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Biology Matters G.C.E.

'O' Level (2nd Edition): Textbook Answers Chapter 9

Chapter 9 Transport in Plants

Test Yourself 9.1 (page 178)

(a) E
(b) C
(c) B and F

Investigation 9.1 (page 178)

5. Xylem

6. Water is transported up the plant through the xylem tissue.

Investigation 9.2 (page 179)

4. Transport of manufactured food substances from the leaves occurs through the
phloem.

5. Manufactured food substances (e.g. sugars and amino acids) accumulate above
the cut region and cause swelling.

Test Yourself 9.2 (page 180)

1. (a) 1, 4, 6
(b) 2, 3, 5

2. The diagram would be similar to the diagram shown in the question, only the area
above the cut region would be swollen

Test Yourself 9.3 (page 182)

1. The diagram should be similar to Figure 9.9.


(a) Osmosis
(b) – The water potential in the soil solution must be higher than that in the
root hair cell sap.
– A partially permeable cell surface membrane must also be present.

2. The inorganic fertilisers are soluble and will lower the water potential of the soil
solution. Water will move out of the root hair cells by osmosis and the plant cells will
plasmolyse.

Investigation 9.3 (page 183)

4. Drops of liquid are seen on the inner surface of the bell jar.

5. The copper sulfate turns blue, indicating the presence of water. Water vapour given
off by the plant condenses on the inner surface of the bell jar.

Investigation 9.4 (page 184)

4. More water condensed on the inner surface of the bell jar with the leafy twig. This
shows that transpiration occurs mainly through the leaves.
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Biology Matters G.C.E. 'O' Level (2nd Edition): Textbook Answers Chapter 9

Investigation 9.5 (page 184)

2. The cobalt chloride paper on the lower surface of the leaf turns pink first. This
shows transpiration occurs faster through the lower surface. Since leaves have
more stomata on the lower surface, we can further conclude that transpiration
occurs mainly through the stomata of leaves.

Investigation 9.6 (page 185)

5. Leaf A withers to a great extent.


Leaf B withers slightly.
Leaf C remains unchanged.

6. Leaf A. As the lower surface of leaf A that contain more stomata is not covered with
a layer of petroleum jelly, more transpiration occurs through the leaf, leading to
greater water loss and therefore most weight is lost.

Test Yourself 9.4 (page 190)

(a) Dry habitat or one in which water is not easily available.


(b) – The leaf has stomata sunken in depression in the lower surface;
– Long hairs in the lower surface trap water vapour outside the stomata.
– These reduce diffusion gradient and thus reduces the rate of transpiration;
– The curved leaf decreases surface area exposed to the atmospheric air;
– The thick cuticle reduces transpiration.

Get It Right (page 192)

(a) False
Phloem consists of sieve tube and companion cells.
(b) True
(c) False
Ions and mineral salts are absorbed mainly by active transport.
(d) False
Transpiration pull is the main force that pulls water up the plant.
(e) True

Let’s Review (page 192)

Section A: Multiple-Choice Questions

* 1. A
2. A

Section B: Structured Questions

1. The stomatal pores will look like those in Figures 7.22 and 7.23.
(a) Stomatal pore will be wider. Guard cells are more curved.
(b) Stomatal pore will be smaller. Guard cells are less curved.

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Biology Matters G.C.E. 'O' Level (2nd Edition): Textbook Answers Chapter 9

2. (a) Xylem
(b) – Xylem tissue conducts water and dissolved mineral salts from the
roots to the stems and leaves. The xylem vessel has an empty lumen
without protoplasm or cross-walls, this reduces resistance of water
flowing through the xylem.
– Xylem tissue provides mechanical support for the plant. The walls of
xylem vessels are thickened with lignin, which is made of a hard and
rigid substance that prevents collapse of the vessel. All the xylem
vessels together provide support to the plant organ.

Section C: Free-Response Questions

1. Refer to Figures 9.9 and 9.10.

* 2. (a) Via active transport, using energy from respiration to absorb salt against
the concentration gradient
(b) – Seaweeds would not be able to take in essential mineral salts from
sea water without the process of active transport. When seaweeds do
not obtain these essential mineral salts, they would die of nutrient
deficiency.
– It also lowers the water potential of the cell sap. The cell can still
absorb water from the sea water, remain turgid and not die of
dehydration.

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