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Karnaugh Maps

Karnaugh Maps

 Boolean reduction
 can get involved.
 leaves one wondering if the final result really is
the simplest solution.
 Karnaugh Mapping is a
 systematic approach guaranteeing the
simplest possible logic circuit.
 can be done by hand for up to four inputs
Karnaugh Map

 A grid with all possible combinations


 Two variables ==> four squares
 Three variables ==> eight squares
 Four variables ==> 16 squares
 Only one variable changes between
adjacent (not diagonal) squares.
Karnaugh Map (2 & 3 variable)

C C
B B
AB
A
AB
A
AB
AB
Four Variable Karnaugh Map

C D C D CD CD
AB
AB
AB
AB
Step 1: Find SOP Expression

 Use Boolean methods to find the sum of


products form.
Step 2: Karnaugh Map

 Fill in the Karnaugh Map with a one for each


product expression present.
 Leave other squares blank.
Step 3: Circle Adjacent
Squares
 Draw a circle around adjacent (not
diagonal) squares with ones.
 Circles must be drawn around groups of
2, 4, or 8.
 Circles can overlap.
Step 4: Constant Terms

 There will be one term of the simplified


sum of products solution for each circle.
 The term for a circle is the variables that
remained the same
 always inverted
 or always non-inverted
Example

 X = ABC’ + A’B + C’ C
A’B’
 already in sum of A’B’ 1 1
products form
A’B 1 1
 Solution
 Circle 1: A’ AB 1
 Circle 2: BC’
AB’
 X = A’+ BC’
Example:

 Note overlap. C’ C
 Single circle would result in A’ +
ABC’ which is not the simplest
solution. A’B’ 1 1
 Recall A’ + AB = A’ + B
 Here:
A’B 1 1
 A’ + ABC’ = A’ + BC’ AB 1
 Circle largest possible
number of ones. AB’
Example:
 Z = B’C’D+BC’D+C’D’+CD’(B+A’B’)
 Step 1: Expand to Sum of Products
 Z = B’C’D+BC’D+C’D’+ BCD’ +A’B’CD’
Example:

 Z = B’C’D+BC’D+C’D’+CD’B+A’B’CD’

C’D’ C’D CD CD’


A’B’ 1 1 1
A’B 1 1 1
AB 1 1 1
AB’ 1 1
Example:

 Circle ones in groups of 8, 4, 2, 1

C’D’ C’D CD CD’

Circle A’B’ 1 1 1
Group
of 8 A’B 1 1 1
AB 1 1 1
AB’ 1 1
Example:

 Circle ones in groups of 8, 4, 2, 1

C’D’ C’D CD CD’

Circle A’B’ 1 1 1
group of
four. A’B 1 1 1
Note that AB 1 1 1
the map
can wrap AB’ 1 1
around.
Example:

 Circle ones in groups of 8, 4, 2, 1

C’D’ C’D CD CD’

Now left with a A’B’ 1 1 1


single one
uncircled. A’B 1 1 1
Temptation to
do this. AB 1 1 1
But... AB’ 1 1
Example:

 Circle ones in groups of 8, 4, 2, 1

C’D’ C’D CD CD’


There is a A’B’ 1 1 1
group of 4 that
encompasses A’B 1 1 1
this one, even
though the
other 3 ones
AB 1 1 1
are already
circled. AB’ 1 1
Example:

 C’ is the only term the same for all ones


circled.
C’D’ C’D CD CD’
A’B’ 1 1 1
A’B 1 1 1
AB 1 1 1
AB’ 1 1
Example:

 B says the same as does D’.


 Thus BD’
C’D’ C’D CD CD’
A’B’ 1 1 1
A’B 1 1 1
AB 1 1 1
AB’ 1 1
Example:

 A’ and D’ stay the same. Thus A’D’ is the


final term.
C’D’ C’D CD CD’
A’B’ 1 1 1
Total Solution: A’B 1 1 1
Z = C’ + B’D’ + A’D’
AB 1 1 1
AB’ 1 1
Relay Ladder Logic
 Example
Given the truth table
Relay Ladder Logic
a) find a Boolean algebra expression using a
Karnaugh map.

b) draw a ladder diagram using the truth table


(not the Boolean expression).
Relay Ladder Logic
Solution:
a.
Z  ABC D  ABC D  ABCD  ABC D
 AB C D  ABC D  ABCD
Relay Ladder Logic
a)

Z  BC  BD  ACD
Relay Ladder Logic
b)
Simplified Ladder Diagram
Relay Ladder Logic
 Given a ladder diagram, simplify the number
of contacts using boolean algebra
Relay Ladder Logic
Solution:

X  ((( A  B)  ( B  A))  ( B  C  B  C ))  C
X  ((( A  B)  ( B  A))  ( B  C  B  C ))  C
X  BC  C
X  ( B  1)C
X C
Seatwork
1. From the given relay ladder
diagram, identify the
equivalent logic operation.
Seatwork
2. Write the equation that
will represent the ladder
operation and simplify
using Boolean rules and
Karnaugh map.