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Wilk Oliveira wos@ic.ufal.

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Gamification Design to Tailor Gamified


Educational Systems Based on Gamer Types

Wilk Oliveira1, Ig Ibert Bittencourt2, Julita Vassileva3

1MSc – Federal University of Alagoas (UFAL)


²Advisor – Federal University of Alagoas (UFAL)
3Co-advisor – University of Saskatchewan (U of S)
Wilk Oliveira wos@ic.ufal.br

Agenda
Part #1 (3 min.) Part #2 (7 min.) Part #3 (5 min.)

• Introduction; • Candidate Solution • Concluding Remarks


• Gamification; • Theoretical approach • Contributions
• Gamification in Education. • General Proposed
• Problem; Architecture
• One size fits all approach. • Candidate solution
• Proposal. Implementation
• Tailored gamification. • Development

• Stat of the Art • Evaluation


• Systematic Literature • Systematic Literature
review. Review
• Results 2
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Introduction

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Gamification

Hamari et al. (2014); Nah et al. (2014); Huotari and Hamari (2016);
Admiraal et al. (2011); Bittencourt et al. (2015); and Connolly et al. (2012)
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Gamification in Education

Hamari et al. (2014); Nah et al. (2014); Huotari and Hamari (2016);
Admiraal et al. (2011); Bittencourt et al. (2015); and Connolly et al. (2012)
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Gamification in Education

Hamari et al. (2014); Nah et al. (2014); Huotari and Hamari (2016);
Admiraal et al. (2011); Bittencourt et al. (2015); and Connolly et al. (2012)
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Gamification in Education

Hamari et al. (2014); Nah et al. (2014); Huotari and Hamari (2016);
Admiraal et al. (2011); Bittencourt et al. (2015); and Connolly et al. (2012)
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Problem

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One size fits all approach

Orji et al. (2014); Ciocarlan et al. (2017);


Nah et al. (2014); Dicheva et al. (2015) 9
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Proposal

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Tailored gamification

Masthoff and Vassileva (2015) 11


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State of the Art

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Systematic Literature Review

Oliveira, W., Todda, A., Shi, L., Isotani, S. & Bittencourt, I. I. (2019).
How to Design Tailored Gamified Educational Systems? Studying the
Past to Drive the Future. Computers & Education, [submitted].
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Candidate Solution

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Theoretical approach

http://brainhex.virtualizegames.com/
Orji et al. (2014)

Nacke et al. (2014)


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General Proposed Architecture

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Candidate Solution
Implementation

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Development

(i) Available for free; (ii) available in Portuguese;


(iii) provide the most used gamification
elements in gamified educational systems; (iv)
have the validated gamification design.

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Development

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Development
7 different instances

The seven instances were officially registered by the Brazilian National


Institute of Industrial Property (INPI) with the protocols number: (i) Flow-
Tutor-Achiever - 512018000646-9; (ii) Flow-Tutor-Conqueror - 512018000922-
0; (iii) Flow-Tutor-Daredevil - 512018000923-9; (iv) Flow-Tutor- Mastermind -
512018000954-9; (v) Flow-Tutor-Seeker - 512018000955-7; (vi) Flow- Tutor-
Socializer - 512018000965-4; (vii) Flow-Tutor-Survivor - 512018000957-3. 20
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Evaluation

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What to
evaluate?
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Flow Experience

Csikszentmihalyi (1997) 23
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Systematic Literature Review


We identified the most used
flow model, and a validated
measurement instrument.
Hamari and & Koivisto (2014)

Santos, W. O., Bittencourt, I. I., Isotani, S., Dermeval, D.,


Marques, L. B., & Silveira, I. F. (2018). Flow Theory to Promote
Learning in Educational Systems: Is it Really Relevant?.
Brazilian Journal of Computers in Education, 26(02), 29.

Santos, W. O., Bittencourt, I. I., Isotani, S., Silveira, F. I., &


Marques, L. B. (2015). Challenges of Flow Theory Applied to
Computers in Education. In IV Workshop of Challenges of
Computer in Education. Recife–PE, Brazil. 24
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Experiment

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Experiment

Wollin et al. (2012) 26


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Experiment

• Compare the student's flow


experience in the tailored gamified
system with the student flow
experience in the counter-tailored
gamified system

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Experiment

RQ1. The tailored system based on the students’


gamer types was more effective to keep the
students in flow during the activities than the
counter-tailored system?

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Experiment
Gamer type Sample Male Female
Achiever 58 21 37
Conqueror 32 19 13
Daredevil 7 5 2
Mastermind 4 1 3
Seeker 17 6 11
Socializer 12 6 6
Survivor 12 4 8
Total 142 62 80

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Experiment

1. Metrics definition;
2. Gamer types identification (BrainHex);
3. Two groups design;
4. Data collection (Demographic survey and
FSS 2);
5. Statistical analysis of data.

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Santos, W. O., Bittencourt, I. I., Isotani, S., & Vassileva, J.

Results (2019). Does Tailoring Gamified Intelligent Educational


Systems Matter? The Impact on Concentration and Flow
Experience. Computers & Education, [submitted].

CF CF CF CF
M M M M
Achiever Conqueror Daredevil Mastermind

Blue line: students’ flow experience


in the counter-tailored system
Red line: students’ flow experience
in the tailored version
CF: Constructs of flow
CF CF CF
M Seeker M
Socializer
M
Survivor
M: Mean of preference

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Study about gamification


elements preferences

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Experiment
• Identifying if the students’ gamer
types have different preferences
about gamification elements;

• Identifying the most suitable


gamification elements to motivate
each students’ gamer type.

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Experiment

RQ1. Do the students have different preferences


about gamification elements according to their
gamer type?

RQ2. What are the most suitable gamification


elements to motivate each student gamer type?

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Experiment
Gamer type Sample Male Female
Achiever 48 18 30
Conqueror 28 15 12
Daredevil 6 5 1
Mastermind 3 0 3
Seeker 16 5 11
Socializer 9 5 4
Survivor 12 4 8
Total 122 52 69

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Santos, W. O., Bittencourt, I. I., Isotani, S., & Vassileva, J. (2019).

Results How to Tailor Gamified Educational Systems. Selecting the


Most Suitable Gamification Elements for Each Gamer Type.
Computers in Human Behaviour, [submitted].
Achiever Conqueror Daredevil

Students had
different preferences
Seeker Socializer Survivor
regarding the
gamification
elements.

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Results
The best elements
Achiever Points Progress bar Trophies Avatars Badges -
Conqueror Points Badges Levels Progress bar Ranking Avatars
Daredevil Levels Trophies Avatars Badges Ranking -
Seeker Avatars Badges Trophies Points - -
Mastermind -
Socializer Points Ranking Avatars Badges Levels -
Survivor Avatars Badges Ranking - - -

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Results
The neutral elements
Achiever History Ranking Levels - - -
Conqueror History - - - - -
Daredevil Points Feedback - - - -
Seeker Progress bar History Levels Feedback Ranking -
Mastermind -
Socializer Feedback Progress bar History - - -
Survivor Levels Progress bar History Trophies - -

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Results
The worst elements
Achiever Feedback Timeline - - - -
Conqueror Feedback Timeline - - - -
Daredevil Timeline History Progress bar - - -
Seeker Timeline - - - - -
Mastermind -
Socializer Timeline Trophies - - - -
Survivor Points Timeline - - - -

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Results Santos, W. O., Shi, L., Dermeval, D., Santana, S. J., Bittencourt,
I. I., & Isotani, S. (2019). When tailoring gamified educational
systems does not matter! A gander-based study with
elementary students. IEEE Transactions on Education,
[submitted].

Blue line: male student’s preference


Red line: female student’s preference 40
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Concluding Remakes

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Future Studies

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Main Contributions

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Publications and Awards


Master
thesis

7 Registred
Softwares

5 Conference 6 Journal 3 Book


papers papers chapters
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Publications and Awards


Wilk Oliveira
Ig Ibert Bittencourt
Book Master
Tailored Gamification
thesis
to Educational
Technologies

7 Registred
Softwares

5 Conference 6 Journal 3 Book


papers papers chapters
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Publications and Awards


Wilk Oliveira
CBIE-ELAP
Ig Ibert Bittencourt
Book Master Reward
thesis
Tailored Gamification
to Educational Master's
Technologies
Thesis
7 Registred Contest
Softwares

5 Conference 6 Journal 3 Book


papers papers chapters
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Wilk Oliveira wos@ic.ufal.br

References
Admiraal, W., Huizinga, J., Akkerman, S., & Ten Dam, G. (2011) “The concept of flow in collaborative game-based
learning”. In: Computers in Human Behavior, 27(3), 1185-1194.

Andrade, F. R. H., Challco, G. C., Isotani, S. (2014) “Em Direção a Gamificação de Sistemas Tutores Inteligentes:
Aplicando a Teoria do Fluxo no Design Instrucional de Canários Colaborativos de Aprendizagem”. In: Congress of the
Brazilian Computer Society (Vol. 1, pp. 700 – 709). Brasilia-DF.

Bittencourt, Ig Ibert, Maria Cecília Baranauskas, Roberto Pereira, Diego Dermeval, Seiji Isotani, and Patrícia Jaques. "A
systematic review on multi-device inclusive environments." Universal Access in the Information Society (2015): 1-36.

Ciocarlan, A., Masthoff, J., & Oren, N. (2017, July). Qualitative Study into Adapting Persuasive Games for Mental
Wellbeing to Personality, Stressors, and Attitudes. In Adjunct Publication of the 25th Conference on User Modeling,
Adaptation and Personalization (pp. 402-407). ACM.

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References
Connolly, T. M., Boyle, E. A., Macarthur, E., Hainey, T., & Boyle, J. M. (2012). A systematic literature review of empirical
evidence on computer games and serious games. Computers & Education, 59(2), 661-686.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1997). Finding flow: The psychology of engagement with everyday life. Basic Books.

Dicheva, D., Dichev, C., Agre, G., & Angelova, G. (2015). Gamification in education: A systematic mapping study.
Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 18(3).

Dillenbourg, P., Schneider, D., & Synteta, P. (2002). Virtual learning environments. In 3rd Hellenic Conference"
Information & Communication Technologies in Education" (pp. 3-18). Kastaniotis Editions, Greece.

Hamari, J., & Koivisto, J. (2014). Measuring flow in gamification: dispositional flow scale-2. Computers in Human
Behavior, 40, 133-143.

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References
Hamari, J., & Tuunanen, J. (2014). Player types: A meta-synthesis. Transactions of the Digital Games Research
Association, 1(2).

Hamari, J., Koivisto, J., & Sarsa, H. (2014). Does Gamification Work? – A Literature Review of Empirical Studies on
Gamification. In proceedings of the 47th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Hawaii, USA, January 6-
9, 2014.

Houtari, K. and Hamari, J. “Gamification” from the perspective of service marketing. Proc. CHI 2011 Workshop
Gamification (2011). http://goo.gl/JUIpa

Kitchenham, B. Procedures for performing sys-tematic reviews, TR/SE-0401, Department of Computer Science,
Keele University, 2004, Keele, Staffs, UK

Masthoff, J., & Vassileva, J. (2015, March). Tutorial on Personalization for Behaviour Change. In Proceedings of the
20th International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces (pp. 439-442). ACM. 49
Wilk Oliveira wos@ic.ufal.br

References
Nacke, L. E., Bateman, C., & Mandryk, R. L. (2014). BrainHex: A neurobiological gamer typology survey. Entertainment
computing, 5(1), 55-62.

Nah, F. F. H., Zeng, Q., Telaprolu, V. R., Ayyappa, A. P., & Eschenbrenner, B. (2014, June). Gamification of education: a
review of literature. In International conference on hci in business (pp. 401-409). Springer, Cham.

Nah, F. F. H., Zeng, Q., Telaprolu, V. R., Ayyappa, A. P., & Eschenbrenner, B. (2014). Gamification of education: A review
of literature. In HCI in Business (pp. 401-409). Springer International Publishing.

Orji, R., Mandryk, R. L., & Vassileva, J. (2014). Selecting Effective Strategies for Tailoring Persuasive Health Games to
Gamer Types.

Orji, R., Mandryk, R. L., Vassileva, J., & Gerling, K. M. (2013, April). Tailoring persuasive health games to gamer type. In
Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 2467-2476). ACM.
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References
Paiva, R. O. A., Bittencourt, I. I., da Silva, A. P., Isotani, S., & Jaques, P. (2015). Improving Pedagogical
Recommendations by Classifying Students According to their Interactional Behavior in a Gamified Learning
Environment.

Wohlin, C., Runeson, P., Höst, M., Ohlsson, M. C., Regnell, B., & Wesslén, A. (2012). Experimentation in software
engineering. Springer Science & Business Media.

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