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# Karnaugh Maps

Karnaugh Maps

 Boolean reduction
 can get involved.
 leaves one wondering if the final result really is
the simplest solution.
 Karnaugh Mapping is a
 systematic approach guaranteeing the
simplest possible logic circuit.
 can be done by hand for up to four inputs
Karnaugh Map

##  A grid with all possible combinations

 Two variables ==> four squares
 Three variables ==> eight squares
 Four variables ==> 16 squares
 Only one variable changes between
Karnaugh Map (2 & 3 variable)

C C
B B
AB
A
AB
A
AB
AB
Four Variable Karnaugh Map

C D C D CD CD
AB
AB
AB
AB
Step 1: Find SOP Expression

##  Use Boolean methods to find the sum of

products form.
Step 2: Karnaugh Map

##  Fill in the Karnaugh Map with a one for each

product expression present.
 Leave other squares blank.
Squares
 Draw a circle around adjacent (not
diagonal) squares with ones.
 Circles must be drawn around groups of
2, 4, or 8.
 Circles can overlap.
Step 4: Constant Terms

##  There will be one term of the simplified

sum of products solution for each circle.
 The term for a circle is the variables that
remained the same
 always inverted
 or always non-inverted
Example

 X = ABC’ + A’B + C’ C
A’B’
 already in sum of A’B’ 1 1
products form
A’B 1 1
 Solution
 Circle 1: A’ AB 1
 Circle 2: BC’
AB’
 X = A’+ BC’
Example:

 Note overlap. C’ C
 Single circle would result in A’ +
ABC’ which is not the simplest
solution. A’B’ 1 1
 Recall A’ + AB = A’ + B
 Here:
A’B 1 1
 A’ + ABC’ = A’ + BC’ AB 1
 Circle largest possible
number of ones. AB’
Example:
 Z = B’C’D+BC’D+C’D’+CD’(B+A’B’)
 Step 1: Expand to Sum of Products
 Z = B’C’D+BC’D+C’D’+ BCD’ +A’B’CD’
Example:

 Z = B’C’D+BC’D+C’D’+CD’B+A’B’CD’

A’B’ 1 1 1
A’B 1 1 1
AB 1 1 1
AB’ 1 1
Example:

## C’D’ C’D CD CD’

Circle A’B’ 1 1 1
Group
of 8 A’B 1 1 1
AB 1 1 1
AB’ 1 1
Example:

## C’D’ C’D CD CD’

Circle A’B’ 1 1 1
group of
four. A’B 1 1 1
Note that AB 1 1 1
the map
can wrap AB’ 1 1
around.
Example:

## Now left with a A’B’ 1 1 1

single one
uncircled. A’B 1 1 1
Temptation to
do this. AB 1 1 1
But... AB’ 1 1
Example:

## C’D’ C’D CD CD’

There is a A’B’ 1 1 1
group of 4 that
encompasses A’B 1 1 1
this one, even
though the
other 3 ones
AB 1 1 1
circled. AB’ 1 1
Example:

circled.
C’D’ C’D CD CD’
A’B’ 1 1 1
A’B 1 1 1
AB 1 1 1
AB’ 1 1
Example:

 Thus BD’
C’D’ C’D CD CD’
A’B’ 1 1 1
A’B 1 1 1
AB 1 1 1
AB’ 1 1
Example:

##  A’ and D’ stay the same. Thus A’D’ is the

final term.
C’D’ C’D CD CD’
A’B’ 1 1 1
Total Solution: A’B 1 1 1
Z = C’ + B’D’ + A’D’
AB 1 1 1
AB’ 1 1
 Example
Given the truth table
a) find a Boolean algebra expression using a
Karnaugh map.

## b) draw a ladder diagram using the truth table

(not the Boolean expression).
Solution:
a.
Z  ABC D  ABC D  ABCD  ABC D
 AB C D  ABC D  ABCD
a)

Z  BC  BD  ACD
b)
 Given a ladder diagram, simplify the number
of contacts using boolean algebra
Solution:

X  ((( A  B)  ( B  A))  ( B  C  B  C ))  C
X  ((( A  B)  ( B  A))  ( B  C  B  C ))  C
X  BC  C
X  ( B  1)C
X C
Seatwork
1. From the given relay ladder
diagram, identify the
equivalent logic operation.
Seatwork
2. Write the equation that