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POWER SUPPLY

Name & seat Number:


Ibrahim Mohamed Abdelaziz Mohamed okbah 6
Ziyad Ahmed Abouelkasem Ahmed Mohamed 70
Kareem Mohamed Abdel Wahab Saad 111
Table of Contents
Introduction ................................................................................................................................................... 1
Circuit Definition .......................................................................................................................................... 1
Required no. 1 ............................................................................................................................................... 2
Analytical .................................................................................................................................................. 2
• Question 1: .................................................................................................................................... 2
Required no.2 ................................................................................................................................................ 3
Analytical .................................................................................................................................................. 4
• Question 2: .................................................................................................................................... 4
Required no. 3 ............................................................................................................................................... 4
Analytical .................................................................................................................................................. 4
• Question 3: .................................................................................................................................... 4
Required no.4 ................................................................................................................................................ 5
Required no.5 ................................................................................................................................................ 6
Analytical .................................................................................................................................................. 6
• Question 4,5: ................................................................................................................................. 6
Required no .6 ............................................................................................................................................... 6

List of Figure
Figure 1: power supply circuit ................................................................................................................... 1
Figure 2:Ripples value ................................................................................................................................ 2
Figure 3:V capacitor and V load ............................................................................................................... 2
Figure 4: V load at 166 ohms ..................................................................................................................... 3
Figure 5: V load at 164 ohms ..................................................................................................................... 3
Figure 6: I load at 0.5 Rmin ....................................................................................................................... 3
Figure 7:V and i load at 0.5 Rmin ............................................................................................................. 4
Figure 8:at C less than c min ..................................................................................................................... 5
Figure 9:Circuit at C min ........................................................................................................................... 5
Figure 10: ripples across Cmin .................................................................................................................. 5
Figure 11:voltage across the load .............................................................................................................. 6
Figure 12:effect of capacitor ...................................................................................................................... 6

i
Introduction
A power supply is an electrical device that supplies electric power to an electrical load. The
primary function of a power supply is to convert electric current from a source to the
correct voltage, current, and frequency to power the load. As a result, power supplies are
sometimes referred to as electric power converters. Some power supplies are separate standalone
pieces of equipment, while others are built into the load appliances that they power. Examples of
the latter include power supplies found in desktop computers and electronics devices. Other
functions that power supplies may perform include limiting the current drawn by the load to safe
levels, shutting off the current in the event of an electrical fault, power conditioning to
prevent electronic noise or voltage surges on the input from reaching the load, power-factor
correction, and storing energy so it can continue to power the load in the event of a temporary
interruption in the source power.
All power supplies have a power input connection, which receives energy in the form of electric
current from a source, and one or more power output connections that deliver current to the load.
The source power may come from the electric power grid, such as an electrical outlet, energy
storage devices such as batteries or fuel cells, generators or alternators, solar power converters, or
another power supply. The input and output are usually hardwired circuit connections, though
some power supplies employ wireless energy transfer to power their loads without wired
connections. Some power supplies have other types of inputs and outputs as well, for functions
such as external monitoring and control.

Circuit Definition

Figure 1: power supply circuit

Voltage source with Full wave bridge Filter by capacitor and


transformer 20:1, No rectifier with ideal regulator by 6.2 v
leakage diodes Zener

1
Required no. 1

Figure 3:V capacitor and V load

Figure 2:Ripples value

In figure just comparing between source voltage and capacitor voltage to show the full wave
rectifier behavior.

Source frequency is 50 Hz so showing the waves form is to take time 100m sec

• V(n002): is voltage across capacitor


• V(load): is voltage across R load
Shown that voltage across capacitor is ripples (13.986597v ~ 13.650262v)
And the v across the load = 6.122v constant value as shown in fig (2,3)

Analytical
1] Using Ideal Zener (Vz=6.2v, Izk=1.61ma, diode voltage=0.7v silicon):
• Question 1:
Show the voltage across the capacitor C = 1 mF and the load RL = 1 kΩ.
Vs= 220 * 1.4142 = 311.124 volt

2
Vt= 311.124 / 20 = 15.5562 volt
►Calculating V across the capacitor:
Vc = Vt – 1.4 = 15.5562 – 1.4 = 14.1562 volt (Because of the FW rectifier)
►Calculating V across RL = 1 kΩ:
Vz is parallel to RL
So that Vz=VRL
VRL= 6.2 Volt

Required no.2

Figure 4: V load at 166 ohms

*Back ground modified to show the difference*


In figure 4 run the circuit at Rl =186 ohms with no ripples but when running at Rl =183 ohms it

Figure 5: V load at 164 ohms

starts to establish ripples at v load at small scale.

Figure 6: I load at 0.5 Rmin

I load at Rmin = 36.78 mA

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Analytical
• Question 2:
Find the minimum value of RL that can be connected such that the circuit will maintain

regulation? What is the value of the load current IL at RL(min)?

►Calculating RL min:

RL min occurs at IL max at Iz=Izk

I(Total) = (14.1562 - 6.2)/200 = 39.781 ma

I(Total) = Iz + IL

At Izk = 1.61

IL = 39.781 – 1.61 = 38.68 ma

RLmin = VR/IL max = 6.2/0.03868 = 160.538 Ω

Required no. 3

Figure 7:V and i load at 0.5 Rmin

When the circuit runs at Rl = 0.5 Rmin shows the ripples and normal scale that mean the regulation
is not working.

Analytical
• Question 3:
Show the output voltage at RL=1/2 RL(min). Comment on your results.
RL = ½ RL(min) = 160.538/2 = 80.269 Ω
Iz = 0
R = 200Ω and ½ RL = 80.269 will be parallel together
I(total) = IL(new) = 14.1562 / (200+80.269) = 50.509 ma
Voltage ½ RL = 0.050509 * 80.269 = 4.0543 volt

4
Required no.4

Figure 8:at C less than c min

when it’s working at c less than limit it will not be working as regulation

Figure 9:Circuit at C min

Cmin will equal to regulation be stable 17uF

Figure 10: ripples across Cmin

Ripples will (14.05- 7.46= 6.59) v

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Required no.5
• Voltage across the load will equal 6.111 v
• And Capacitor voltage will be (14.05~7.46) v

Figure 11:voltage across the load

Analytical
• Question 4,5:
Is complex analytical calculating by c is equation of RLoad so it solved by try and error of LTspice

Required no .6
In power supplies, capacitors are used to smooth (filter) the pulsating DC output after rectification
so that a nearly constant DC voltage is supplied to the load. The pulsating output of the rectifiers
has an average DC value and an AC portion that is called ripple voltage. Filter capacitors reduce
the amount of ripple voltage to a level that is acceptable.so reducing C will increase the ripples as
figure 12.

Figure 12:effect of capacitor