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Research is defined as a careful consideration of study regarding a particular

concern or a problem using scientific methods. It comprises "creative and

systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge
of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise
new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results
of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new
theories. A research project may also be an expansion on past work in the field.
Research projects can be used to develop further knowledge on a topic. The goal of
the research process is to produce new knowledge or deepen understanding of a topic
or issue.

The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary defines research in more detail as

"studious inquiry or examination; especially : investigation or experimentation
aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories
or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised
theories or laws.

Research is more than a set of skills, it is a way of thinking: examining

critically the various aspects of you professional work. Research is based on
logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods. The data or
knowledge that is derived is in real time, actual observations in the natural
settings. There is an in-depth analysis of all the data collected from research so
that there are no anomalies associated with it. Research is analytical in nature.
It makes use of all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference.
Accuracy is one of the important character of research, the information that is
obtained while conducting the research should be accurate and true to its nature.

We should also know what research is not so it make us more clearly understand
about the meaning of research. Collecting and publishing existing knowledge isn’t
research, as it doesn’t create new knowledge. Research is not teaching because
teaching itself is generally regarded as the synthesis and transfer of existing
knowledge. Research is not data-gathering. Although data gathering is vital part of
research but it doesn't creat new knowledge. Research is not doing the same thing
that someone else has already done.

Indeed, research is undertaken within a framework of a set of philosophies,

uses procedures, methods and techniques that have been tested for their validity
and reliability and is designed to be unbiased and objective. Research is a process
for collecting, analysing and interpreting, information to answer questions.

When we are undertaking the research, collecting the data needed for the
research in real life is not easy. We need to correct data that are appropriate
because most of the data at hand are sometime inadequate. Researcher can collect
primary data either through experiments or survey. He or she can make collection
data by observation ,through personal interviews, telephone or mailing questions.

Besides, his research meet on the common ground of scientific method. The
purpose of research should be clear defined and described in sufficient data in
detail to permit the another research to repeat the research for further
advancement. Also, it is necessary to be empirical, systematic, logical and
replicable. These are rules for the good research and by following this, he can
found a good solution for the problem.

Types of Research Methods

There are two major types of empirical research design: qualitative research
and quantitative research. Researchers choose qualitative or quantitative methods
according to the nature of the research topic they want to investigate and the
research questions they aim to answer.

In either qualitative or quantitative research, the researcher may collect

primary or secondary data. Primary data is data collected specifically for the
research, such as through interviews or questionnaires. Secondary data is data that
already exists, such as census data, which can be re-used for the research. It is
good ethical research practice to use secondary data wherever possible.

Another research that includes qualitative and quantitative elements, using both
primary and secondary data, we called mixed-method research, is becoming more
common. This method has benefits that using one method alone cannot offer. For
example, a researcher may choose to conduct a qualitative study and follow it up
with a quantitative study to gain additional insights.