You are on page 1of 10

EKISTICS

The Science of Human Settlements

"Ekistics starts with the premise that human settlements are susceptible of systematic investigation".

-Constantinos A. Doxiadis

Classification of Human Settlements

Based on Sizes

 Small and sparsely spaced (rural settlements or villages specializing in agriculture)


 Large and closely spaces (urban settlements specializing in secondary and tertiary activities)

Based on Location of Settlements-

 plains, mountains, coastal, etc.

Based on Physical Forms-form

 as the expression of content, function, and structure

Based on Five Elements of Human Settlements

Based on Functions

 which are important to an understanding of the meaning and role of settlements:


 Reveal nature, specialization, & raison d’etre of settlements

Based on activity

 (economic, social), their performance,or special role (as dormitories, retirement villages, etc.)

Based on Time Dimension

 age of settlements, their place in continuum (past, present, future), their relative static of dynamic
character, the whole process of their growth

Based on degree of society’s conscious involvement in settlements creation natural and planned settlements

Based on institutions, legislations and administration

 which society has created for settlements


Classification of Human Settlements

1. By Ekistics Units
2. By Ekistics Elements
3. By Ekistics Functions
4. By Evolutionary Phases
5. By Factors & Disciplines

BY EKISTICS UNITS: FOUR BASIC GROUPS

1. MINOR SHELLS Or Elementary Units (Man, Room, House)

2. MICRO‐SETTLEMENTS The Units Smaller Than Or As Small As, The Traditional Town Where People Used To
And Still Do Achieve Interconnection By Walking

3. MESO‐SETTLEMENTS Between The Traditional Town And The Conurbation Within Which One Can Commute
Daily Can Commute Daily

4. MACRO SETTLEMENTS Whose Largest Possible Expression Is The Ecumenopolis

EKISTICS Units

METROPOLIS

CITY
TOWN

NEIGHBORHOOD

DWELLING

ROOM

MAN
ECUMENAPOLIS

URBAN
REGION
MEGALOPOLIS

CONURBATION

METROPOLIS

ECUNOMOPLIS

 The entire area of Earth taken up by human settlements


MEGALOPOLIS

 A group of several towns and cities consisting of more than 10 million people

CONURBATION

 A capital city of a country or region. Tokyo is the most populous metropolis in the world
BY EKISTICS ELEMENTS

PRIMARY

SECONDARY

TERTIARY

NATURE AND GOALS OF SETTLEMENT

• NATURE

• GEOLOGICAL RESOURCES

• TOPOGRAPHICAL RESOURCES

• SOIL RESOURCES

• WATER RESOURCES

• PLANT LIFE

• ANIMAL LIFE

• CLIMATE
• MAN

• BIOLOGICAL NEEDS (SPACE, AIR, TEMPERATURE, ETC.)

• SENSATION AND PERCEPTION (THE “FIVE SENSES”)

• EMOTIONAL NEEDS

• MORAL VALUES

• SOCIETY

• POPULATION, COMPOSITON AND DENSITY

• SOCIAL STRATIFICATION

• CULTURAL PATTERNS

• ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

• EDUCATION

• HEALTH AND WELFARE

• LAW AND ADIMINISTRATION

• SHELL

• HOUSING

• COMMUNITY SERVICES (SCHOOL, HOSPITAL, ETC.)

• SHOPPING CENTERS AND MARKETS

• RECREATIONAL FACILITIES

• CIVIC AND BUSINESS CENTERS (TOWN HALL, COURTS)

• INDUSTRY

• TRANSPORTAION CENTERS

• NETWORKS

• WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS

• POWEER SUPPLY SYSTEMS

• TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS (WATER, ROAD, RAIL, AIR)


• COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS (TELEPHONE, RADIO, TV, ETC.)

• SEWAGE AND DRAINAGE

• PHYSICAL LAYOUT

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF EKISTICS

• MAXIMIZATION OF HUMAN POTENTIALS –in a certain area, man will select the location which permits a
maximum of potential contact

• MINIMIZATION OF EFFORTS –a minimum of effort, terms of energy, time and cost Man selects the most
convenient routes

• OPTIMIZATION OF MAN’S PROTECTIVE SPACE

• OPTIMIZATION OF MAN’S RELATIONSHIP WITH HIS ENVIORMENT

• OPTIMIZATION OF FOUR PREVIOUS PRENCIPLES

Classification of Human Settlements

By Evolutionary Phases

MACRO SCALE

• NOMADIC

• Agricultural

• Urban

• Industrial

MICRO SCALE

• Specific Area at a Limited Period of Time


Classification of Human Settlements
By Factors and Discipline

Cultural
DISCIPLINES

Technical
Economics
Disciplines
EKISTICS

Political
Sciences Sociology
Administration

ISLAMABAD: The Creation of New CapitaL

 Islamabad is the capital city of Pakistan, and is federally administered as part of the Islamabad Capital
Territory. Built as a planned city in the 1960s to replace Karachi as Pakistan's capital, Islamabad is noted
for its high standards of living, safety, and abundant greenery.
 The name of the city, Islamabad, is derived from two words, Islam and abad, meaning "City of
Islam". Islam is an Arabic word which refers to the religion of Islam and -abad is a Persian suffix indicating
an inhabited place or city.

 10TH Largest City in the world

 Located in Pothohar Plateau

 Built during1960 to replace Karachi

 Most developed City and divided into sectors and zones

 Doxiadis´s provision of generous public spaces in graduated amounts for each class of community was
paralleled by a careful ecological analysis of the four main categories of natural landscape: the
mountains, the hillocks, the plain and the ravines.
The notion of design to integrate nature and the city is achieved by a scalar arrangement of “Landscape” in the
form of Productive Landscape (agro-grid, urban agro-farm), ecological Landscape (ecogrid, natural plant,
green, ravine and wildlife), and Urban Structuring Landscape (public, private and hybrid)types.

The plan of Islamabad shows connectivity on all levels; within the city, natural landscape is integrated with other
systems of open spaces and other types of landscape, and also creates an urban system that is connected to
the natural areas surrounding the city.