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Omar Shabaan, Mohamed Osama

Dr. Gamal A. El-Sayed

A Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communication technology enables
a vehicle to predict and react to different driving situations and then
instantly warn the drivers with chimes, visual icons and seat
vibrations to avoid a collision, and if the driver doesn’t respond to the
alerts, the vehicle can bring itself to safe stop.

What if your car had a sixth sense that could “see” the traffic you
couldn’t or didn’t notice, and, if necessary, stop your vehicle to
prevent a collision?

General Motors Corp. demonstrated this sense using vehicle-to-

vehicle communication system, a vehicle can detect the position and
movement of other vehicles up to a quarter of a mile away (nearly
402.34 m). The vehicle’s roof is mounted with transponder, antenna,
and communications chip. This allows a vehicle to broadcast its
location and monitor the positions of hundreds of other cars. V2V
systems could overcome blind spots such as when turn or passing. If
a driver engages a turn signal, and there is a vehicle in his or her
blind spot, the system sends a vibration through the driver's seat. The
V2V system will determine whether or not to apply the brakes using
algorithms that calculate the moving car's speed and its time to

impact. The same algorithm can trigger the taillights to flash to
prevent chain-reaction rear-end collisions.

In addition, GM's V2V technology can warn the driver when vehicles
ahead, regardless of lane, are stopped or traveling much slower or
any vehicle ahead brakes hard, allowing the driver to brake or change
lanes as needed. It also can use rear lights to warn the other driver
when the approaching vehicle is moving very quickly and a rear-end
collision is imminent.

In v2v communication systems there are some considerations
must be taken. First, V2V communication for control needs to be in
real-time and delay-bounded. Second, the communication addresses
for the current wireless technologies are assumed to be resolved while

in V2V communication addresses are not known a priori. Third, the

technology must be scalable and provide access to a vast number of
users. Fourth, the technology must take efficient use of the
bandwidth. Finally, initializing an ad hoc network and maintaining
its organization while different users constantly join and depart the
network are major issues that need to be resolved. Initializing the
network organization must be independent of the number of users
and the network topology. If arrival or departure of a user disturbs
the communication network, or introduces additional delay on
existing users, it may cause problems with real-time communication.
Duo to these considerations Current Ad Hoc networks such as
Bluetooth and Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) may be not well
suited for V2V communications.

Because of that V2V communication system uses an ad-hoc
network architecture called Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA),
an innovative scheme for medium access control with bounded delay
for all users (the delay that a user experiences before he can
successfully access the channel), And the rate at which the users join
or depart the network does not impair the network organization.
SDMA provides Medium Access Control (MAC) to the users based on
their position in space. Thus, every user must have real-time position

It also provides address resolution which is the unique binding

between a user's personal ID and the location of its communication

The proposed architecture is scalable and is independent of the

number of users and network topology. SDMA makes efficient use of

the bandwidth by minimizing the MAC and address resolution

protocols. Finally, SDMA is a self-organizing architecture.

Although there is no room to doubt the premise that greater
awareness equals greater safety, increasing in the number of cars
today making that hard to be accomplished. So that we need V2V
system; such technology informs the drivers to avoid collisions and
recognize emergency vehicles earlier and support them to clear the
road more efficiently in a way like “Please stop, an ambulance wants
to overtake”. More than that communication enables numerous use
cases like warning of broken down vehicles and displaying
construction sites on the navigation system.

[1] Soheila V. Bana and Pravin Varaiya, Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) for Robust Ad-
hoc Vehicle Communication Networks.

[2] Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication By Bill Siuru [Internet]; cited 2009 December 25.
Available from:
[3] Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication technology [Internet]. [GM] General Motors Corporation;
cited 2005 October 27. Available from:

[4] Alpine Electronics. Inter-Vehicle Communication, Car-2-Car Consortium Forum. Press

release [online] issued 22 October 2008. Available from: [1 January 2010].