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“Not everything that counts can be counted,

and not everything that can be counted counts” -Albert Einstein

Qualitative Research -

- The qualitative method investigates the why and how of things, not just what,where, when.
- The qualitative researcher is interested in illumination and understanding rather than causal
determination or prediction.
- Qualitative research is used to gain insight into people's attitudes, behaviours, value systems,
concerns, motivations, aspirations, culture or lifestyles.


 Outline of chapters and sections

Title Page
Approval Sheet
Table of Contents
Background of the problem
Conceptual Framework
Statement of the Problem
Definition of terms (operational)
Significance of the study
Scope and limitations of the study
Research Design
Sampling Method
Data Collection Procedure
Interpretation of Data
Data Analysis Method
Summary of Findings

 Style, layout, and page formatting

Title Page – All text on the title page is centered vertically and horizontally. The title page has no page number and
it is not counted in any page numbering.
Page Layout-
Left margin: 1 ½”
Right margin: 1”
Top margin: 1”
Bottom margin: 1”
Page numbering – Pages are numbered at the top right. There should be 1” of white space from the top of the page
number to the top of the paper. Numeric page numbering begins with the first page of Chapter 1
Spacing and justification -all pages are single sided. Text is doubled-spaced, except for long quotations and the
bibliography (which are single-spaced). There is one blank line between a section heading and the text that follows
Font face and size – any easily readable font is acceptable. The font should be 10 points larger. Generally, the same
font must be used throughout the manuscript, except 1) tables and graphs may use a different font, and 2) chapter
titles and section headings may use a different font.
References – APA format should be used to cite references within the paper. If you name the author in your
sentence, then follow the authors name with the year in the parentheses. For example:
Jones (2004) found that…
If you do not include the authors name as part of the text, then both the author’s name and year are
enclosed in parentheses. For example:
One researcher (Jones, 2004) found that…
A complete bibliography is attached at the end of the paper. It is double spaced except single-spacing is
used for a multiple-line reference. The first line of each reference is indented.
Bradburn, N. M., & Mason, W.M. (1964). The effect of question order on response. Journal of Marketing, Research
1 (4), 57-61.


Too broad topics will lead you nowhere. In order to narrow down broad topics to specific ones,
The purpose or intent of the study must be clear.
The following are examples of broad topics:

 Lack of confidence
 Smoking hazards
 Marketable popular garment brand
 Human immunodefiency virus (HIV)

The following are examples of specific topics:

 Lack of Self-confidence in Adolescents: Root Causes, Manifestations and Intervention

 Health Hazards of Direct and Indirect Smoking: Prevention and Cure
 Marketability of a Popular Garment Brand: A Case Study
 HIV: Causes, Prevention, Treatment and Care

Examples of Research Titles of Actual Studies


Examples of Research Questions

1. On Lack of Self-confidence in Adolescents

a. What are the root causes of lack of self confidence in adolescents?
b. What kind of behavior do adolescents who lack self-confidence manifest?
c. What can the following groups of people do to boost up the self-confidence of adolescents?
a. The parents
b. The siblings
c. The church
d. The teacher
e. The guidance counselors
f. The peers

TOPIC or subject matter: define and elaborate using methods of paragraph development like classification and
giving examples.
IMPORTANCE of the topic: cite the role that the topic plays in your life and the benefits you derive from it.
REASONS for Choosing the topic: emphasized what motivated you to choose the topic.
PURPOSE of the study: discusses the objective of the study

Background of the study

Includes the purpose and reason behind the conduct of the study. (What made you conduct the study)
Statement of the Problem
The main problem that the research is trying to solve. It follows the formulation of the title and should be
faithful to it. It specifically points the important questions that the study needs to answer. It also serves as the bases
of the questionnaire.
Significance of the Study
Why conduct the study? You have to identify who will benefit from the research and how they will be
benefitted. This should match with the Recommendations.
Scope and Delimitation of the Study
Scope and Limitations of the Study – determines the coverage of the study and all the things that it will not
cover in order to be specific.
Definition of Terms
Defines technical terms based on how they are used in the study, specifically in the title. This aims to
provide the readers or future researches with the basic terminologies that are important to understand the paper.


What is a literature review?
A literature review provides an overview of what has been written about a specific topic. The review of
literature includes practically all the information and data which are authoritative and relevant to the topic of the
study as in the case of research and similar undertakings. The literature can cover a range of sources, namely:

 Journal articles
 Monographs
 Computerized databases
 Conference proceedings
 Theses and dissertations
 Historical records

Types of sources
Primary sources- publications in which researchers report the results of their studies. Findings are communicated by
the authors directly to the readers. Examples: journals which are published monthly, yearly
Secondary sources- publications in which authors describe the work of others. Textbook is a familiar example of this
type. Other examples: encyclopedia, research review, yearbooks

Citing Related Literature Using Standard Style

Referencing Styles
APA – is an author/date based style. This means emphasis is placed on the author and date of a piece of work to
uniquely identify it.
Ways of Citing

1. By author or writer

Example: According to Felipe (2015) ……….

2. By topic

Example: It has been found out that ……………………. (Felipe, 2015)

3. By Chronology – According to the year, the literatures were written, usually from earliest to the latest.

Only the major findings, ideas, generalizations, principles or conclusions in related materials relevant to the
problem should be cited. A material may be quoted if the idea conveyed is so perfectly stated and is not too

According to Felipe, “pregnancy is a condition where women should take extra care of
themselves, there is also a need to consult with a doctor to check if everything, if both the mother and the
baby are doing fine” (Felipe, 2015)

Samples of Citations
Last name, First name (year). Book Ttile. Subtitle, (edition) Place: Publisher
When entering more than one in-text citation within the same parenthesis, enter them in the same order as
the reference list. Reference list is the list of the sources you used with your paper. Place list at the end of
your paper. Observe the following:
 Title your list of sources References
 List your sources alphabetically by author
 Double-space your reference list

Example: Vega, Prieto, Carreon, 2009; Corpuz and Salandanan, 2013
Reference List:
Examples: Corpuz B. & Salandanan G. (2013) Principles of Teaching. Quezon City: LORIMAR
Publishing Inc.
For a passing reference to a website in-text, the URL is sufficient, no reference list is needed.
( -onreference.aspx)
However, when you are citing a particular document or piece of information from a website, include both a
reference list entry and an in-text citation. The key to creating the reference list entry is to determine the type of
content on the web page. Basically, you should provide the following pieces of information.
Example: Author, (dare). Title of document [(ormal description)]. Retrieved from http://xxxx

The reference list entries from an, e-book for a whole e-book and a chapter in an e-book are exemplified as:
Whole e-book:
Author, Initial. (date). Title of book. Retrieved from httop://xxxxxxx Chapter in an e-book:
YouTube Video
Author’s Last Name, First Initial (Screen Name) (Year, Month, day of upload) Title of Video. [Video
Title} Retrieved from
Author’s last name, First Initial (year) Article title:
Editors 1st initial. Last name (Ed); Encyclopedia Title: (#ed; Vol.# pp#-#) place. Publisher
Entry sample:
Melzshanck, R. (2010) Pain Theories. In I.B. Weiner & W.E. Craighead (eds.), The Corsini Encyclopedia
of Psychology (4th ed.) Vol.3, pp. 1139-1141 Habeoken, N.J., Wiley.
Service-learning programs implemented in American undergraduate universities since 2000 have not only
proven beneficial for the individual or organizations being served but also for the participating students offering
opportunities for academic, emotional, and social growth.
Prior studies have identified many benefits for educational institutions from service-learning programs.
These benefits include positive perceptions of the university by the community (Miron & Moely, 2006), enhanced
student retention rates (Eyler et a., 2001), positive teaching and learning outcomes such as greater student
involvement and participation in class (Caruso et. al, 2007), and increased opportunities for meaningful research
and scholarly activities (Strand et al., 2003).

 Research Design

Qualitative Research Designs

1. Case Study

The case study studies a person, program or event in a defines time frame (Leedy and Omrod, 2001).
Cresswell (1998) says the structure of a case study should be the problem, the context, the issues and
the lessons learned. The sources od data collection are direct or participant observation, interviews,
archival records or documents, physical artifacts and audiovisual materials. The researcher spends time
in the natural setting of the people studied. The report includes lessons learned or patterns found that
connect with theories.
A case being investigated or studied may be that of an individual or a group of persons. This kind of
research is used to gain deeper insight on a phenomenon, validate earlier findings or gather more deep-
seated data.
Examples: case studies of drug-rehabilitated teenagers, transgender, gay marriages, success stories,
among other.

2. Ethnography

Mcmillan (1993) defines this type of research as interactive and which requires relatively extensive
time in a site to systematically observe, interview and record processes as they occur naturally at the
selected location. Leedy and Omrod (2001) say that “ethnographies study an intact cultural group in a
natural setting over a prolonged period of time by collecting, primarily, observational data.
If the interviews are lengthy, the researcher gathers documentaries by using audiotapes or videotaped
One example of an ethnographic study on ethnic minority groups is the dissertation done by Dr. Liza
Daoanis who did a study on the surviving cultural heritage of the Kankaneys of Dalipay, Batangas,
Benguet. The Kankaneys are one of the ethnolinguistic groups that have resisted change through the
years and so, have preserved their cultural traditions and beliefs.

3. Content Analysis
This research design calls for “a detailed and systematic examination of the contents of a
particular body of materials for the purpose of identifying patterns, themes or biases (Leedy and
Omrod 2001). This method identifies specific characteristics of the content of human

This kind of research examines choice and use of words from which concepts or images are
vividly derived. It looks at the relationship between words and their meanings, stressing the
system of relations between words as a source of meaning. Primary data collection strategy is
recorded dialogue (text based, or audio/video recorded.)

Examples can be examination of word choice and use of words in the State of Nation Addresses

4. Phenomenological Study
-The purpose of the study is “to understand an experience from the research participant’s point of
-after the researcher has obtained data from observations, videos, lengthy interviews, images and
others, the critical question is asked: What does the experience mean to the research participant
himself/herself? How will s/he describe this lived experience of being at the center of the research
process? What are his/her significant remarks?

- Rehabilitated drug dependents or r escued trafficked women
- Study of college graduates who opts to do community outreach with the poor sectors of
society instead of practicing their professions after graduation

 Sampling

PURPOSEFUL SAMPLING is a non-random method of sampling where the researcher selects

“information rich” cases for study in depth (Patton, 2002). It takes place when the researcher selects a
sample from which the most can be learned (Merriam, 1998).
Stratified Purposeful- Selection based on subgroups, several cases at each of several levels of variation of
the phenomenon.
Homogeneous Sample- Selecting participants who are very similar in experiences, perspective, or outlook
to produce a narrow sample and make collection and analysis simpler.
Purposeful Random- means participants who were purposively selected and who are too numerous to
include all in the study. This approach lends credibility to the sample, but is still based on an initial sample
that was purposively selected.
Convenience Sampling- researchers select those who are available and likely to participate, perhaps over a
specific period of time.
Politically important Sample- selection of participants who are well known and would create wide
interest in the study.
Opportunistic Sample- Selecting participants based on taking advantage of unexpected situations.

 Methods of data collection

1. Interview – research participants are prodded to talk about their experiences, feelings, beliefs,
outlooks, etc.; can take the form of informal interview, open-ended, or in dept discussions; can be one
time interview, multiple interview with same participants or by group

Structured interviews- set of questions prepare by the researchers; the researcher codes the responses.
Unstructured interviews- use open-ended questions which the interview or research partipates freely ex.
Please describe your thoughts about Alternative Learning System or ALS?
Semi-structured -use both closed and open-ended questions
2. Participant Observation- the researcher immerses himself in the natural setting of the research
participant; participated fully in the activities of the group
3. Focus Group Interview – 6 to 8 persons participate the interview; critical issues can be more freely
discussed with a group; because of the variety of opinions, views ecxpressed etc. this type of data is
very rich.
4. Observational Evaluation – researcher may or may not participate in activities of the group, but
mostly, observes and records both the verbal and non-verbal behavior of a person or group of persons

 Data Analysis Procedures

1. Coding -reads the data, marks segments within the data, each one of which is labelled with a
“code” – a word or a phrase that suggests how the associated data segments address the
research objectives. When coding is complete, the analyst prepares a report summarizing
codes that consistently surface, discussing similarities and differences, or showing
relationship between on or more codes.
***see Video
2. Recursive Abstraction – summarizes the sets of data, then, further summarizes them, and so
on resulting in a compact, distilled, easily understood analysis.
3. Content or Discourse analysis- counts words or phrases or coincidences of tokens within data,
analyses, phrases and exchanges conversatiobs
4. Computer Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Software – uses programs in editing,
revising, and coding which allow for work sharing, peer reviews and recursive examination of
data through any of the following qualitative data analysis software: MAXQDA, QDA,

Generic steps to follow in data analysis procedures:

 Organize and prepare the data for analysis

 Read through all the data.
 Begin detailed analysis with coding process
 Use the coding process to generate a description of the setting or people, as well as
categories or themes for analysis
 Decide how the description of data-lessons, meanings, suggestions for new questions that
need to be asked.


Interpretation of Data
Data Analysis Method
a. Content Analysis – used to categorize oral or spoken words, or a person’s conduct or behavior,
sorting, grouping, codification and tabulation.;
1. Prepare your data. – transcribe data from the beginning of data collection process (save time during
the analysis of data)
2. Determine the unit of analysis.- classify the contents into units or themes. Each unit should have
related to each other. You also based units/themes on the research objectives.
3. Develop the categories or types of behavior or attitudes. -Compare categories and put together across
the categories formed.
4. Pre-test the Coding system. – You select a sample and pre-test the coding system to determine
5. Code all the textual data.- You apply the coding system to all the data, could be done manually or by
6. Check the validity and reliability of data. – keep data accurate and detailed field notes. Consult.
7. Draw inferences. – based on coding system explain based on the categories and determine
relationships and patterns
8. Present the results. – should be supported by secondary data. You may use tables, graphs, diagrams for
a better presentation of results and analysis.

b. Thematic Analysis – provides simple interpretation and concise description of themes and patterns in
the data set, you identify the themes after coding and categorizing the data.
1. Familiarize yourself with your data – transcribe verbal data, read very well and find meanings
and patterns.
2. Generate initial codes. – you produce initial codes; code all your data and identify those
codes which are similar
3. Search for themes. – after long list of codes and sort of different codes into themes. A theme
is a collection of similar codes.
4. Review the themes.- review codes to determine if the data really fits to the theme and review
the level of themes; you can use diagram to put together themes
5. Define and name themes. – reveal essence of each theme or sub themes and how they relate to
overall essence of data
6. Prepare the report. – final report should be concise, logical, coherent and should present a
broad and meaningful account of the results of your research.


Summary of Findings