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I. Introduction

Research is a way of observation and has the objective to find the answer of problems or
discovery process (Sukardi, 2003:3). Ary (2006) stated that an experiment is a scientific
investigation in which the researcher manipulates one or more independent variables, controls any
other relevant variables, and observes the effect of the manipulations on the dependent variable(s)
(pgs.265). while, According to Sugiyono (2006:80), experimental research is a research which has
the purpose to find the cause-effect relationship among variables in a controlled condition.1 An
experimenter deliberately and systematically introduces change and then observes the
consequences of that change. Only research problems that permit a researcher to manipulate
conditions are appropriate for experimental research. The goal of experimental research is to
determine whether a causal relationship exists between two or more variables. Because the
experiment involves control and careful observation and measurement, this research method
provides the most convincing evidence of the effect that one variable has on another.2
Thorndike (1924) and other early investigators extended the experimental method to
education. In its simplest form, an experiment has three characteristics: (1) An independent
variable is manipulated; (2) all other variables that might affect the dependent Variable are held
constant; and (3) the effect of the manipulation of the independent variable on the dependent
variable is observed. Thus, in an experiment the two variables of major interest are the independent
variable and the dependent variable.3

The independent variable is manipulated (changed) by the experimenter. The variable on

which the effects of the changes are observed is called the dependent variable, which is observed
but not manipulated by the experimenter. The dependent variable is so named because its value is
hypothesized to depend on, and vary with, the value of the independent variable. For example, to
examine the effect of different teaching methods on achievement in reading, an investigator would
manipulate method (the independent variable) by using different teaching methods in order to
assess their effect on reading achievement (the dependent variable).4

2. 2,3,4.
Introduction to research in education. Razavieh, A. at al. page 266
II. Discussion

1. Characteristic of experimental research

The essential requirements for experimental research are control, manipulation of the
independent variable, and observation and measurement.

a. Control

All experimental designs have one central characteristic: they are based on manipulating the
independent variable and measuring the effect on the dependent variable. Experimental designs
result in inferences drawn from the data that explain the relationships between the variables.

The classic experimental design consists of the experimental group and the control group. In
the experimental group the independent variable is manipulated. In the control the dependent
variable is measured when no alteration has been made on the independent variable. The dependent
variable is measured in the experimental group the same way, and at the same time, as in the
control group. The prediction is that the dependent variable in the experimental group will change
in a specific way and that the dependent variable in the control group will not change.

Controlling Unwanted Influences: To obtain a reliable answer to the research question, the design
should eliminate unwanted influences. The amount of control that the researcher has over the
variables being studied varies, from very little in exploratory studies to a great deal in experimental
design, but the limitations on control must be addressed in any research proposal. These unwanted
influences stem from one or more of the Extraneous Variables: Extraneous variables are variables
that can interfere with the action of the independent variable. Since they are not part of the study,
their influence must be controlled. In the research literature, the extraneous variables also referred
to as intervening variables, directly affect the action of the independent variable on the dependent
variables. Intervening variables are those variables that occur in the study setting. They include
eeconomics, physical, and psychological variables. Therefore, it is important to control extraneous
variables to study the effect of independent variable on dependent variable. We must be very

careful to control all possible extraneous variables that might intervene the dependent variable.
Methods of controlling extraneous variables include :

• randomization
• homogeneous sampling techniques
• matching
• building the variables into the design
• statistical control
Randomization: Theoretically, randomization is the only method of controlling all possible
extraneous variables. The random assignment of subjects to the various treatment and control
groups means that the groups can be considered statistically equal in all ways at the beginning of
the experiment. It does not mean that they actually are equal for all variables. However, the
probability of their being equal is greater than the probability of their not being equal, if the random
assignment was carried out properly. The exception lies with small groups where random
assignment could result in unequal distribution of crucial variables. If this possibility exists, the
other method would be more appropriate. In most instances, however, randomization is the best
method of controlling extraneous variables. A random sampling technique results in a normal
distribution of extraneous variables in the sample; this approximates the distribution of those
variables in the population. The purpose of randomization is to ensure a representative sample.
(ANCOVA) may be used for this purpose. Here, one or more extraneous variables are measured
along with the dependent variables. This method adds to the cost of the study because of the
additional data collection and analysis required. Therefore, it should be used only as a last resort.

b. Manipulation

The manipulation of an independent variable is a deliberate operation performed by the

experimenter. In educational research and other behavioral sciences, the manipulation of an
independent variable involves setting up different treatment conditions. Treatment is another word
for the experimental manipulation of the independent variable. The different treatment conditions
administered to the subjects in the experiment are the levels of the independent variable.5

Introduction to research in education. Razavieh, A. at al. page 268
in a studying the effect of using computer simulations on the learning of science concepts, you
have one independent variable with two levels: computer simulation and no computer simulation.
Do not confuse one independent variable having two levels with two independent variables.6

Again, to manipulate an independent variable means to change its level systematically so

that different groups of participants are exposed to different levels of that variable, or the same
group of participants is exposed to different levels at different times. For example, to see whether
expressive writing affects people’s health, a researcher might instruct some participants to write
about traumatic experiences and others to write about neutral experiences.

The researcher would begin by specifying the stimulant to be used and the amount to be
administered. If the researcher is interested in the effect of the stimulant amount on learning, he or
she would perhaps set up three levels of the independent variable: high, medium, and low dosage.
Or the researcher could compare the effects of one stimulant with another stimulant, or with
nothing at all. In this case, the levels differ in kind. Other examples of independent variables where
the levels might differ in amount are sleep deprivation or money used as an incentive. Independent
variables, such as different teaching methods (lecture versus discussion) or different instructions
given to subjects, have levels differing in kind. A researcher may manipulate more than one
independent variable in a single study.7

Introduction to research in education. Razavieh, A. at al. page 269

Observation is the action of procces of observing something or someone carefully in order

to gain information. Or in short we can say that observation is a remark, statement, or comment
based on something one has seen, heard or noticed. 1Mardapi (2004) says that the measurement is
basically the activity of determining numbers that are used in systematically.8

After applying the experimental treatment, the researcher observes to determine if the
hypothesized change has occurred. Some changes can be observed directly, whereas other changes
are measured indirectly.9

for example: Learning is often the dependent variable in educational research. Researchers
cannot measure learning directly. They can only estimate learning through scores on an
achievement test or other measures chosen according to the operational definition. Therefore,
strictly speaking, the dependent variable is observed scores rather than learning per se. Figure 10.1
illustrates the basic design of an experiment.

2. Experimental Comparison
An experiment begins with an experimental hypothesis, a prediction that the treatment will
have a certain effect. The research hypothesis expresses expectations as to results from the changes
introduced—that the treatment and no- treatment groups will differ because of the treatment’s
effects. Recall from Chapter 5 that a null hypothesis must also be developed before the research
begins. For the simplest experiment, you need two groups of subjects: the experimental group and
the control group.10

The experimental group receives a specific treatment; the control group receives no
treatment. Using a control group enables the researcher to discount many alternative explanations
for the effect of treatment. For example, assume a researcher randomly assigns students to two
groups. The experimental group receives a cash reward for successfully completing an object
assembly task. If the experimental group does better on the task than the equivalent no- cash-
reward group (control group), the researcher has evidence of the relationship between the cash
reward and performance on the object assembly task. More common than comparing a treatment
group to a group receiving no treatment (true control group) is the situation in which researchers
compare groups receiving different treatments. These are called comparison groups.11

The majority of educational experiments study the difference in the results of two or more
treatments rather than the difference in the results of one treatment versus no treatment at all. For
example, it would be pointless to compare the spelling achievement of an experimental group
taught by method A with a control group that had no spelling instruction at all. Instead, researchers
compare groups receiving method A and method B treatments. Comparison of groups receiving
different treatments provides the same control over alternative explanations, as does comparison
of treated and untreated groups. To simplify subsequent discussions, we use the term control group
to refer both to groups with no treatment and to groups with alternative treatments.12

Introduction to research in education. Razavieh, A. at al. page 270
Comparisons are essential in scientific investigation. Comparing a group receiving treatment
with either an equivalent group receiving no treatment or an equivalent group or groups receiving
alternative treatment makes it possible to draw well-founded conclusions from the results.
Evaluation follows measurement. Do dependent variable scores differ for the two groups? The
experimenter compares the measures of the dependent variable in the first group with the measures
of the dependent variable in the other group. The comparison tells the experimenter whether
differences on the dependent variable are associated with differences on the independent variable.

III. Conclusion
An experiment typically include controls, which are designed to minimize the effects of
variables other than the single independent variable. This increases the reliability of the results,
often through a comparison between control measurements and the other measurement.
Daftar Pustaka

Ary, D. (2006). Introduction to Research in Education. USA: WADSWORTH.



1. NUR ZAINAB (A1M2 16 141)

2. FIFI IMANIAR (A1M2 16 017)
3. RUSDIANTI SUKMA J (A1M2 16 115)
4. MUHAMAT KABIL (A1M2 16 099)
6. ALIMANSYAH (A1M2 16 005)
7. MAULID (A1M2 16 031)
8. MUH. TIRTA ALAM T (A1M2 15 111)

English Language Education

Faculty of Teachers and Education

University of Halu Oleo

Kendari 2018