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- Soil Mechanics (Richard Brachman).pdf
- water treatment: Granular Media Filtration
- Experimental Study of Internal Erosion of Fine Grained Soils
- Identification of Failure Mechanisms Associated With Seepage Barriers in Dams
- Landslide
- EROSION Presentation
- USSD2017_Internalerosionofembankmentdam_1Feb17
- Pipe-Through-Embankment-Dams
- Bishop (1976)
- Daniels 1998
- (Hecel, R.W.) (Heckler, A.J.) (Heeger, A.J.)-419_OCR
- Boore, 2007 - Some thoughts on relating density to velocity.pdf
- 0006334
- A generalized Biot±Gassmann model for the acoustic properties
- Modeling Pore Structures and Airflow in Grain Beds Using Discrete Element Method and Pore-scale Models
- 55044-311170-2-PB.pdf
- BS1377-5 1990
- Sand
- CompactionGroutingAugust2007.FINAL
- Electrokinetic Phenomena in Saturated Compact Clays

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Antonio Anderson F. Araújo*, Vanda T. C. Malveira†, Anderson B. Soares‡ and

Francisco David M. Sousa§

*

Universidade Federal do Ceará – UFC

Departamento de Engenharia Hidráulica e Ambiental, Bloco 713 – 1º Andar, Centro de

Tecnologia, Campus do Pici, 60440-970 Fortaleza – CE, Brasil

e-mail: anderson_font@hotmail.com, webpage: http://www.posdeha.ufc.br

granular filters as to their effectiveness in the filtering capacity of the eventual eroded

particles of the finest soil in embankments and its internal stability. The assessment it is

about the real capacity to prevent the loss of its own finest particles, preventing any

possible internal erosion. The methodology is based on the analytical concept of the

constrictions determination, meaning the smaller existing openings, characteristic of the

filter material grain size, that allow or not the passage of compacted soil of the

embankment due to the action of the water flow. The adopted criteria present two

significant parameters in the behavior filtering of granular filters in dams: the grain size

of the coarse material consisting the filter and its stability due internal natural seepage.

This methodology was applied in four dams located in the state of Ceará, Brazil, in which

the results obtained were compatible with the anomalies observed in the inspections

carried out in 2010.

1 INTRODUCTION

One of the main precautions to be taken in the embankments, during either the design or

operation, is the seepage control in the embankment or foundation. Soil particles, when

subjected to high intense water flows can be removed or carried, causing structural problems

that may result in its rupture. This process of removal and washing is known as internal

erosion.

The internal erosion processes represent one of the main cause of dam incidents,

corresponding to about half of the cases of failures in large embankments built between 1800

and 19861. It is important to note that in most of the cases the internal erosion developed

through the embankment, due mainly to the absence of filter or the inadequacy of its range

size in the internal drainage system.

In the semi-arid northeast region of Brazil, the constant drying and filling cycles of the

reservoir can result in soil fatigue (deformation), which increases the risk of occurrence of

internal erosion. Therefore, it is important to design an adequate filter grain size to avoid the

†

Universidade Estadual Vale do Acaraú - UVA

‡

Universidade Federal do Ceará - UFC

§

Universidade Federal do Ceará - UFC

1

Antonio Anderson F. Araújo, Vanda T. C. Malveira, Anderson B. Soares and Francisco David M. Sousa.

The usual filter design criteria consist of empirical ratio between filter particles and base

soil diameters, such as Terzaghi2 criterion and the NRCS3 guidelines. However, subsequent

studies4,5 describe limitations of these criteria when used in well graded materials, in which

the effectiveness decreases with the increase of the coefficient of non-uniformity. In addition,

one of the main parameters in the filtration process is not considered, the filter constrictions,

which are the smallest openings that gives access to the pores of the filter, and therefore,

perform the retention of the eroded particles.

Recent studies6,7 presents a new filtering criteria, based on the determination of the

constriction sizes from an analytical and empirical perspective in which presents two

significant parameters to evaluate filter behavior: Dc 35 (constriction diameter corresponding

to 35% finer) and Dc95 (constriction diameter corresponding to 95% finer).

In this way, the present article intends to evaluate the efficiency of the base soil/filter

system and the internal stability of the filter for embankments located in the state of Ceará,

Brazil through analytical and empirical criteria based on the filter constrictions concept.

The constrictions are formed by different grouping of the filter particles. Each constriction

diameter (Dc) depends on the arrangement of the particles and the filter density. The

procedure to determine the Constriction Size Distribution (CSD) consists of considering two

geometric configurations for the extreme compaction states, the dense 8 and the loose9 state,

as showing in Figure 1.

.

(a) (b)

Figure 1: Diameter of constrictions for (a) dense state and (b) loose state

The necessary data for the calculation of the Dc is obtained by means of the particle size

distribution (PSD) of the filter8. In the PSD are initially defined N ranges of particle sizes,

where each interval is represented by a medium diameter (D1, D2, D3, ..., DN-1, DN) and by a

frequency of occurrence (P1, P2, P3, ..., PN-1, PN), as shown in Figure 2. These medium

diameters are grouped in different combinations, varying according to the geometric

configuration adopted (Figure 1). Each combination results in a Dc and a frequency of

occurrence of the constriction (Pc), which depends on the frequencies of the particles forming

the cluster.

For the dense state, formed by three random particles, the Dc can be calculated by using

Equation 110. For the loose state, formed by four random particles, the Dc is equal to the

diameter of the circumference equivalent to the largest area effectively formed by the

tangency of the particles, obtained by using Equation 2 9. However, it is recommended to

multiply it by 0.82, because the constrictions will hardly be formed in the same plane that

passes through the centers of the four particles. The angles α, β, γ and δ are obtained by

geometric correlations in order to generate the highest value for the area Avf.

When using PSD to determine the distribution of constrictions, an error is introduced in

well graded soils. The particle distribution is determined as a function of the mass

2

Antonio Anderson F. Araújo, Vanda T. C. Malveira, Anderson B. Soares and Francisco David M. Sousa.

percentages in the sieve test. In well graded soils, the largest particles are associated with

higher frequencies in the PSD, however they are in smaller numbers compared to the smaller

grains. In this way, it is unlikely that the larger particles form a grouping, because the smaller

particles will be filling the voids between them, reducing the size of the constriction. The

error lies in considering that the frequencies of the larger grains lead to the formation of

larger constrictions.

2

2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2

2 2 2

(1)

Di Dj Dk Dc 2 Di Dj Dk Dc

A vf

8 αDm 2 βDk 2 γDi 2 δDj2

(2)

4A vf

Dc 0.82 (3)

π

To overcome the described limitation, the most accepted model proposed by Humes 12. The

model defines that each constriction is limited by the surfaces of the particles tangent to each

other in the grouping, thus the probability that a particle is part of a grouping is proportional

to its surface area instead its mass, solid or hollow particles produce the same constriction. In

this case, the medium diameters and their respective frequencies must be obtained from the

PSD in terms of surface areas and not by the normal PSD (in terms of mass of the particles).

Equation 4 converts the frequencies Pi per mass of a particle i into frequencies by surface

areas PSA,i. The frequencies of occurrence of the constrictions Pc depend on the individual

frequencies of the particles that form the groupie. Equations 5 and 6 are used for the

calculation of the Pc for the dense and loose states respectively, in which r i, rj, rk and rm are

the number of times that the particles i, j, k and m are repeated in a groupie.

Pi

PSA, i Di (4)

Px

x 1 Dx

N

3

Antonio Anderson F. Araújo, Vanda T. C. Malveira, Anderson B. Soares and Francisco David M. Sousa.

3! r r r

Pc (PSA, i ) i (PSA, j ) j (PSA, k ) k (dense) (5)

ri !rj!rk !

4! r r r r

Pc (PSA, i ) i (PSA, j ) j (PSA, k ) k (PSA, m ) m (loose) (6)

ri !rj!rk !rm !

The two geometric configuration presented in Figure 1 relate the arrangements that

represent the extreme states of compaction in a filter. In reality, however, the filters are in an

intermediate state. In this case, it is assumed that the constrictions increase in size

proportionally to the decrease of the relative density RD11. Equation 7 gives the values of Dc

for a given accumulated percentage n, where Dcd and Dcf are the constriction sizes for the

dense and loose state respectively for the same percentage n.

Dcn Dcdn n1 R D Dcfn Dcdn (7)

Through the CSD it is possible to describe the transport behavior of soil particles through

the filter, adopting a model for the constrictions (washing paths of particles). The cubic

pore network model developed by Schuler 13 (Figure 3) presents a reasonable

approximation of the constrictions in a filter, where the pores are interconnected by the

constrictions and each pore has six constrictions that allow the entry and exit of particles.

accumulated frequency of constrictions smaller than d. Considering the Schuler 13 model, a

particle may move to a near pore, following the flow direction (forward) or by one of the four

constrictions perpendicular to the flow (sideways). However, the focus is given to the

movement of particles in the flow direction. Equation 8 allows to calculate the probability

P(F) of a particle to move in the flow direction 11. With the value of P(F), it is possible to

estimate the number of confrontations (λ) required for a particle, which moves from one pore

to another in the flow direction, to be retained by a constriction for a given confidence level

NC, by means of Equation 9.

i

PF 1 p c 1 p c (1 p c )p c [(1 p c )p c ]i

4 3

(8)

i 0

log 1 - N C

λ (9)

logP(F)

4

Antonio Anderson F. Araújo, Vanda T. C. Malveira, Anderson B. Soares and Francisco David M. Sousa.

When analyzing Equation 9 for a NC of 95%, Raut4 found that λ increases excessively

when pc is less than 35%, in other words, it will be necessary several confrontations until a

particle is effectively retained by a constriction. In this way, it is admitted that particles

smaller than the Dc35 cannot be retained by a filter, unless the constrictions become

progressively smaller by self-filtration, this parameter is defined as controlling constriction

size.

On the other hand, when the pc is greater than 95% the value of λ is less than 1, that is,

particles larger than the Dc95 will not be able to move inside the filter 4. In this way, the

particles that will effectively participate in the filtration process will be those smaller than

Dc95.

The Raut and Indraratna6 criteria consider the two constriction diameters that influence the

filtration process: Dc35 and Dc95. The criterion proposes the adjustment of the base soil PSD

in order to consider only the soil fraction that can be eroded through the filter, eliminating

from the analysis all the particles larger than the Dc 95. The procedure is similar to that of

Terzaghi2 in which Dc35 is compared to d*85 (particle diameter corresponding to 85% finer in

PSD of the adjusted base soil) by using Equation 10. This criterion proved to be more

realistic compared to the NRCS3 and ICOLD14 methods, being able to evaluate the efficiency

of filters for most of the base soils.

Dc 35

1 (10)

d*85

In addition to the analysis of the efficiency of the base soil/filter system, it is also

necessary to verify the possibility of the finer fraction of the filter being washed by the water

flow, that is, to analyze the internal instability of the filter. The method of Indraratna et al7,

based on the same concept of constrictions, consists of separating the fine fraction of the

coarser fraction of the filter from a certain percentage passing through filter PSD. In this case,

it is assumed that the coarser fraction has the function of capturing the particles of the finer

fraction. Equation 11 is proposed to attest the filter stability, where the Dcc35 is the Dc35 of

the CSD of the coarse fraction of the filter, and df85,SA is d85 of the PSD by surface areas of

the finer fraction of the filter. Compared with the method of Kenney and Lau15 the approach

of Indraratna et al7 is more reliable and realistic to evaluate the potential of internal instability

in filters.

Dc c 35

1 (11)

d f 85,SA

3 METHODOLOGY

In this paper, four embankments in operation were selected, these structures are of great

importance to the regional water system, located in Ceará State, Brazil: the dams Angicos,

Bengue, Figueiredo and Monsenhor Tabosa, being analyzed the filter grain size distribution

as to the effectiveness in their capacity of filtration and internal stability.

The grain size data of the base soil and filter materials were obtained from the field studies

for the design of the respective dams16,17,18,19. For the analyzes, only the PSD that represent

the extremes in terms of particle sizes for the filter and for the different types of base soil

present were selected. Thus, for each different filter and base soil, two grain size distribution

were used, one representing the distribution of the finer fraction and the other the distribution

of the coarser (of the same material used in the dam).

Firstly, it was considered the ability of the filter to prevent the loss of its own smaller

particles, in another words their internal stability was evaluated. The separation point

5

Antonio Anderson F. Araújo, Vanda T. C. Malveira, Anderson B. Soares and Francisco David M. Sousa.

between the finer fraction (with potential to be carried) and the thicker of the adopted filter

was 20%. The criterion used to verify the potential of internal instability was Indraratna el al 7

(Equation 11).

The determination of the medium diameters occurred by dividing the PSD in terms of

surface areas of the filters into ten size ranges, each corresponding to a frequency of 10%

occurrence. The medium diameter was obtained as the geometric average of the limits of

each interval.

The constrictions were calculated following the procedures for the two geometric

configurations (dense and loose state). However, the analyzes were only performed with the

filters CSD corresponding to a relative density (RD) of 60%, considering the reasonable value

for the real density of the analyzed filters. In order to evaluate the efficiency of the filters, the

Raut and Indraratna6 criteria (Equation 10) were adopted and the adjustment procedure for

PSD of the base soils was similar to that proposed in the NRCS3 guidelines.

4 RESULTS

The results for the verification of the internal stability of the filters of the selected dams

are presented in Table 1. It is observed that, for the selected criterion and considering the

adopted value of 20% for fraction separation, all the grain size data of the filters were

classified as internally stable; it is unlikely that the finer fraction of the filter particles will be

eroded by the seepage.

From the CSD of the selected filter PSD, for the adopted value of RD=60%, the PSD of the

base soils were adjusted as a function of the Dc 95 obtained in each grain size data. It should

be noted that each selected particle size of the base soil was analyzed for the two extreme

filters grain size in each dam, so each soil base particle size was adjusted twice, one for each

Dc95 obtained.

Filter_finer Filter_coarser

df85,SA 0,175 0,540

Angicos Dcc35 0,097 0,180

Dc 35/ df85,SA

c

0,552 0,334

df85,SA 0,105 0,580

Bengue Dcc35 0,036 0,194

Dcc35/ df85,SA 0,340 0,335

df85,SA 0,145 0,146

Figueiredo Dcc35 0,063 0,063

Dcc35/ df85,SA 0,432 0,429

df85,SA 0,560 0,660

Monsenhor

Dcc35 0,176 0,204

Tabosa

Dc 35/ df85,SA

c

0,314 0,309

Table 1: Results for internal stability of the filters

Figure 4 shows the PSD of the adjusted base soils and the CSD of the filters for the RD of

the 60%. It can be noticed that the CSD of the Bengue and Figueiredo dams filters are very

close to the adjusted base soil PSD, whereas for the Angicos and Monsenhor Tabosa dams,

the CSD are slightly distant from some PSD.

The results of the verification of the effectiveness of the filters designed for the Angicos,

Bengue, Figueiredo and Monsenhor Tabosa dams are shown in Tables 2, 3, 4 and 5

respectively. It is observed that, according to the criteria of Raut and Indraratna 6 and

considering that the filters have a relative density of around 60%, only for the Bengue and

6

Antonio Anderson F. Araújo, Vanda T. C. Malveira, Anderson B. Soares and Francisco David M. Sousa.

Figueiredo dams the filters grain size were attested as efficient to capture eroded particles of

the soil, that is, to avoid internal erosion processes. However, for the Angicos and Monsenhor

Tabosa dams, some grain size distributions did not meet the criteria.

For the Angicos dam, two combinations of base soil and filter did not meet the Raut and

Indraratna6 criterion, but the values obtained for the ratio between Dc 35 and d*85 are close to

1, that is, if a greater relative density were considered, possibly the filter grain size would

meet the criterion. However, the same does not occur for the Monsenhor Tabosa Dam, in

which the ratio obtained is about twice as large as the boundary criterion.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Figure 4: PSD of the base soils adjusted for each CSD of the filter for the dams (a) Angicos, (b) Bengue, (c)

Figueiredo and (d) Monsenhor Tabosa

7

Antonio Anderson F. Araújo, Vanda T. C. Malveira, Anderson B. Soares and Francisco David M. Sousa.

Dc35 d*85

Nº Filter Soil base Dc35/d*85 ≤ 1 Results

(mm) (mm)

1 Filter_finer CL_finer 0,027 0,055 0,48 √

2 Filter_finer CL_coarser 0,027 0,055 0,48 √

3 Filter_finer ML_finer 0,027 0,048 0,55 √

4 Filter_finer ML_coarser 0,027 0,054 0,49 √

5 Filter_coarser CL_finer 0,060 0,078 0,76 √

6 Filter_coarser CL_coarser 0,060 0,06 0,99 √

7 Filter_coarser ML_finer 0,060 0,05 1,19 X

8 Filter_coarser ML_coarser 0,060 0,057 1,05 X

Table 2: Results of the Angicos dam verifications

Dc35 d*85

Nº Filter Soil base Dc35/d*85 ≤ 1 Results

(mm) (mm)

1 Filter_finer SM_finer 0,022 0,036 0,60 √

2 Filter_finer SM_coarser 0,022 0,046 0,47 √

3 Filter_finer ML_finer 0,022 0,03 0,72 √

4 Filter_finer ML_coarser 0,022 0,036 0,60 √

5 Filter_coarser SM_finer 0,056 0,117 0,48 √

6 Filter_coarser SM_coarser 0,056 0,15 0,37 √

7 Filter_coarser ML_finer 0,056 0,08 0,70 √

8 Filter_coarser ML_coarser 0,056 0,073 0,76 √

Table 3: Results of the Bengue dam verifications

Dc35 d*85

Nº Filter Soil base Dc35/d*85 ≤ 1 Results

(mm) (mm)

1 Filter_finer SC_finer 0,025 0,050 0,49 √

2 Filter_finer SC_coarser 0,025 0,055 0,45 √

3 Filter_finer CL_finer 0,025 0,042 0,59 √

4 Filter_finer CL_coarser 0,025 0,044 0,56 √

5 Filter_finer SM_finer 0,025 0,045 0,55 √

6 Filter_finer SM_coarser 0,025 0,067 0,37 √

7 Filter_coarser SC_finer 0,027 0,050 0,53 √

8 Filter_coarser SC_coarser 0,027 0,055 0,48 √

9 Filter_coarser CL_finer 0,027 0,042 0,63 √

10 Filter_coarser CL_coarser 0,027 0,044 0,60 √

11 Filter_coarser SM_finer 0,027 0,045 0,59 √

12 Filter_coarser SM_coarser 0,027 0,067 0,40 √

Table 4: Results of the Figueiredo dam verifications

8

Antonio Anderson F. Araújo, Vanda T. C. Malveira, Anderson B. Soares and Francisco David M. Sousa.

Dc35 d*85

Nº Filter Soil base Dc35/d*85 ≤ 1 Results

(mm) (mm)

1 Filter_finer SM_finer 0,062 0,178 0,35 √

2 Filter_finer SM_coarser 0,062 0,16 0,38 √

3 Filter_finer SM-SC_finer 0,062 0,136 0,45 √

4 Filter_finer SM-SC_coarser 0,062 0,04 1,54 X

5 Filter_finer CL_finer 0,062 0,075 0,82 √

6 Filter_finer CL_coarser 0,062 0,11 0,56 √

7 Filter_finer SC_finer 0,062 0,145 0,42 √

8 Filter_finer SC_coarser 0,062 0,165 0,37 √

9 Filter_coarser SM_finer 0,114 0,21 0,54 √

10 Filter_coarser SM_coarser 0,114 0,226 0,51 √

11 Filter_coarser SM-SC_finer 0,114 0,195 0,59 √

12 Filter_coarser SM-SC_coarser 0,114 0,05 2,29 X

13 Filter_coarser CL_finer 0,114 0,075 1,53 X

14 Filter_coarser CL_coarser 0,114 0,134 0,85 √

15 Filter_coarser SC_finer 0,114 0,18 0,64 √

16 Filter_coarser SC_coarser 0,114 0,21 0,54 √

Table 5: Results of the Monsenhor Tabosa dam verifications

5 CONCLUSIONS

According to the adopted methodology, it was possible to verify that the filters grain size

used in the selected embankments in this study have internal stability since they are in

according with the Indraratna et al7 criteria, considering 20% as the value for separation of

the fraction susceptible to be eroded from filter. However, in relation to the filtering of the

Raut and Indraratna6 criteria, only the Bengue and Figueiredo dams had the filters with

adequate grain size to the base soils, highlighting that in the analysis the value of 60% for the

actual density of the filters was considered.

Considering the inspection carried out in 2010 on the Angicos, Bengue and Monsenhor

Tabosa20 dams, shortly after a rigorous rainy season occurred in 2009, it was possible to

register some anomalies that may be alerts of internal erosion processes taking place in the

dams. Signs of water leakage, sinkhole, erosion and sliding in the downstream slope were

observed in the Angicos dam, while in the Monsenhor Tabosa dam there were sinkholes in

the crest and water leakage in the downstream region.

However, in the Bengue dam none of the recorded anomalies indicate to be caused by an

internal erosion process due to an inadequacy of the filter grain size. The leakage recorded in

the region downstream of the dam may be related to high hydraulic gradients in the

foundation, and thus characterizing an internal erosion occurring by the foundation.

Therefore, the application of the methodology used in the assessments results compatible

with the behavior observed in these dams from inspections carried out after a period of filling

of the reservoir. In addition, the value of 60% for the actual density of the filters (R D) should

be used as the maximum value in analyzes of the constraints, as observed in the Angicos

dam, in which the use of larger values could result in the adequacy filter grain size, which did

not occur according to the inspections carried out.

REFERENCES

[1] M. Foster, R. Fell, M. Spannagle, Analysis of embankment dam incidents, The

University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia (1998).

9

Antonio Anderson F. Araújo, Vanda T. C. Malveira, Anderson B. Soares and Francisco David M. Sousa.

[2] K. Terzaghi and R. B. Peck, Mecânica dos solos na prática da engenharia, Ao Livro

Técnico, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (1962).

[3] Natural Resources Conservation Services (NRCS), Gradation design of sand and gravel

filters, National Engineering Handbook, Chap. 26, Part 633, USDA, Washington, D.C.

(1994).

[4] A. K. Raut, Mathematical modelling of granular filters and constriction-based filter

design criteria, PhD Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, University of

Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia (2006).

[5] B. Indraratna and A. K. Raut, Enhanced Criterion for Base Soil Retention in

Embankment Dam Filters, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering,

132(12), 1621-1627 (2006).

[6] A. K. Raut and B. Indraratna, Further Advancement in Filtration Criteria through

Constriction-Based Techniques, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental

Engineering, ASCE 134:6(883) 1090-0241(2008).

[7] B. Indraratna, J. Israr and C. Rujikiatkamjorn, Geometrical Method for Evaluating the

Internal Instability of Granular Filters Based on Constriction Size Distribution, Journal

of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, DOI 10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-

5606.0001343 (2015).

[8] A. Silveira, An Analysis of the Problem of Washing Through in Protective Filters, Proc.

6th Int. Conf. Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Canada, Vol. 2, p. 551-555

(1965).

[9] A. Silveira, T. d. L. Peixoto Jr., J. Nogueira, On void size distribution of granular

materials, Proc., 5th Pan-American Conf. of Soil Mechanics and Foundations

Engineering, p. 161–176 (1975).

[10] A. Musso and F. Federico, Un método geométrico-probabilístico per la verifica dei

filtri, Rivista Italiana di Geotecnia, XVII, 4, p. 177-193 (1983)

[11] M. Locke, B. Indraratna and G. Adikari, Time-dependent particle transport through

granular filters, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol.127,

p. 521-529 (2001).

[12] C. Humes, Um Novo Enfoque para a Determinação da Curva de Vazios de Filtros

Granulares, XI Congresso Brasileiro de Mecânica dos Solos e Engenharia Geotécnica,

Vol. II. p. 983-991, Brasília, Brazil (1998).

[13] U. Schuler, Scattering of the composition of soils. An aspect for the stability of granular

filters, Proc., Geofilters ’96, Comptes Rendus, Lafleur and Rollin, eds., Bitech

Publications, Canada, 21–34 (1996).

[14] International Commission on Large Dams (ICOLD), Embankment Dams – Filter and

Drains, Bulletin No. 95, Paris, France (1994).

[15] T. C. Kenney and D. Lau, Internal stability of granular filters, Canadian Geotechnical

Journal, 22(2), 215–225 (1985).

[16] Ceará, Açude público Angicos, Secretaria dos Recursos Hídricos, Fortaleza, Ceará,

Brazil (1994).

[17] Ceará, Projeto executivo da barragem Benguê, Secretaria dos Recursos Hídricos,

Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil (1998).

[18] Ceará, Projeto executivo da barragem Monsenhor Tabosa, Secretaria dos Recursos

Hídricos, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil (1997).

[19] Ceará, Relatórios do Projeto Executivo da Barragem Figueiredo, Secretaria dos

Recursos Hídricos, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil (2008).

[20] Ceará, Relatório Anual de Segurança de Barragens – Riscos e Inspeções 2010,

Secretaria dos Recursos Hídricos, Ceará, Brazil (2010).

10

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- water treatment: Granular Media FiltrationHochgeladen vonDr. Akepati Sivarami Reddy
- Experimental Study of Internal Erosion of Fine Grained SoilsHochgeladen vonMuhammad Akbar Walenna
- Identification of Failure Mechanisms Associated With Seepage Barriers in DamsHochgeladen vonChinh Dieu
- LandslideHochgeladen vonNurul IzZah
- EROSION PresentationHochgeladen vonMarlon B. Ocampo
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- Bishop (1976)Hochgeladen vonJun Kang
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- 0006334Hochgeladen vonafegao2
- A generalized Biot±Gassmann model for the acoustic propertiesHochgeladen vonGustavo O. Bogado
- Modeling Pore Structures and Airflow in Grain Beds Using Discrete Element Method and Pore-scale ModelsHochgeladen vonSaptarshee Mitra
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