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Communication And Computer systems

6.1 Model Of Communication Systems

6.1.1 Introduction:

Communication is the transfer of information from one place to another place. Distribution of data,
message (or) information from one location to another location with high reliability and security is the role
of communication system.

6.1.2 Elements Of Communication System (Communication Model):

Communication system consists of the following components which acts together to accomplish
information transfer or exchange.

Fig 6.1 Block diagram of Communication Model

Input Transducer: The input message produced by a source must be converted by a transducer to a
suitable form such that it is accepted by the transmitter.
In electrical communication, speech signals are converted to voltage variation by a microphone.

Transmitter: The transmitter processes the input signal to produce a transmitted signal suited to the
characteristics of the transmission channel.
Signal processing for transmission always involves modulation. In addition to modulation, other
functions performed by the transmitter are amplification, filtering and coupling the modulated signal to the

Channel: The channel can have different forms: the atmosphere or free space, coaxial cable, fiber optic,
waveguide, etc.
The signal undergoes some amount of degradation in the channel due to noise interference and
distortion resulting from band limitation and nonlinearities.
Types of channel:
Wired – eg: Twisted pair, coaxial cable, optical fiber
Wireless – eg: microwave, satellite, mobile

Receiver: The receiver function is to extract the desired signal from the received signal at the channel
output and to convert it to a form suitable for the output transducer.
Other functions of the receiver are amplification (the received signal may be extremely weak),
demodulation and filtering.
Output Transducer: The function of the output transducer is to convert the electric signal at its input into
the form desired by the system user. For eg: loudspeaker, acts as a output transducer to convert received
electrical signal to voice signal.

6.2 Analog and Digital Communication System

Fig 6.2 (a) Analog signal (b) Digital signal

There are many kinds of information sources, which can be divided into distinct message
categories, analog and digital.
An analog signal(message) is a physical quantity that varies with time, usually in a smooth and
continuous fashion.
Since the information resides in a time-varying waveform, an analog communication system
should deliver this waveform with a specified degree of reliability or fidelity.
A digital signal(message) is an ordered sequence of symbols selected from a finite set of discrete
Since the information resides in discrete symbols, a digital communication system should deliver
these symbols with a specified degree of accuracy in a specified amount of time.

Table 6.2.1 Comparison between Analog and Digital communications

Digital communication system Analog communication system
Advantages: Disadvantages:
1. Inexpensive digital circuits 1. Expensive analog components: L&C
2. Privacy preserved (data encryption) 2. No privacy
3. Can merge different data (voice, video and 3. Cannot merge data from different sources.
data) and transmit over a common digital 4. No error correction capability.
transmission system.
4. Error correction is possible by coding. Advantages:
Disadvantages: 1. Smaller bandwidth
1. Larger bandwidth 2. Synchronization problem is relatively
2. Synchronization problem is relatively easier.

The transmission media(channel) can be divided into two broad categories: guided(wired) and
unguided(wireless). Guided media include twisted–pair cable, coaxial cable and fiber-optic cable.
Unguided medium is usually air.

Fig. 6.3.1 Classification of channel


Guided media are those that provide a conduct from one device to another, include twisted-pair
cable, coaxial cable and fiber-optic cable. A signal travelling along any of these media is directed and
contained by the physical limits of the medium. Twisted-pair and coaxial cable use metallic conductors
that accept and transport signals in the form of electric current. Optical fiber is a glass cable that accepts
and transports signals in the form of light.

Twisted-pair Cable
A twisted pair consists of two conductors normally copper), each with its own plastic insulation,
twisted together as shown in fig 6.3.2.

Fig. 6.3.2 Twisted pair cable

One of the wires is used to carry signals to the receiver, and the other is used only as a ground
reference. The receiver uses the difference between the two levels.
In addition to the signal sent by the sender on one of the wires, interference(noise) and crosstalk
may affect both wires and create unwanted signals. The receiver at the end, however, operates only on
the difference between these unwanted signals. This means if the two wires are affected by noise or
crosstalk equally, the receiver is immune.
If the two wires are parallel, the effect of these unwanted signals is not the same in both wires
because they are at different locations relative to the noise or crosstalk sources. This results in a
difference at the receiver. By twisting the pairs, a balance is maintained. For example, suppose in one
twist, one wire is closer to the noise source and the other farther; in the next twist, the reverse is true.
Twisting makes is probable that both wires are equally affected by external influences (noise or
crosstalk). This means that the receives no unwanted signals. From the above discussion, it is clear that
the number of twists per unit of length (e.g., inch) determines the quality of the cable; more twists mean
better quality.

Unsheilded versus Shielded twisted – pair cable

The most common twisted – pair cable used in communications is referred to as unshielded
twisted – pair (UTP). IBM has also produced a version of twisted-pair cable for its use called shielded
twisted –pair (STP). STP cable has a mental foil or braided-nesh covering that encases each pair of
insulates condutors. Although metal casing improves the quality of cable by preventing the penetration of
noise or crosstalk. It is bulkier and more expensive. Figure shows the difference between UTP and STP.
Our discussion focuses primarly on UTP because STP is seldom used outside of IBM.

Fig. 6.3.3 (a) Unshielded twisted pair (b) Shielded twisted pair


Twisted – pair cables are used in telephone lines to provide voice and data channels. The local
loop the line that connects subscribers to the central telephone office – is most commonly unshielded
twisted – pair cables.
The DSL lines that are used by the telephone companies to provide high data rate connections
also use the bandwidth capability of unshielded twisted-pair cables.
Local area networks, such as 10 Base-T and 100 Base-T. also use twisted-pair cable.

Coaxial Cable

Coaxial cables (or coax) carries signals of higher frequency ranges than twisted-pair cable, in part
because the two media are constructed quite differently. Instead of having two wires, coax has a central
core conductor of solid or stranded wire (usually copper) enclosed in an insulating sheath, which is, in
turn, encased in an outer conductor of metal foil, braid, or a combination of the two. The outer metallic
wrapping serves both as a shield against noise and as the second conductor, which completes the circuit.
This outer conductor is also enclosed in an insulating sheath, and the whole cable is protected by a
plastic cover.

Fig. 6.3.4 Coaxial cable


The use of coaxial cable started in analog telephone networks where a single coaxial network
could carry 10,000 voice signals. Later it was used in digital telephone networks where a single coaxial
cable could carry digital data up to 600 Mbps. However, coaxial cable in telephone networks has largely
been replaced today with fiber-optic cable.
Cable TV networks also used coaxial cables. In the traditional Ethernet LANs. Because of its high
bandwidth, and consequently high data rate, coaxable was chosen for digital transmission in early
Ethernet LANs. 10Base-2, or Thin Ethernet, uses RG-58 coaxial cable with BNC connectors to transmit
data at 10 Mbps with a range of 185 m. 10 Base 5, or Thick Ethernet, uses RG-11 (thick coaxial cable) to
transmit 10 Mbps with a range of 5000m. Thick Ethernet has specialized connectors.

Fiber Optic Cable

A fiber – potic cable is made of glass or plastic and transmits signals in the form of light. To
understand optical fiber, we first need to explore several aspects of the nature of light.
Light travels in a straight line as long as it is moving through a single uniform substance. If a ray
of light traveling through one substance suddenly enters another (more or less dense), the ray changes
direction. Figure shows how a ray of light changes direction when going from a more dense to a less
dense substance.
As the figure shows, if the angle of incidence (the angle the ray makes with the line perpendicular
to the interface between the two substance) is less than the critical angle, the ray reflects and moves
closer to the surface. If the angle of incidence is equal to the critical angle, the light bends along the
interface. If the angle is greater than of light.
Fig. 6.3.5 Various incident angles of light

The critical angle, the ray reflects (makes a turn) and travels again in the denser substance. Note
that the critical angle is a property of the substance, and its value is different from one substance to
Optical fibers use reflection to guide light through a channel. A glass or plastic core is surrounded
by a cladding of less dense glass or plastic. The difference in density of the two material must be such a
beam of light moving through the core is reflected off the cladding instead of being refracted into it. See
Figure 6.3.6

Fig. 6.3.6 Total internal reflection

Propagation Modes
Current technology support two modes (multimode and single mode) for propagating light along
optical channels, each requiring fiber with different physical characteristics. Multimode can be
implemented in two forms: step-index or graded – index.

Multimode is so named because multiple beams from a light source move through the core in
different paths. How these beams move within the cable depends on the structure of the core, as shown
in figure.
In multimode step-index fiber, the density of the core remains constant from the center to the
edges. A beam of light moves through this constant density in a straight an abrupt change to a lower
density that alters the angle of the beam’s motion. The term step index refers to the suddenness of this
A second type of fiber, called multimode graded-index fiber, decreases this distortion of this
signal through the cable. The word index here refers to the index of refraction.

Multimode Single-

Graded -

Fig.6.3.7 Classification of mode

(a) Multimode, step-index

(b) Multimode, graded- index

(c) Single-mode

As we saw above, the index of refraction is related to density. A graded-index fiber. Therefore, is
one with varying densities. Density is highest at the center of the core and decreases gradually to its
lowest at the edge. Figure shows the impact of this variable density on the propagation of light beams.
Single- Mode
Single–mode uses step-index fiber and highly focused source of light that limits beams to a small
range of angles, all close to the hoorizontal. The single mode fiber itself is manufactured with a much
smaller diameter than that of multimode fiber, and with substantially lower density ( index of refraction).
The decrease in density results in a critical angle that is close enough to 90 0 to make the propagation of
beams almost horizontal. In the case, propagation of different beams is almost identical, and delays are
negligible. All the beams arrive at the destination “together” and can be recombined with little distortion to
the signal (see fig.)
Fiber-optic cable is often found in backbone networks because its wide bandwidth is cost-
effective. Today, with WDM, we can transfer data at rate of 1600 Gbps.
Some cable TV companies use a combination of optical fiber and coaxial cable, thus creating a
hybrid network. Optical fiber provides the backbone structure while figuration since the narrow bandwidth
requirement at the user end does not justify the use of optical fiber.
Local area networks such as 100Base- FX network (Fast Ethernet) and 1000Base – X also use
fiber-optic cable.

Advantages and disadvantages of Optical Fiber

Advantages Fiber-optic cable has several advantages over metallic cable (twisted-pair or coaxial).
 Higher bandwidth. Fiber-optic cable can support dramatically higher bandwidths (and hence
data rates and bandwidth utilization over fiber-optic cable are limited not by the medium but by
the signal generation and reception technology available.
 Less signal attenuation. Fiber-optic transmission distance is significantly greater than that of
other guided media. A signal can run for 50 km without requiring regeneration. We need
repeaters every 5 km fir coaxial or twisted-pair cable.
 Immunity to electromagnetic-interference. Electromagnetic noise cannot affect fiber-optic

 Resistance to corrosive materials. Glass is more resistant to corrosive materials than copper.

 Light weight. Fiber-optic cables are much lighter than copper cables.
 More immune to tapping. Fiber-optic cables are definitely more immune to tapping than copper
cables. Copper cables create antennas that can easily be tapped.
There are some disadvantages in the use of optical-fiber.
 Installation/maintenance. Fiber-optic cable is a relatively new technology .Installation and
maintenance need expertise that is not yet available everywhere.
 Unidirectional. Propagation of light is unidirectional. If we need bidirectional communication, two
fibers are needed.
 Cost. The cable and the interfaces are relatively more expensive than those of other guided
media. If the demand for bandwidth is not high, often the use of optical fiber cannot be justified.

6.3.2 Unguided Media: Wireless

Unguided media transport electromagnetic waves without using a physical conductor. This type of
communication is often referred to as wireless communication. Signals are normally broadcast through air
and thus are available to anyone who has a device capable of receiving them.

Fig. 6.3.2 Electromagnetic spectrum

Fig. shows part of the electromagnetic spectrum, ranging from 3 KHz to 900 THz, used for wireless

Unguided Media : Wireless

Unguided signals can travel from the source to destination in several ways. There is ground propagation,
sky propagation, and line-of-sight propagation, as shown in fig.

Fig. 6.3.3 Various propagation

In the ground propagation, radio waves travel through the lowest portion of the atmosphere,
hugging the earth. These low-frequency signals emanate in all directions from the transmitting antenna
and follow the curvature of the plant. Distance depends on the amount of power in the signal: the greater
the power, the greater the distance. In sky propagation, higher-frequency radio waves radiate upward into
the ionosphere (the layer of atmosphere where particles exist as ions) where they are reflected back to
earth. This type of transmission allows for greater distances with lower power output. In line-of-sight
propagation, very signals are transmitted in straight lines directly from antenna. Antenna must be
directional, facing each other and either tall enough or close enough together not to be affected by the
curvature of the earth. Line-of –sight propagation is tricky because radio transmissions cannot be
completely focused.
The section of the electromagnetic spectrum defined as radio waves and microwaves is divided
into eight ranges, called bands, each regulated by government authorities. These bands are rated from
very low frequency (VLF) to extremely high frequency (EHF). Table lists these bands, their ranges,
propagation methods, and some applications.


Radio wave Microwave Infrared

Fig. 6.3.4 Classification of wireless transmission

Radio waves

Although there is no clear-cut demarcation between radio waves and microwaves,

electromagnetic waves ranging in frequencies between 3 KHz and 1 GHz are normally called radio
waves; waves ranging in frequencies between 1 and 300 GHz are called microwaves. However, the
behavior of the waves, rather than the frequencies, is a better criterion for classification.
Radio waves, for the most part, are omnidirectional. When an antenna transmits radio waves,
they are propagated in all directions. This means that the sending and receiving antennas do not have to
be aligned. A sending antenna can send waves that can be received by any receiving antenna. The
omnidirectional property has a disadvantage, too. The radio waves transmitted by one antenna are
susceptible to interference by another antenna that may send signals using the same frequency or band.
Radio waves, particularly those of low and medium frequencies, can penetrate walls. This
characteristics can be both an advantage and a disadvantage. It is an advantage because, for example,
an AM radio can receive signals inside a building. it is a disadvantage because we cannot isolate a
communication to just inside or outside a building. The radio wave band is relatively narrow, just under 1
GHz, compared to the microwave bans. When this band is divided into subbands, the sidebands are also
narrow, leading to a low data rate for digital communications.
Almost the entire band is regulated by authorities (e.g., the FCC in the United States). Using any
part of the band requires permission from the authorities.

Omnidirectional Antenna

Radio waves use omnidirectional antennas that send out signals in other directions. Based on the
wavelength, strength, and the purpose of transmission, we can have several types of antennas. Figure
shows an omnidirectional antenna.

Fig. 6.3.5 Omnidirectional antenna

The omnidirectional of radio waves make them useful for multicasting,in which there is one
sender but many receivers. AM and FM radio, television, maritime radio, corrdless phones, and paging
are examples of multicasting.
Radio waves are used for multicast communications, such as radio and television, and paging


Electromagnetic waves having frequencies between 1 and 300 GHz are called microwaves.
Microwaves are unidirectional. When an antenna transmits microwaves waves.they can be
narrowly focused. This means that the sending and receiving antennas need to be aligned. The
unidirectional property has an obvious advantage. A pair of antennas can be alinged without interfering
with another pair of aligned antennas can be alinged without interfering with another pair of aligned
Microwaves propagation is line-of-sight. Since the towers with the mounted antennas need to be in direct
sight of each other, towards that are far apart need to be very tall. The curvature of the earth as well as
other blocking obstacles do not allow two short towers to communicate using microwaves. Repeaters are
often needed for long-distance communication.
Very high-frequency microwaves cannot penetrate walls. This characteristics can be a
disadvantage if receivers are inside buildings. The microwave band is relatively wide, almost 299 GHz.
Therefore wider subbands can be assigned and a high data rate is possible. Use of certain portions of the
band requires permission from authorities.

Unidirectional Antenna
Microwaves need unidirectional antennas that send out signals in one direction. Two types of
antennas are used for microwave communications; the parabolic dish and the horn (see Figure).
A parabolic dish antenna is based on the geomentry of a parallel to the line of symmentry (line of
signal) reflects off the curve at angles such tat all the lines intersect in a common point called the focus.
The parabolic dish works as a funnel, catching a wide range of range of waves and directing them to a
common point. In this way, more of the signal is recovered than would be possible with a single-point
Outgoing transmissions are broadcast through a horn aimed at the dish. The microwaves hit the
dish and are deflected outwards in a reversal of the receipt path.
A horn antenna looks like a gigantic scoop. Outgoing transmissions are boardcst up a stem (resembling a
handle) and deflected outward in a series of narrow parallel beams by the curved head. Received
transmissions are collected by the scooped shape of the horn, in a manner similar to the parabolic dish,
and are deflected down into the stem.


Microwaves, due to their unidirectional properties, are very useful when unicasting (one-to-one)
communicatrion is needed between the sender and the receiver. They are used in cellular phones,
satellite networks, are wireless LANs.


Infrared signals, with frequencies from 300 GHz to 400 THz (wavelength from 1 mm to 770 nm),
can be used for short-range communication. Infrared signals, having high frequencies, cannot penetrate
walls. This advantageous characteristic prevents interference between one system and another; a short-
range communication system in one room cannot be affected by another system in the next room. When
we use our infrared remote control, we do not interfere with use of the remote by our neighbors. However,
this same characteristic makes infrared with the communication.

The infrared band, almost 400 THz, has an excellent potential for data transmission. Such a wide
bandwidth can be used to transmit digital data with a very high data rate. The infrared Data Association
(IrDA). An association for sponsoring the use of infrared waves, has established standards for using
these signals for communication between devices such as keyboards, mice, PCs, and printers. For
example, some manufacturers provide a special port called the IrDA port that allows a wireless keyboard
to communicate with a PC. The standard originally defined a data rate of 75 Kbps for a distance up to 8
m. the recent standard defines a data rate of 4 Mbps.
Infrared signals defined by IrDA transmit through line of sight; the IrDA port on the keyboard
needs to point to the PC for transmission to occur.
Infrared signals can be used for used for short-range communication in a closed area using line – of –
sight propagation.


6.4.1 Definition: Reliable end to end connection is possible by means of wires. Eg: Twisted pair, co-axial
cable, optical fiber.
In a wire, these waves are induced and guided by an electrical current passing alone with
electrical conductor, but that is not the only way of propagating electromagnetic (EM) waves.
By using a very strong electrical signal as a transmitting source and electromagnetic wave can be
made to spread far and wide through the air. That is the principle of radio.
The radio waves are produced by transmitters, which consists of a radio wave source connected
to some form of antenna.

Fig 6.4 Wired Communication System


The transmission channel is the main issue of communication system. Conventionally, it is the set
of hard wired cables that connect all the lines of the wire line phone.
In wireless systems, the cables are replaced by free space, but only at the cost of requiring the
erection of antennas that allow the line of sight communication.
Long distance communication is possible with wireless communication. Eg : radio
communication, TV reception.

Fig 6.5 Wireless Communication System

An antenna is a transducer which converts the electrical energy to electromagnetic energy to

ease transmission message through free space.
At the receiver we make use of a receiving antenna and convert the electromagnetic signal back
to electrical signal.
Without antenna wireless communication is not possible.
The radiation properties of antenna are proportional directly to the wavelength of the signal.
The wavelengths of very low frequency signals are in order of kms and so to the size of the
antenna to transmit them.

Fig 6.5 Block Diagram of Wireless Communication

Advantages Of Wireless Communication:

The majority of radio frequency (RF) technology has permitted the use of electromagnetic links as
the major trunk channel for long distance communication.
The use of microwave links has major advantages over cabling systems. Freedom from land
acquisition rights.
The acquisition rights to lay cabling, repair cabling, and permanent access to repeater stations is
a major cost in the provision of cable communications.
The use of radio links, that require only the acquisition of the transmitter/receiver station, removes
this requirement.
It also simplifies the maintenance and repair of the link.
Ease of communication over difficult terrain.
Some terrains make cable laying extremely difficult and expensive, even if the land acquisition
cost is negligible.


Electromagnetic waves on the frequency range of 1GHz to 30 GHz are referred to as

microwaves. Fig shows the block diagram of microwave communication.
Several signal channels are modulated into micro-wave carrier frequencies and transmitted to the
repeater stations spaced 50 to 70 km apart.
As microwaves travel only on line-of-sight paths, the transmitter and receiver should be visible to
each other. Hence, it is necessary to provide repeater stations in between the terminal stations at about
50km intervals.
Repeater antennas are placed on roads and hilltops so that there will not be any obstruction in
the line of sight between the repeater antennas. This system is called Line of sight microwave link.
As microwave communication offers a large transmission bandwidth, many thousands of
telephone channels along with a few TV channels can be transmitted over the same route using the same
Normally carrier frequencies in the 3 to 12GHz range are used for microwave communication.
The transmitter output powers can be low because highly directional high gain antennas are

Fig 6.5.1 Block Diagram of Microwave Communication

The general block diagram of line of sight transmission system is shown in Fig.6.5.1,
 The base signal is first conditioned using conditional circuits.
 The conditioned signal is amplified using amplifiers to increase the signal strength.
 The signal is fed into modulator to produce a frequency modulated wave.
 This signal is mixed with local oscillator signal.
 The output from the mixer is intermediate frequency(IF) wave and is fed into the transmitter
where the IF wave is transferred into microwave range using microwave carrier.
 Then it is transmitted through the antennas after amplification.
 The receiver separates the IF signals and demodulates to recover the original data or message.
 Presently, microwave communications are widely used for telephone networks, in broadcast and
television systems and in several other communications applications by services, railways, etc.
6.7 Satellite Communication:

The satellite is essentially a microwave station placed in orbital space.

The broadcast signals are beamed up to the satellite from an earth station through the directional
dish antenna that is synchronized to the position of the satellite; devices called transponder is used in the
satellite to receive the weak signals and are amplified.
The amplified signal further retransmits the back to another earth station in a different location on
the earth.
The earth stations typically transmit their signals to satellites on carrier frequencies ranging from
5.92 to 6.43 GHz band called the uplink frequencies.
The satellite transponders convert these signals to a range from 3.7 to 4.2 GHz band. These
frequencies are referred to as downlink frequencies.
In this orbit, the satellite is made to travel at a velocity equal to the rotation of earth in order to
maintain a fixed position relative to a point about equator. The general diagram is shown in fig.6.6.1

Fig.6.6.1 General diagram of Satellite Systems

A passive satellite simply reflects a signal back to earth and there are no gain devices on board to
amplify the signal.
On the other hand, an active satellite receives, amplifies and retransmits the signal back towards

6.7.1 Orbital Patterns:

Once launched, a satellite remains in orbit because the centrifugal force caused by its rotation
around the earth is counter balanced by the earth’s gravitational pull.
The closer to earth the satellite rotates, the greater the gravitational pull, and greater the velocity
required to keep it from being pulled to earth.

6.7.2 Low Altitude Satellites:

Close to earth (150 to 500km in height) travel at approx 28,500km/Hr.
At this speed, it takes approx 90minutes to rotate around the entire earth.
Consequently, the time that the satellite is in the Line of sight (LOS) of a particular earth station is
15 minutes or less per orbit.
6.7.3 Medium Altitude Satellites
9,500 to 19,000 km in height have a rotation period of 5 to 12 Hrs and remain in LOS of a
particular earth station for 2 to 4 Hrs per orbit.

6.7.4 High Altitude Satellites

High altitude, geosynchronous satellite is a satellite which is placed at a height of 35,786km from
the earth’s surface and has an orbital velocity equal to that of the earth’s.
A geosynchronous satellite that lies on the earth’s equatorial plane is called as the geo-stationary
A geo-stationary satellite remains in a fixed position with respect to a given earth station and has
24hrs availability time.
Three geostationary satellites spaced 1200 apart can cover the whole world.
Based on the area of the coverage, orbits are classified as
1. Polar orbit: When the satellite rotates in an orbit that takes it over the north and south poles, it is
called polar orbit.
2. Equatorial Orbit: When the satellite rotates in an orbit above the equator, it is called an equatorial
3. Inclined Orbit : Any other orbital path is called an inclined orbit.

6.7.5 Satellite System

A satellite system, consists of three basic sections,
The uplink(transmitting earth station)
The satellite transponder
The downlink(receiving earth station)
Typical frequencies for telecommunication services in a satellite system are 6/4 GHz and 14/12
GHz, where 6 and 14 GHz represent uplink frequencies and 4 and 12 GHz represent downlink

Uplink Model:
A typical earth station transmitter consists of the following as shown in fig.5.2
IF modulator
It converts the input base band signals to either an FM, or a PSK modulated intermediate
IF to RF microwave up converter
It translates the IF to appropriate RF carrier frequency.
High power amplifier: It provides adequate output power to propagate the signal to the satellite
Fig.6.6.2 Block diagram of Earth Station Transmitter
6.7.6 Satellite Transponder:
(The transponder is an RF-to RF repeater)
A Satellite Transponder consists of
a Band Pass Filter(BPF)
an input low noise amplifier(LNA)
a frequency translator
and a high power amplifier

Fig. 6.6.3 Block diagram of the satellite transponder

6.7.7 Downlink Model

A typical earth station receiver consists of
An input BPF
It restricts the input noise power to the LNA
LNA and an RF-to-IF down converter
It is a mixer BPF-combination which converts the received RF signal to an IF frequency.

Fig. 6.6.7 Block diagram of a typical earth station receiver

6.7.8 Communication Satellites
INTELSAT (USA based International Telecommunication Satellite Organization which provide
services to 119 member countries)
INSAT (Indian Satellites which provide services to Indian region)

6.7.9 Advantages
 It provides point to multipoint communication
 Offers telecommunication links which includes telephone, TV, telegraphy, telex, FAX, video
conferencing, video text, digital transmission services, etc.
 Global Positioning Systems (GPS)

6.7.10 Disadvantages
 There is a large time-delay of 250 millisecs between the transmission and reception of a signal.
 The malfunctions in the satellite are highly difficult to correct.
 The initial cost involved is quite large.

Fig 6.7.1 Block Diagram of Cellular Mobile Communication System

6.8.1 Mobile Station

 The mobile station (MS) consists of the mobile equipment (the terminal) and a smart card called
the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM).
 The SIM provides personal mobility, so that the user can have access to subscribed services
irrespective of a specific terminal.
 By inserting the SIM card into another GSM terminal, the user is able to receive calls at that
terminal, make calls from that terminal, and receive other subscribed services.
 The mobile equipment is uniquely identified by the International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI).
 The SIM card contains the International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) used to identify the
subscriber to the system, a secret key for authentication, and other information.
 The IMEI and the IMSI are independent, thereby allowing personal mobility.
The SIM card may be protected against unauthorized use by a password or personal identity number.

6.8.2 Base Station Subsystem

 The Base Station Subsystem is composed of two parts, the Base Transceiver Station (BTS) and
the Base Station Controller (BSC).
 These communicate across the standardized Abis interface, allowing (as in the rest of the
system) operation between components made by different suppliers.
 The Base Transceiver Station houses the radio tranceivers that define a cell and handles the
radio-link protocols with the Mobile Station.
 In a large urban area, there will potentially be a large number of BTSs deployed, thus the
requirements for a BTS are ruggedness, reliability, portability, and minimum cost.
 The Base Station Controller manages the radio resources for one or more BTSs. It handles radio-
channel setup, frequency hopping, and handovers, as described below.
 The BSC is the connection between the mobile station and the Mobile service Switching Center

6.8.3 Network Subsystem

 The central component of the Network Subsystem is the Mobile services Switching Center
 It acts like a normal switching node of the PSTN or ISDN, and additionally provides all the
functionality needed to handle a mobile subscriber, such as registration, authentication, location
updating, handovers, and call routing to a roaming subscriber.
 These services are provided in conjuction with several functional entities, which together form
the Network Subsystem.
 The MSC provides the connection to the fixed networks (such as the PSTN or ISDN). Signalling
between functional entities in the Network Subsystem uses Signalling System Number 7 (SS7),
used for trunk signalling in ISDN and widely used in current public networks.
 The Home Location Register (HLR) and Visitor Location Register (VLR), together with the MSC,
provide the call-routing and roaming capabilities of GSM.
 The HLR contains all the administrative information of each subscriber registered in the
corresponding GSM network, along with the current location of the mobile.
 The location of the mobile is typically in the form of the signalling address of the VLR associated
with the mobile station.
 The actual routing procedure will be described later.
 There is logically one HLR per GSM network, although it may be implemented as a distributed

The Visitor Location Register (VLR) contains selected administrative information from the HLR,
necessary for call control and provision of the subscribed services, for each mobile currently located in
the geographical area controlled by the VLR. Although each functional entity can be implemented as an
independent unit, all manufacturers of switching equipment to date implement the VLR together with the
MSC, so that the geographical area controlled by the MSC corresponds to that controlled by the VLR,
thus simplifying the signalling required. Note that the MSC contains no information about particular mobile
stations --- this information is stored in the location registers.

The other two registers are used for authentication and security purposes. The Equipment Identity
Register (EIR) is a database that contains a list of all valid mobile equipment on the network, where each
mobile station is identified by its International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI). An IMEI is marked as
invalid if it has been reported stolen or is not type approved. The Authentication Center (AuC) is a
protected database that stores a copy of the secret key stored in each subscriber's SIM card, which is
used for authentication and encryption over the radio channel.


A local area network(LAN) supplies networking capability to a group of computers in close
proximity to each other such as in an office building, a school,(or) a home. A LAN is useful for sharing
resources like files,printers,games or other applications. A LAN in turn often connects to other LANs, and
to the Internet(or) other WAN.
Most local area network are built with relatively inexpensive hardware such as Ethernet cables,
network adapters, and hubs. Wireless LAN and other more advanced LAN hardware options also exist.
Fig6.8.1: Local area Network.


A wide area network (WAN) is a network that covers a broad area (i.e., any telecommunications
network that links across metropolitan, regional, national or international boundaries) using leased
telecommunication lines.
Business and government entities utilize WANs to relay data among employees, clients, buyers,
and suppliers from various geographical locations.
In essence, this mode of telecommunication allows a business to effectively carry out its daily
function regardless of location.
The Internet can be considered a WAN as well, and is used by businesses, governments,
organizations, and individuals for almost any purpose imaginable.
Related terms for other types of networks are personal area networks (PANs), local area
networks (LANs), campus area networks (CANs), metropolitan area networks (MANs) which are usually
limited to a room, building, campus or specific metropolitan area (e.g., a city) respectively.

Fig 6.9.1: Wide area Network.


A metropolitan area network(MAN) is a computer network that usually spans a city or a large
campus. A MAN usually interconnects a number of local area networks using a high-capacity backbone
technology, such as fiber optical links, and provide up-link services to wide area networks and the
A MAN is optimized for a larger geographical area than a LAN, Ranging from several blocks of
building to entire cities. MANs can also depend on communications channels of moderate-to-high data
rates. A MAN might be owned and operated by a single organization, but it usually will be used by many
individuals and organizations. MANs might also be owned and operated as public utilities. They will often
provide means for internetworking of local networks.

Fig 6.10.1 :MAN

6.12 Circuit Switching& Packet Switching

Circuit Switching: Circuit Mode is the most familiar type of switching to most people.
In a circuit switched network, the communication pathway between two users is fixed for the
duration of the call and is not shared by other users.
Although several users may share one physical line by using equipment that support frequency
division multiplexing.
In circuit mode, a communication is obtained between two users by establishing a fixed pathway.
The route is established after the calling initiates the call initiates the call setup procedure by
giving the network the addresses.
During the connection, the circuit is equivalent to a physical pair of wires connecting the two user
link that is associated with connection oriented network.
This kind of connection is required because the sensitivity of delay natured by voice calls.
A long setup required by this connection must be compensated by relatively long call hold time.
Therefore circuit mode is not suited for data calls.
Circuit switching creates a direct physical connection between two devices such as phones or
computers. For example, in Figure instead of point-to-point connections between the three telephone on
the left (A, B and C) to the four telephones on the right (D, E, F and G) requires 12 links. We can use four
switches to reduce the number and the total length of the links. In figure telephone A is connected
through switches I,II and III to telephone D. by moving the levers of the switches, any telephone on the
left can be connected to any telephone on the right.
A circuit switch is a device with n input and an m output that creates a temporary connection
between an input link and an output link (see figure). The number of inputs does not have match the
number of outputs.

Packet Switching:
Packet mode is for data communications which are featured by bursty traffic.
Physical channels are not dedicated to a specific end to end connection and they may be shared
by many end to end logical connections.
Packet switching is suitable for delay insensitive traffic.
Packet is a subdivided unit of transmission data.
The receiver is responsible for reassembling the original message from incoming packets.
The logical path through which the packet is switched, is fixed by different addresses that the
network recognizes.
Packets are sent to a network node by the user host and then they are forwarded through the
network from node to node until they are delivered to the destination node.
The communication is approached through a Virtual Circuit.
There are many services available on ISDN and they require different bearer services and
switching facilities.

6.13 Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN)

ISDN is a new communication standard for providing an end to end connectivity over a Digital
link. It is basically a circuit –Switched digital network. Conventional telephone lines that are used to carry
the ISDN data are called ISDN lines in an ISDN line a wide range of digital Services such as voice, data,
image, video, facsimile, etc can be integrated.
CCITT Consultative committee for international Telegraphy and Telephony introduced the first
ISDN Standard in 1984. Called narrow-band ISDN. The Primary goal was to define an end-to-end digital

6.13.1 Features of ISDN

High Flexibility
Local, National and international telephones.
Video Conferencing
Electronic data exchange.

6.13.2 ISDN System architectures

Fig 6.12.1 Architecture of ISDN

The ISDN architecture consists of a customer’s equipment and the interface between the
customer and Telephone Company.

The basic idea behind ISDN is that of the digital bit pipe. It is a conceptual pipe between the
customer and the carrier through which bits flow. The bits can flow through this digital pipe in both the

The two principal standards used for bit pipe are: {i} a low bandwidth standard for home use, and
{ii} a higher bandwidth standard for business use.
The carrier Places a Network Terminating device, NT1 on the customer’s exchange in the
carrier’s office which is several kilometers away. Twisted pair is used for the connection.
The NT1 box has a connector on it, into which a passive bus cable can be inserted. Up to 8
ISDN Telephones, terminals, alarms and other devices can be connected to the cable.
In the above model, the device NT2 Called PBX (Private Branch exchange) is connected to NT1.

The four reference points in the above models R, S, T and U are defined below:
U - Connection between ISDN exchange in the carrier’s office and NT1.
Connector on NT1 provided to the customer.
Interface between the ISDN PBX and the ISDN terminals.
R- Connection between the terminal adapter and non-ISDN terminals.

6.13.3 Advantages of an ISDN line over a standard telephone line:

 Digital Service –Should have less errors
 Multiple Users
 Higher Bandwidth
 Connection is fast
 Permits use of newer techniques e.g. Video Phone.

6.13.4 Applications using ISDN

 Wide area network
 Videotext
 Private network interconnection
 Telecommunication.

1.What is communication?
Communication is the transfer of information from one place to another place. Distribution of data.
Message or information from one location to another location with high reliability and security is the roll of
communication system

2. What are the elements of communication system?

Communication system consists of the following components which acts together to accomplish
information transfer of exchange.
1. Input Transducer
2. Transmitter
3. Channel
4. Receiver and
5. Output Transducer
3. Draw the basic block diagram of the communication system

4. What are the basic types of communication?

There are two types
1.Analog communication system : An analog message is a Physical quantity
that varies with time, usually in a smooth and continuous fashion. Since the information resides in a
time-Varying waveform, an analog communication system should deliver this waveform with a
specified degree of reliability or fidelity.
2.Digital communication System: A digital message is an ordered sequence of symbols selected
from a finite set of discrete elements. Since the information resides in discrete symbols, a digital
communication system should deliver these symbols with a specified degree of accuracy in a
specified amount of time.

5. Write the applications of microwave communications

Presently, microwave communications are widely used for telephone networks, in broadcast and
television systems and in several other Communication applications by services, railways, etc.

6. What is up link and downlink frequency?

The earth stations typically transmit their signals to satellites on carrier frequencies ranging from 5.92
to 6.43 GHz band called the uplink frequency. The satellite transponders convert these signals to a range
from 3.7 to 4.2 GHz band. These frequencies are referred to as downlink frequencies.

7. Classify the orbits.

Based on the area of the coverage, the orbits are classified as
1.Polar orbit :When the satellite rotates in an orbit that takes it over the north and south poles, it is
called polar orbit.
2.Equatorial orbit :When the satellite rotates in an orbit above the equator, it is called an
equatorial orbit
3.Inclined orbit :Any other orbital path is called an inclined orbit.

8. What are the main blocks of satellite system?

A satellite system, Consists of three basic sections,
 The uplink (transmitting earth station)
 The satellite transponder
 The downlink (Receiving earth station)
Typical frequencies for telecommunication services in a satellite system are 6/4 GHz and 14/12 GHz,
Where 6 and 14 GHz represent up link frequencies and 4 and 12 GHz represent downlink frequencies.

9. Write the advantages of satellite system?

It Provides point to multipoint communication
Offers telecommunication links which includes telephone, TV, telegraphy, telex, FAX, Video conferencing,
Video text, digital transmission services, etc.,
Global Positioning system (GPS)

10. Write the disadvantages of satellite system

There is a large time-delay of 250 millisecs between the transmission and reception of a Signal.
The malfunctions in the satellite are highly difficult to correct.
The initial cost involved is quite large.

11.Advantages of optical fiber communication:

 Enormous potential bandwidth
 Small Size less weight
 Free from Electromagnetic interference
 Provides high degree of signal security and cross talk between parallel fibers is avoided.
 Highly reliable and easy to maintain
 Flexible, Compact and extremely rugged..
 Low Cost line communication
 High tolerance to temperature.

12. Disadvantages of optical fiber communication:

Connections and taps are more difficult to make than copper wire fiber is not as flexible as a
copper wire.

13 Applications of optical fiber communication:

 Computers
 Industrial Electronics
 Telecommunications.

14. What is ISDN

ISDN –integrated services digital network –“A network that provides end to end digital connectivity ,used
for supporting a wide range of services which includes.
Telephony (voice music)
Data (telemetry, E-mail and alarm)
Text(telex, teletext and videotext)
Image (Facsimile ,TV conferencing ,video phone.)

15. Applications using ISDN Smart Networks

Based on these kinds of network, we can achieve different services for different customers for minimum
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Private network interconnection.
Telecommunication (work at home)
Call waiting –automatic call in case of no answer
Caller ‘s identity by different ring tone
Personal mailbox
Electronic directory and PC to PC screen sharing.


Text Books
1.Kothari D P and Nagrath I J, Basic Electrical Engineering, Tata McGraw Hill,2009.(For Units I
to III)
2.Rajendra Prasad,”Fundamentals of Electronic Engineering”,Cengage learing, New Delhi,First
Edition,2011(For Unit IV)
3.Morris Mano,”Digital design”,PHI Learing,Fourt Edition,2008(For Unit V)
4.Wayne Tomasi,”Electronic Communication Systems- Fundamentals Theory Advanced”,Sixth
Edition,Pearson Education,2004.(For Unit VI)

Reference Books
1.R.Muthusubramanian, S.Salivahanan and K.A Mureleedharan, Basic Electriacl Electronics
and Computer Engineering,Tata McGraw Hill,2004..
2.J.B.Gupta, A Course in Electrical Power,Katson Publishing House, New Delhi,1993
3.David.A.Bell,”Electronic Devices and Circuits”,PHI Learning Private Ltd,India,Fourth
4.Donal P Leach,Albert Paul Malvino and Goutam Saha,”Digital Principles and Applications,”6th
edition,Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Ltd.,New Delhi,2008.
5.S.K.Sahdev,Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering and Electronics,Dhanpat Rai & Co,2013.
6.Jacob Millman and Christos C.Halkias,”Electronic Devices and Circuits”Tata McGraw
7.R.L.Boylestad and L.Nashelshy,”Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory”,PHI Learning Private
Limited,Ninth Edition,2008.
8.M.S.Sukhija and T.K.Nagsarkar,”Basic Electrical and Electronics Engineering”,Oxford
University Press,2012