoo provides these animals with a safer place to live because they are behind multiple levels of
protectio

Veterinary care is readily available at most zoos.This is a place where any animal can be brought in for
an examination so that its good health can be maintained.

With rise in poaching of wild animals for fur, ivory and supposed medicinal benefits, zoos appear to be
the safe havens for animals. Moreover, captive breeding can help raise the number of endangered wild
animals

Animals born in a captive environment never get to see the world outside the confines; locking them up
deprives them of the much-needed freedom. If and when they are released in the wild, they find it
difficult to adapt to the 'foreign' environment, which is far different from the zoos.

Zoo authorities do admit that the functioning of zoos is not flawless, and that captive animals do suffer
from problems; however, they also expect people to appreciate the sincere efforts taken by them to
protect and preserve wild animals

According to animal right activists, one doesn't need to exhibit animals for recreational purposes if the
sole objective behind setting up a zoo is of conservation
one cannot deny the fact that some zoo authorities violate animal rights. Creating awareness about
animal rights and devising efficient ways to control animal population is necessary. Conservation efforts
should be undertaken with a broader perspective of maintaining the ecological balance as a whole.

Cities
Reasons for Urbanization

People move to cities in search of job opportunities

Cities offer greater employment possibilities and a higher standard of living

People migrate to cities from the countryside

Traditional activities like farming need fewer workers nowadays

Negatives of City Lìe há drawbacks, has it dark sides

Life in cities has its drawbacks

The cost of living is higher than in rural areas; Some people d not manage to find work; Housing is
usually much more expensive

Homelessness and poverty are common on cities

There is a gap between rich and poor

Life in cities can be extremely stressful

There are problems like traffic congestion and crime

Cities lack a sense of community; People do not even know their neighbor; Cities are sometimes
described as “concrete jungles”.

Pedestrian areas/ zones

Pedestrian zones in city centre can improve the local environment

Banning cars encourages people to walk or cycle;Dependence on cars is linked to health problems like
obesity; People who walk or cycle regularly are generally healthier

Many European cities have built bicycle lanes

Pedestrian areas are safer and more attractive for both residents and tourists

Solutions to make urban life better


encourge residents in rural areas to continue living there by improving the infrastructure ,sanitation,and
transportation in that places.

provide differet kinds of jobs in these areas to prevent moving to cities for seeking work.
more plans to organise the cities lives.

Vocabulary
In the cities, there are often the most luxury and comfortable amenities ( tiện ích)

people are migrating towards cities by leaps and bounds which ,in turn,can result in
overcrowding,pollution ,traffic congestion and even committing atrocities (hành động tàn ác) as a
result.

A city enjoys a position of pride for its rich amenities which are necessary for the modern way of life. A
city life has its own glamour which attracts people from underdeveloped areas

It can make life joyful and comfortable. Major Service agencies are centralised in the city to satisfy
various interests of the people such as work, education, recreation and politics

Secondary relations are dominant in the city. People are indifferent towards one another. Superficial
forms of politeness and manners are commonly found.There is lack of intimacy and privacy in the city

Concentration of people in the city creates problems of housing, water and electricity facility, over
crowdedness, insanitation, etc.

In cities, you can take the chances to study and work best. There usually concentrates good universities
and big companies.
The city offers a safe, affordable metropolitan environment with a cosmopolitan atmosphere
supporting a range of cultural events, services, educational institutions, and business opportunities. The
transit systems give us access to an excellent public bus system with good transit connections, you could
place yourself right in the middle of what you want, also almost all city have an airport, and long-
distance passenger rail service so that you don't have to own a car

Most big cities offer a plethora of( a large amount of) museums, musical events, festivals and
educational opportunities to bolster your knowledge and experience

This is because the people living in the city have a hectic lifestyle , the city is often flooded by criminal
cases and pollution
many US cities are vibrant places, filled with museums and other cultural attractions, nightclubs,
theaters, and restaurants and populated by people from many walks of life and from varied racial and
ethnic and national background

, Many college graduates flock to cities, not only for their employment opportunities but also for their
many activities and the sheer excitement of living in a metropolis.

On the other hand, many US cities are also filled with abject poverty( nghèo rớt mùng tơi) filthy ( dơ dáy)
and dilapidated( mục nát, tồi tàn) housing, high crime rates, traffic gridlock( kẹt xe) and dirty ai

The results of this experimental study underscore = underline the need to improve the living conditions
of poor urban neighborhoods, as these conditions affect many life outcomes of the adults and children
who live in them.

Nowadays, the majority of world population is living in urban areas. While many people associate city
life with prosperity, urban dwellers actually have to experience various difficulties, including crime and
environmental pollution. From my perspective, governments should use counter-urbanizationas
(decreasesthe growth in urban population) a measure to ease the aforementioned( mentioned before)
problems

More and more people are migrating to cities in search of a better life, but city life can be extremely
difficult. Explain some of the difficulties of living in a city. How can governments make urban life better
for everyone

/ People living in big cities face several problems. What are these problems? Should governments
encourage people to move to smaller town?

Nowadays, the majority of world population is living in urban areas. While many people associate city
life with prosperity, urban dwellers actually have to experience various difficulties, including crime and
environmental pollution. From my perspective, governments should use counter-urbanization as a
measure to ease the aforementioned problems.

One of the common issues with living in a city is crime. For a violent crime to occur, there must be a
culprit and a victim. In a highly populated area, the risk of encountering a mob ( an attacker) is much
higher than that of a small town. Additionally, if the culprit feels protected by the anonymity that a large
city provides, he may commit more wrongdoings. Furthermore, air pollution is also a prevalent issue in
major cities. Surface transportation is the main source of greenhouse gas emissions, which cause
respiratory problems to the people. This problem is exacerbated by the sheer number of ( very large
numbers of) vehicles commuting daily in the city.

In my opinion, to tackle both the issues above, governments should promote the migration from urban
areas to rural ones. As the population density of a metropolitan = (large city)area is reduced, so do
crimes and air pollution. However, city dwellers have their reasons to stay in urban places, such as to
enjoy education and job opportunities. This is why governments need to step in ( cần thiệp ) because only
they can introduce rural development policies. If countryside areas have better infrastructures, people
will find less incentive to live in big cities.

In conclusion, crime and air pollution are two of the various problems of urban life. I believe that urban-
to-rural migration, promoted by governments, is an appropriate solution for those issues.

(273 words

se problems? Should governments encourage people to move to smaller town?
Nowadays, the majority
of world population is living in urban ar

Pedestrian areas
Low atmospheric emissions
Pedestrianisation usually aims to provide better accessibility and mobility for pedestrians, to enhance
the volume of shopping and other business activity in the area and/or to improve the attractiveness of
the local environment in terms of aesthetics, air pollution, noise and crash involving motor vehicle with
pedestpedestrianisation can sometimes lead to reductions in business activity, property devaluation,
and displacement of economic activity to other areas. In some cases traffic in surrounding areas may
increase, due to displacement rather than substitution of car trafficrians

Pedestrian-Only Shopping Streets Make Communities More Livabl

, More and more people around the world want their communities -neighborhoods, villages, towns and
cities- to be more liveable. Liveable communities provide residents with opportunities to enjoy a high
quality of life by allowing them to live in a variety of housing options and to walk, bike or take public
transportation to go to the places they most frequently need to go every day, such as work, schools,
grocery stores, shopping malls, parks, recreational areas and health facilities.

People-friendly environments can be achieved through good design, imaginative management,


persuasive promotion, efficient maintenance and by understanding the sometimes conflicting needs of
everyone likely to be affected. City squares, pedestrianisation (and pedestrian priority), Home Zones,
measures to restrain traffic, speed management, harmonisation of walking and public transport,
management of freight and

Crim

Police and Crime Prevention= offense =wrongdoing, delinquency


The job of the polices is to catch criminals

They must also prevent crime and make communities safer

There should be an increase in the number of police officers on the streets ( they have internal
problems such as lack a number of police officers. As a result, sometimes there are vast number areas
which cannot be reach by polices. The problem can be solved by them with increasing the number of
police officers on the streets, to make them available to reach the other areas.)

Police officers should be seen as part of the community+ They should be involved with in the community
education and prevention( because to maximize their program to decrease a plenty of crimes, they need
a help from communities too. To make their program successful to decrease considerable amount of
crimes, they should be involved in the community with education and prevention. That is really
important to do by police officers, because sometimes the citizen did not really pay attention about that
and give responsibility to polices to prevent crime at their cities. It cannot be happened because as
citizens, we have a responsibility too, like police officers for decrease a large number of crimes to safety
our cities, especially our families.)

The police should be in close contact with schools, The community involvement facet of a police officer’s
duties often gets overlooked. However, many officers are active in = involved in service = public needs
projects and activities. Their public service roles include speaking at schools and businesses, where
officers educate people on how to avoid dangerous situations and handle emergency situations. Other
forms of community involvement include drug prevention and education and driver safety programs.
These duties help create a better rapport between law enforcement thi hành luật and citizens.

They should focus on young people who have dropped out of school.These teenagers may become
involved with gang

Police officers play a central role in the law enforcement system. They monitor criminal activity, take
part in community patrols, respond to emergency calls, issue tickets, make arrests, investigate crimes
and testify in court( làm chứng, khai trước toà) as needed

The Consensus Approach views the police as a neutral force who generally do a good job, having a close
working relationship with law abiding citizens and responding effectively to the needs of local
communities, defending them against the anti-social and criminal behaviour of a minority people. From
this point of view most failings of the police are due to lack of funding and there not being enough police
on the streets

the main role of the police is to work with local communities and businesses to target those areas and
individuals who are persistently anti-social and criminal and to clamp down hard on even minor
offences. This obviously involves targeting weapon and drugs dealers, but also clamping down on= kiểm
soát chặt chẽ) anti-social behaviour, and the police being very visible on the streets to act as a physical
deterrent against crime

speaking to and befriending đối xử tốt local youths rather than pouring their beer down the drain and
constantly ‘moving them on’
over-policing’ alienates marginalised( bị cách lí khỏi xã hội ) groups and makes it more likely that they
will actually turn to crime

Punishments/Prisons/ positives

Fines are used as punishment for minor crimes

If the crime is more serious, prison is the most common punishment

Some criminals pose a threat to society

They are put in prison to ensure the safety of other citizen,protects society from dangerous and violent
criminals; acts as a deterrent

ensures that the law is respected and upheld (vindication) giữ gìn bảo vệ

gives offenders the chance to reflect on their actions and gives them time to reform their behaviour

Negatives of Prisons

Criminals are put together

They make friends with other ofenders; schools of crime"- prisoners educate each other in criminal
matters; Many prisoners re-offend when they are released

A criminal record makes finding a job more difficult which can lead back into crime

Rehabilitation

Another aim of prisons is rehabilitation

Prisoners receive education of vocational training, to teach prisoners important morals, the responsibility
for their own actions. While in prison, they can work at the farm, tend sheep, cows, or even grow fruits
Prisoners should learn personal skills and specific job skills learn new skills to assist them with working
life on the outside

Punishment could make prisoners’ behavior worse

Rehabilitation aims to make them better citizens

Rehabilitated prisoners are less likely to re-offend

Alternatives to imprisonment also exist, such as community service, probation orders lệnh tập sự

Enjoy clear and detailed statutory theo pháp luật regulations clarifying the safeguards cái bảo vệ che chở
applicable and governing the use and disposal of any record of data relating to criminal matter
Rehabilitation can help, retribution (sự trưng phạt) is defective, sometimes the criminal justice system
does not imprison the correct person, meaning that there a few innocent people who will be exonerated in
the future, as a result, retribution can not be seen as a helpful form of deterrence
Although offenders have committed crimes, thus deserving to be locked away for life or even face death
penalty, they should be given the second chance to prove themselves to society
Most people may think of prisons as nothing more than facilities where criminals are incarcerated bỏ tù
and deprived of their freedoms while serving a sentence for a crime. While this is true, the concept of
imprisonment is also intended to rehabilitate the prisoners

Unfortunately, research has consistently shown that time spent in prison does not successfully
rehabilitate most inmates= fellow convicts , and the majority of criminals return to a life of crime almost
immediately. Many argue that most prisoners will actually learn new and better ways to commit crimes
while they are locked up with their fellow convicts= prisoners . They can also make connections and
become more deeply involved in the criminal world

In an effort to offer better rehabilitative services to the inmates, many prisons have begun providing
psychiatrists to help deal with prisoners’ mental disorders and psychological issues. Prisons also offer
classroom settings lớp học được phân loại in which inmates can learn to read and educate themselves.
These methods are proven to have a positive effect on the prisoners and have helped many to
overcome a background with little or no education. Upon their release, prisoners who have stuck with
these programs are given a better opportunity to succeed and to become law abiding citizens

For many, time spent behind bars will push them farther into a life of crime, but for others, the horrors
of prison life and the lessons they learn there are enough to deter them from committing crimes again
in the future

Capital punishment/ death penalty

Supporters say that capital punishment deters crime

Fear of the death penalty stops people from committing offences

The death penalty shows that crime is not tolerated

It is a form of revenge

The cost of imprisonment is avoided

The offender cannot pose a threat to others

W]e reserve the death penalty in the United States for the most heinous cực kì tàn ác murders and the
most brutal and conscienceless murderers.
Society has always used punishment to discourage would-be criminals from unlawful action. Since
society has the highest interest in preventing murder, it should use the strongest punishment available
to deter murder, and that is the death penalty. If murderers are sentenced to death and executed,
potential murderers will think twice before killing for fear of losing their own life

Finally, the death penalty certainly "deters" the murderer who is executed. Strictly speaking, this is a
form of incapacitation sự tước quyền , similar to the way a robber put in prison is prevented from
robbing on the streets. Vicious murderers must be killed to prevent them from murdering again, either i

prison, or in society if they should get out. Both as a deterrent and as a form of permanent
incapacitation, the death penalty helps to prevent future crime.

The death penalty is not a deterrent because most people who commit murders either do not expect to
be caught or do not carefully weigh the differences between a possible execution and life in prison
before they act. Frequently, murders are committed in moments of passion or anger, or by criminals
who are substance abusers and acted impulsively

There is no conclusive proof that the death penalty acts as a better deterrent than the threat of life
imprisonment.

Once in prison, those serving = spending time life sentences often settle into a routine and are less of a
threat to commit violence than other prisoners. Moreover, most states now have a sentence of life
without parole. Prisoners who are given this sentence will never be released. Thus, the safety of society
can be assured without using the death penalty

Most capital = death crimes are committed in the heat of the moment. Most capital crimes are
committed during moments of great emotional stress or under the influence of drugs or alcohol, when
logical thinking has been suspended. In such cases, violence is inflicted = forced, by persons heedless of
the consequences to themselves as well as to others...

.Against Capital Punishment

Innocent people could be wrongly convicted and executed

Crime rates are not necessarily reduced

Many criminals do not think they will be caught

Capital punishment is not a good deterrent

Executing prisoners creates a violent culture and encourages revenge

We have no right to take another human life


There have been and always will be cases of executions of innocent people. No matter how developed a
justice system is, it will always remain susceptible to human failure. Unlike prison sentences, the death
penalty is irreversible and irreparable.

The arbitrary ( tùy hứng ngẫu nhiên) application of the death penalty can never be ruled out (ngưng lại):
The death penalty is often used in a disproportional manner against the poor, minorities and members
of racial, ethnic, political and religious groups.

The death penalty is incompatible with human rights and human dignity nhân phẩm: the death penalty
violates the right to life which happens to be the most basic of all human rights. It also violates the right
not to be subjected to torture and other cruel, inhumane or degrading treatment or punishment.
Furthermore, the death penalty undermines human dignity which is inherent to every human being.

The death penalty does not deter crime effectively: The death penalty lacks the deterrent effect which is
commonly referred to by its advocates. As recently stated by the General Assembly of the United
Nations, “there is no conclusive evidence of the deterrent value of the death penalty” (UNGA Resolution
65/206). It is noteworthy that in many retentionist states, the effectiveness of the death penalty in order
to prevent crime is being seriously questioned by a continuously increasing number of law enforcement
professionals.

Public opinion is not a major stumbling block Vật chướng ngại for abolition: Public support for the death
penalty does not necessarily mean that taking away the life of a human being by the state is right. There
are undisputed historical precedences quyền ưu tiênwhere gross human rights violations had had the
support of a majority of the people, but which were condemned vigorously later on. It is the job of
leading figures and politicians to underline the incompatibility of capital punishment with human rights
and human dignity.It needs to be pointed out that public support for the death penalty is inextricably
linked to the desire of the people to be free from crime. However, there exist more effective ways to
prevent crime. That same jury will now begin determining whether he should be executed or serve the
rest of his life in prison, This is not because I have any moral objection to executing the worst of the
worst -- those who murder innocent victims, sometimes in the most horrific ways imaginable. It is hard to
see capital punishment as particularly "cruel" or "unusual" when the victims will often have died much
worse deaths than the killer will be subjected to. But the fact is that there are several practical reasons
why the death penalty just doesn't make sense any longer, if it ever really did in the first

Executions are actually less punitive than life without parole= being released I've never been to prison,
but having dealt regularly with prisoners, it's clear that prison life is hard -- very hard. And you don't have
to take my word for it. Recently executed murderer David Zink had this to say about it just before his
death by lethal injection in Missouri:

"For those who remain on death row, understand that everyone is going to die. ... Statistically speaking,
we have a much easier death than most, so I encourage you to embrace it and celebrate our true
liberation before society figures it out and condemns= sentences us to life without parole and we too
will die a lingering death.

" Death penalty litigation sự kiện tụng makes no financial sense. Numerous studies have found that
death penalty criminal litigation costs taxpayers far more than prosecutions seeking life without parole.
For example, in Colorado, where the Holmes jury now has to spend the next several weeks hearing
evidence, the state will shell out approximately $3.5 million.

The death penalty is irreversible. Absolute judgments may lead to people paying for crimes they did not
commit. Texas man Cameron Todd Willingham was executed in Texas in 2004 for allegedly setting a fire
that killed his three daughters. Following his execution, further evidence revealed that Willingham did
not set the fire that caused their deaths. But it came too late.

There is no credible evidence that the death penalty deters crime more effectively than a prison term,
The 2006 execution of Angel Nieves Diaz, by a so-called ‘humane’ lethal injection, took 34 minutes and
required two doses. Doctors have said that it is likely Diaz’ death was painful. Other brutal methods of
execution used around the world include hanging, shooting and beheading. The nature of these deaths
only continues to perpetuate kéo dài mãi mãi the cycle of violence and may not alleviate the pain already
suffered by the victims’ family.

It makes a public spectacle cảnh tượng of an individual’s death. Executions are often undertaken in an
extremely public manner, with public hangings in Iran or live broadcasts of lethal injections in the US.
According to UN human rights experts, executions in public serve no legitimate purpose and only
increase the cruel, inhuman and degrading nature of this punishment. ➔All executions violate the right
to life. Those carried out publicly are a gross affront sự sỉ nhục to human dignity which cannot be
tolerated

The death penalty has always been a very controversial issue. Death sentences are usually handed out to
people who have been found guilty of capital crime. However, it is not so easy to consider death penalty
as an easy way to punish the guilty. If the death penalty is to condemn it does not mean that the guilty
party should be released or allowed some sympathy. It would defeat the purpose, as it would be using
violence to counter violence. How can we tell if a man/woman convicted for murder is really guilty' There
may be a margin of error . Would it be right to wrongfully accuse someone and execute him/her' We
should look at the ethical downsides This has been a very serious problem for civil rights groups, religious
figures and other people who oppose the death penalty. The death penalty has a lot of ethical and
religious matters tied to it. The argument against the death penalty is that even though it's a punishment
for a murder, it won't hurt to punish the murderer with a less harsh sentence. A death penalty would
have been justifiable if it were able to prevent future crimes.

Community service is a commonplace substitute for jail—thousands each year are sentenced to service
or compelled to do it as a condition of probation.

Community service

Community service, also known as community restitution phục hồi, is a form of punishment intended to
benefit the community that's been harmed by an offender's crime. Judges often order offenders to
perform community service in addition to or instead of other forms of punishment, such as
incarceration, fines, or probation. Tập sự

Community service is a way to reform offenders

It could be a solution to prison overcrowding


It avoids the cost of imprisonment

It makes offenders useful in their local communities

They are required to clean streets or talk to school groups

Offenders repay their community

They avoid the negative influence that prison can have

Against community service

Community service is not a sufficient punishment

Criminals should be locked up, away from their victims

Community service is a commonplace substitute for jail—thousands each year are sentenced to service
or compelled to do it as a condition of probation thời gian tập sự tạm tha; Community service is part of a
theory of restorative or rehabilitative justice and the few studies on the subject suggest that criminals
sentenced to service rather than simple jail time have slightly lower recidivism rates tỉ lệ tái phạm

IN many cases community sentences are handed out to thugs cônđồ, thieves and vandals kẻ phá hoại
whose offences would have justified prison sentences.

With the prison population rising, along with the cost of keeping people locked up, ministers have
indicated they want to see fewer people serving short jail terms. But are community sentences a real
alternative?
For those visiting the graves of loved ones, it must come as a comfort to see the cemetery being so well
looked after.
Grass has been neatly cut, hedges and shrubs trimmed back and the workmen are in the process of
laying paving slabs for a path.
Perhaps worth a rare letter to the local press in praise of the council?
But rather than council workers, these are "offenders working in the community" as a notice near the
entrance points out.
This "community payback" - as emblazoned on the young men's fluorescent jackets - is the latest
branding of what used to be called unpaid work

Some people think it is fair for convicts to spend time in prison as a punishment, while others think that
community service would be better for criminals and society. To what extend do you agree or disagree?
Prisons are the place to keep serious offenders in captivity. There is a growing demand of other forms of
punishment and community work is considered as a top alternative. In my opinion, each criminal should
be dealt individually depending on the seriousness of crime and their potential threat to society.

Community service certainly presents a viable có thể thực hiện đc option for imprisonment.
Maintaining prisoners in jail is very expensive. However, if such prisoners are punished by assigning
community labour work, the council will be relieved of that huge financial burden. In this condition,
offenders might be required to clean the public places which not only deters criminals but also helps
society in a positive manner. Another compelling reason for supporting work in society as a punishment
is that it permits them to resettle in the community. For instance, young offenders with petty crime
không nghiêm trọng should be given fair opportunity to reintegrate into the society.
On the other hand, serious criminals who repeatedly re-offend must be jailed. Their behavior is deep-
rooted and is less likely to mend. They are potential threat to law-abiding citizens and if freed, they
would disturb the balance of the society. Serial killers, for example, in no case should be allowed to
roam freely merely by doing trivial social work. Community service is not at all justifiable for their
brutality and thus must be locked away in prison. Imprisonment is the only deterrent for such convicts.

From the points outlined above, it is clear that this is not an open and shut cáe dễ giải quyết . Every
aspect of the case needs to be addressed before sentencing the criminal. Working for society is
certainly effective but not in all circumstances.

Crime in the Media

Crime is one of the main subjects of most news programs.

The mass media focus on violent and sensational crimes

This lead to fear of crime among the public

Sensational stories attract more viewers or readers

The media report crime stories in order to increase their audience

In general, judges have broad discretion sự tự quyết định to decide whether and what kind of
community service to order for an offender. As long as the sentence reasonably protects the public’s
interests and isn’t unduly harsh, all different kinds of community service options are available. However,
there are a few guidelines that judges must follow when crafting community service sentences.

Not Available for Serious Crimes : Community service may be ordered as a stand-alone sentence or as a
condition of probation for many types of crimes, and in fact may be a required condition of punishment
for crimes like looting or damaging property. However, community service is typically unavailable for
serious offenses punishable by death or life imprisonment. Community service may be ordered as a
stand-alone sentence or as a condition of probation for many types of crimes, and in fact may be a
required condition of punishment for crimes like looting cướp bóc or damaging property. However,
community service is typically unavailable for serious offenses punishable by death or life imprisonment.

“For the Benefit of the Community”: The main requirement of any community service sentence is that
it benefit the community. Thus, a judge may order a bank executive who misappropriated bank funds to
volunteer for a community organization and donate funds to that organization. The judge might choose
this sentence as an alternative to a term of imprisonment and in-prison restitution programs. This
donation of charitable services in a public forum benefits the community in two ways:

● it serves as a deterrent to other potential offenders, and

● it provides a symbolic (and practical) form of restitution for the harm the defendant caused
While there are many forms of community service that can benefit the public, there must be a direct
connection between that service and the crime. For example, courts have struck down community
service sentences that involve public organizations with no ties to the offender or the crime.

Suppose a corporate executive with no substance abuse history is convicted of misappropriating biển
thủ corporate funds for personal use; the judge orders the exec to pay restitution to a community
substance = material abuse facility. If the defendant challenges the sentence, an appellate court will
likely strike it down—that’s because the rehab facility has no relation to either the offender or the
crime.

Substance abuse programs

In many instances, judges determine that the community will benefit from a substance-abusing offender
entering a rehab program. The community will benefit because the judge believes the offender is
unlikely to continue to commit crimes with proper substance-abuse treatment. However, an offender’s
mere attendance and participation in a treatment program is usually not enough, standing alone, to
meet the “for the benefit of the community” test. Typically, judges will also require the offender to do
work over and above program participation, like one or more of the following:

sponsoring or counseling other substance abusers

leading treatment meetings or programs at the facility

organizing or setting up treatment meetings

paying restitution to harmed parties.

Although they have considerable leeway= discretion /freedom in setting sentences, judges can’t impose
community service that unduly interferes with an offender’s due process rights, including the
opportunity for paid employment, the maintenance of a normal family life, and the preservation of a
stable home environment. Examples of sentences that courts have found invalid include:

The forfeiture of all of an offender’s assets, including his home, in addition to full-time charitable work
for three years

Community service involving physical labor that the offender is unable to perform due to age or
infirmity, and

Banishing an offender from her home and community (where the offense wasn’t a sex crime).

The period of community service a judge orders can’t go beyond the maximum sentence for the crime.
For example, say that state law provides that the maximum sentence for embezzlement sự biển thủ is
ten years in prison. A judge may not sentence an embezzler to seven years in prison and five years of
community service, because the aggregate = gross sentence exceeds ten years.

Vocabulary
Some people think that the government should be responsible for crime prevention, while others believe
that it is the responsibility of the individual to protect themselves. Discuss both sides and give your
opinion
One of the highly controversial issues today relates to that of crime prevention. While some people
believe that government should take the responsibility for crime prevention, some others think that
every person should be responsible for their safety and defend themselves against crime. This essay
discusses why self-protection is very important but why the role of government is more efficient in
preventing crime.

Self-defense is certainly one of the most efficient ways to avoid crime. Mastering certain techniques like
Kungfu, Karate, Boxing can definitely help a common man protect himself and his family from criminals.
For instance, in Japan, achieving a black belt in Karate is mandatory for every student because people
believe in making students independent. Thus, students are made to ( be forced) undergo such training
so that they are able to protect themselves from an unforeseen incidence of violence or crime. Thus, it
is easy to see why it is important to be independent and hold responsibility for preventing any criminal
activity.

However, not everyone can be independent, and also, the intensity of crime can be quite high. In such
situations, if government tightens the rules and ensures that the police department is proactive,
definitely everyone fears the punishments and tends to stay away from crime. For example, a recent
survey showed that the main reason for 0.2% crime rate in the USA is ridiculously strict rules and an
intensely proactive criminal department. Thus, it goes without saying that the government has a major
responsibility in preventing crime.

Reducing the crime rate is very important for creating a safe and peaceful environment in the country.
This essay discussed why people should learn to be independent and acquire some self-defense
techniques; nonetheless, the role of government is more important in reducing crime. In my opinion,
the rules framed by the government are more efficient than self-defense in preventing crime.

Many criminals re-offend after they have been punished. Why do some people continue to commit
crimes after they have been punished, and what measures can be taken to tackle this problem?

Causes of crime and re-offending:

The main causes of crime are poverty, unemployment and lack of education.+People who commit
crimes often have no other way of making a living;A criminal record makes finding a job more difficult,
Employers are not likely to hire someone who has broken the law and was dangerous to the
community.==> financial difficulty

The prison system can make the situation worse: Offenders mix with other criminals who can be a
negative influence; ; Many prisoners re-offend when they are released.

Possible measures to reduce crime and re-offending:

Prisons should provide education or vocational training.

Rehabilitation programmes prepare prisoners for release into society.

Community service is another way to reform offenders. It makes offenders useful in their local
communities.

They might be required to talk to school groups or clean public areas.


Offenders also need help when looking for accommodation and work

There are several plausible approaches that can be taken by both the governments and the local
communities to reduce crime and re-offending. Most importantly, prisons should provide rehabilitation
programs to prisoners before releasing them into society. In these programs prisoners can be taught
right behaviours and can be provided with education and vocational training. These make offenders
useful in their local communities so they should be given an opportunity to have a good life. Local
communities should help the offenders when they look for accommodation and work.

Solutions:.First, governments can introduce more police forces everywhere to monitor people s
activities and stop them from committing crimes. Second, the state can apply new technologies such as
surveillance cameras in the streets, shopping centers, restaurants and all public places to cease = to stop
criminals .Third, strict punishments on criminals can have really preventive and deterrent effects on all
age groups in society , so by using harsh penalties like imprisonment, physical or financial punishments
the rate of crimes can be decreased

On the other hand, individuals in societies can be of great help to cut down on the number of crimes
being committed. To my mind, the overwhelming majority of people tend to participate in activities
assisting the government to keep the society a safe place for their own families and the others and for
all age groups .Take as an example, most people by reporting the problems to police can play an
indispensable role in crime-prevention activities. In addition, when people themselves care about
decreasing heinous crimes (tội ác ghê ghớm) cities, it can be sort of a preventive action to harness well
the situation in society by government as well.

Some people think certain prisoners should be made to do unpaid community work instead of being put
behind bars.

To what extent do you agree? (Reported 2017, GT Test

The crime rate nowadays is decreasing compared to the past due to advance technology which can
prevent and solve crime.

Do you agree or disagree? (Reported 2017, Academic Test

Many criminals commit further crimes as soon as they released from prison.What do you think are the
causes of this?

What possible solutions can you suggest? (Reported 2017, Academic Test

It is often thought that the increase in juvenile crime can be attributed to violence in the media.Do you
agree that this is the main cause of juvenile crime?

What solutions can you offer to deal with this situation


In some societies, the number of crimes committed by teenagers is growing. Some people think that
regardless of age, teenagers who commit major crimes should receive adult punishment.

To what extent do you agree

Some countries are struggling with an increase in the rate of crime. Many people think that having more
police on the streets is the only way to reduce crime.

To what extent do you agree

Some people think that women should not be allowed to work in the police force.

Do you agree or disagree

Many crimes are often related to the consumption of alcohol. Some people think that the best way to
reduce the crime rate is to ban alcohol.

Do you think this is an effective measure against crime?

What other solutions can you suggest

Many people believe that having a fixed punishment for all crimes is more efficient.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of having a fixed punishment

The death penalty is the best way to control and reduce serious crime.

To what extent do you agree

While it is sometimes thought that prison is the best place for criminals, others believe that there are
better ways to deal with them.

What is your opinion

Crime rate, in most countries, is often higher in urban areas than in rural areas.

Why do you think that is?

What can be done to reduce the crime rate


Some people think that poverty is the reason behind most crimes.

Do you agree or disagree

Internet crime is increasing rapidly as more and more people are using the internet to make financial
transactions.

What can be done to tackle this problem