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Teacher Resource Guide

Indigenous World Views and Biographies

By: Natalie Bodner, Kristen Widdes, Joel Bertrand, Dallas


Hawkins, and Matthew Manso

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Table of Contents
Introduction 3

Truth and Reconciliation 5

Curriculum Connections 6

Lesson Plan Outline: Meet Tom Longboat 9

Lesson Plan Outline: What are the Odds? 12

Links between concepts from readings and resource guide 16

References 18

Appendix 20

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Introduction
Essential question: How can we explore Indigenous world views through biographies?

In an attempt to actively decolonize our classrooms, teachers need to introduce material


into the classroom that includes Aboriginal content. As discussed by Battiste (2010), she
explains that “in schools, we must engage in a critique of the curriculum and examine the
connections between - and the framework of meanings behind - what is being taught, who is
being excluded, and who is benefiting from public education” (p.17). With this frame of mind,
teachers need to actively consider if we are effectively including Aboriginal content or if, as
Dion (2007) says, we are positioning ourselves as “perfect strangers” to Aboriginal peoples
(p.330). Dion (2007) explains how it can be challenging for teachers to address topics that may
be sensitive or that might contest preconceived notions of what Canada is. Instead, it can be
easier to continue to reproduce the stereotypical image of Aboriginals and their history (Dion,
2007, p.331). This is why it is important for teachers to find ways that they can ensure that the
students they are teaching are receiving an effective education that supports the Aboriginal
peoples’ way of life. For the purposes of this resource, we focused on providing a resource for
grade five teachers.

This teacher resource demonstrates how we can incorporate biographies into the
classroom, so that Indigenous cultures, history, ways of being, and perspectives can be heard.
Specifically, we chose to focus our resource around the biography of Tom Longboat, who was
Onondagan and from Southern Ontario (Unwin, 2013, p.105). Before Longboat became known
for his ability to run races in record time, he grew up attending a residential school (Unwin,
2013, p.106). He would later go on to win the Boston marathon in 1907, compete in Olympic
marathons, and was celebrated by many, but there were also those who were still uncomfortable
with the idea of him becoming famous. According to research done by Unwin (2013), there were
many who tried to undercut his successes and used racialized speech when discussing Longboat
(p.106). Due to the fact that Longboat achieved many successes, but at the same time faced many
challenges, we believed that he would be an excellent figure for a grade five group of students to
learn about. It is the hope that through this resource, students will be introduced to the successes
that Indigenous members of society achieved, even when they faced adversity. Many times in
our classroom settings, we learn about the Indigenous population for how they were seen in
relation to white members of society. For example, they were seen as a population in need of
saving and it was the objective of colonialists to assimilate the Aboriginal peoples to the
dominant culture. What makes this resource unique is that, rather than following the typical
formula noted above, the students are able to learn about the successes and potential tribulations
of many Indigenous members of society, while also changing the types of discussions had.

For our resource, our end goal is to have the students promote a walk/run for
reconciliation at their school where students will either walk or run in memory of the Indigenous
members of society who went through so much. The two lessons that we have chosen to include
in this resource were chosen so that students could be introduced to biographies and then make a
personal connection by understanding how challenging it was for an individual, such as Tom
Longboat, to win a marathon. Through the second lesson, we wish for the students to achieve a
sense of perspective. As was mentioned previously, our end goal is for the students to engage in

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a walk/run for reconciliation and because of this, we believed that these two steps (lessons) were
critical for the students to fully understand what it would mean to be engaging in the activity.
Not only can students learn about Tom Longboat, but they can also learn about various other
Indigenous members of society through the use of biographies. This can help students begin to
develop an understanding of the experiences/narratives of Indigenous populations around the
world. These experiences/narratives could perhaps be ones that have seldom been shared. We
recognize that there have been many negative depictions of Aboriginal peoples throughout
history, so we believed it would be important for Indigenous and non-indigenous students to take
away a different, more positive, understanding. In celebration of Tom Longboat’s birthday which
was on June 4th, we thought that it would be fitting that students would be able to complete their
run/walk on/or around this date.

(Nugent, 2018)

(Kidd, 2013)

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Connection to the 94 Calls to Action of Reconciliation


Our teaching resource guide focuses on two of the 94 Calls to Action. First, we are
focusing on the 10th Call to Action which includes: developing culturally appropriate curricula
and protecting the right to Aboriginal languages, including the teaching of Aboriginal Languages
as credit courses, and respecting and honoring Treaty relationships. Through the use of a book
based on an Aboriginal man and his successes in Canada when he persevered, we are including
Aboriginal peoples and stories in the planning and development of our in-class curriculum.
Second, we are touching on Call to Action 63 which includes:

 i. Developing and implementing Kindergarten to Grade Twelve curriculum and


learning resources on Aboriginal peoples in Canadian history, and the history and
legacy of residential schools.
 ii. Sharing information and best practices on teaching curriculum related to
residential schools and Aboriginal history.
 iii. Building student capacity for intercultural understanding, empathy, and mutual
respect.

Once again, through the use of the book Meet Tom Longboat, we are developing a
resource that includes the history of Aboriginal peoples in the development of Canada, and also
the legacy of residential schools as Tom Longboat was a survivor of the residential school
system. This book allows us to open up conversation that would be grade-appropriate in the
classroom through an interesting story of someone that survived and overcame the difficulty of
life following the trauma of the residential school system.

It is important that we begin to include Aboriginal peoples and content into our
classrooms as these Calls to Action have been put into place. As teachers, it is our responsibility
to teach the full and complete history of Canada, through both the good and the bad. By
introducing students in grade five to the story of Tom Longboat, we begin to introduce the
students to content that will become such a crucial part of their education in the coming years in
the school system.

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Curriculum Connections
Throughout the course of our resource, we touch on curriculum expectations from four
different subject areas: math, physical education, language arts, and language. First, the students
will be asked to read and respond to the biography of Tom Longboat, which hits on the reading
and comprehension aspect of the language curriculum. Next, the students will be asked to
respond using a graphic organizer with the information from the text that they collect. Doing this
exercise allows the students to respond in writing to the reading that they have been assigned.
Following these two exercises, the students will be asked to create a multilingual movie poster
which incorporates both aspects from the language and arts curriculum. We have chosen to link
these two subjects together as Language Arts is a common theme within education in grade five
when teachers are generalists and need to hit cross-curricular expectations in their classrooms.

Next, lesson two focuses on the physical education and mathematics curriculums.
Students will be introduced to graphing and collecting data during their research and calculation
of what the probability is that a single individual wins a theoretical marathon. Through the
process of inquiry, students will be asked indirectly to respond to the story in which they read.
Following this, students will be assigned running tasks in connection with the math task of
marathons, which hits the curriculum expectations in physical education for grade five. Using
this book as a topic in grade five is an appropriate age to begin introducing the aspect of
residential schools and the struggles and accomplishments of Aboriginal peoples within Canada.
Including activities in which the students move around and are encouraged to be creative and use
the creative process is a way to encourage the junior learner and motivate them to learn about the
topic that is being presented to them. In sum, our resource makes connection to four different
subject areas within the Ontario curriculum as well as hits many overall and specific expectations
within these same areas.

Math Curriculum
Overall Expectations
By the end of Grade 5, students will:
- collect and organize discrete or continuous primary data and secondary data and display the
data using charts and graphs, including broken-line graphs;
- read, describe, and interpret primary data and secondary data presented in charts and graphs,
including broken-line graphs;

Grade 5: Data Management and Probability


– collect data by conducting a survey or an experiment
– collect and organize discrete or continuous primary data and secondary data and display the
data in charts, tables, and graphs (including broken-line graphs) that have appropriate titles,
labels (e.g., appropriate units marked on the axes), and scales that suit the range and distribution
of the data
– demonstrate an understanding that sets of data can be samples of larger populations

Phys Ed Curriculum
Overall Expectations:

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A1. participate actively and regularly in a wide variety of physical activities, and demonstrate an
understanding of factors that encourage lifelong participation in physical activity;
A2. demonstrate an understanding of the importance of being physically active, and apply
physical fitness concepts and practices that contribute to healthy, active living;

Specific Expectations:
A1. Active Participation
By the end of Grade 5, students will:
A1.1 actively participate in a wide variety of program activities (e.g., lead-up games, recreational
activities, fitness and endurance activities, dance), according to their capabilities, while applying
behaviours that enhance their readiness and ability to take part (e.g., encouraging others with
positive comments, displaying fair play by respecting the decisions of others) [PS, IS]

A2. Physical Fitness


By the end of Grade 5, students will:
A2.1 Daily physical activity (DPA): participate in sustained moderate to vigorous physical
activity, with appropriate warm-up and cool-down activities, to the best of their ability for a
minimum of twenty minutes each day (e.g., power walking, wheeling, playing three-on-three
games, skipping rope) [PS]

English Curriculum
1. Reading for Meaning
By the end of Grade 5, students will:
Variety of Texts
1.1 read a variety of texts from diverse cultures, including literary texts (e.g., short stories,
poetry, myths, culturally focused legends, plays, biographies, novels), graphic texts (e.g., graphic
novels, hobby or sports magazines, advertisements, logos, atlases, graphic organizers, charts and
tables), and informational texts (e.g., editorials, reports, biographies, textbooks and other non-
fiction materials, print and online articles, personal electronic and online texts such as e-mails)
Comprehension Strategies
1.3 identify a variety of reading comprehension strategies and use them appropriately before,
during, and after reading to understand texts (e.g., activate prior knowledge through asking
questions about or discussing a topic; develop mind maps to explore ideas; ask questions to focus
reading; use visualization to clarify details of a character, scene, or concept in a text; make
predictions about a text based on reasoning and related reading; reread to confirm or clarify
meaning)
Responding to and Evaluating Texts
1.8 make judgements and draw conclusions about the ideas and information in texts and cite
stated or implied evidence from the text to support their views (e.g., sort and classify information
from a text to see what conclusions it supports or suggests; create a profile of a character based
on stated or implied information in the text) Teacher prompt: “Do you think this character’s
actions accurately reveal his thoughts? What evidence from the text supports your conclusion?”

Arts Curriculum
D1.1 create two- and three-dimensional works of art that express feelings and ideas inspired by
their interests and experiences

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D1.3 use elements of design in art works to communicate ideas, messages, and understandings

(Kid, 2013)

Kidd, 2013)

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Lesson Plan Outline One

Title: Meet Tom Longboat


Grade: 5
Subject/Course: Language Arts, The Arts
Strand: Language Arts: Oral Communications, Reading, Writing The Arts: Visual Arts
Time: Three 45 minute classes
Lesson Description key goal(s) This lesson is intended to have students engage with the literature genre of biography and discuss
how this literary genre conveys Indigenous voice. To begin the lesson, students review their prior knowledge of the genre through a
definitions quiz. Following this, students will consider the text patterns, form, and style elements of this genre more in-depth by
creating their own elements of a biography graphic organizer. They will use this as they listen to a biography read-aloud in class to
respond to the text forms and features, taking into consideration how these characteristics lend themselves to conveying Indigenous
voice. In a following class, the elements organizer tasks will be taken up and students will engage in their own inquiry, posing a
question for something they wish to know more about. Lastly, students will design a multilingual movie poster for the biopic of Tom
Longboat.
Stage 1: Desired Results
Essential Question/Big Ideas
 Essential Question: How can we explore Indigenous world views through the genre of biographies?
 Big ideas: Writing structure/patterns, inquiry, and elements of the creative process
Ontario Ministry Curriculum Overall Expectation(s)

Language Arts:
1) Overall Oral Communications Expectations:
• Listen in order to understand and respond appropriately in a variety of situations for a variety of purposes.
• Use speaking skills and strategies appropriately to communicate with different audiences for a variety of purposes.
2) Overall Reading Expectations:
• Recognize a variety of text forms, text features, and stylistic elements and demonstrate understanding of how they help
communicate meaning.
3) Overall Writing Expectations:
• Generate, gather, and organize ideas and information to write for an intended purpose and audience.

The Arts
1) Visual Arts:
• Creating and Presenting: apply the creative process to produce a variety of two- and three-dimensional art works, using
elements, principles, and techniques of visual arts to communicate feelings, ideas, and understandings

Stage 2: Evidence of learning and assessment purpose/procedure


Assessment task(s) (i.e., what students will being saying, Purpose of assessment (e.g., Tool(s) for assessing learning (e.g.,
writing and/or doing that will provide evidence of their diagnostic, formative, summative): checklist, marking scheme, rubric,
learning): observational record):
Task 1: Definitions Quiz Diagnostic Anecdotal record (Class discussion)
Task 2: Elements of a biography graphic organizer, Formative Anecdotal record (Class discussion)
with information form the biography
Task 3: Inquiry graphic organizer Formative Checklist based on the headings
identified in graphic organizer
Task 3: Multilingual movie poster for the biopic of Formative Checklist (Given to students ahead
Tom Longboat of time)
Stage 3a: Planning learning experience and instruction
Instructional strategies Student grouping
Class 1: Class 1:
 Direct instruction for explaining the reading and graphic 1) Whole class
organizer task, reading aloud and explaining the inquiry 2) Individual work time
task

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 Individual work time for creating elements of a biography


graphic organizer task
 Class discussion of characteristics of this genre

Class 2:
Class 2: 1) Whole class
 Individual work time for inquiry task 2) Individual work time
 Class discussion of student inquiry findings
 Direct instruction for explaining movie poster task
Class 3:
1) Whole class
Class 3:
2) Group work time
 Class discussion for Q and A regarding movie poster task
 Group work time for movie poster task
Resources Considerations
 Electronic copies of blank graphic organizer for elements task
Class 1: and inquiry Graphic organizer for inquiry task will be used for
 Definitions quiz (Please click on the underlined link. As it students who may require the use of assistive technology to
is a quiz in Google Slides, it will not be included in the create content
appendix of this resource)  Extra copies of both organizers and movie poster checklist
 Copy of Meet Tom Longboat  The poster can be completed by hand or via device
 Blank graphic organizer for elements task (Please click
on the underlined link and you will be taken to a PDF
version of the organizer)

Class 2:
 Copy of Meet Tom Longboat
 Inquiry graphic organizer (Please click on the underlined
link and you will be taken to a PDF version of the
organizer)
 Computer/Devices
 Textual reference materials
Video - Canada History Week: A New Way Forward
(Please click on the underlined link to view video)
 Inquiry checklist (assessment tool)
 Movie poster checklist (handout/assessment tool)

Class 3:
 Computer/Devices
 Markers
 Poster paper
 Blank paper for mind map
 Other paper (various colors)
 Glue
 Scissors
 Queue-cards for exit ticket

Stage 3b: Learning experience and instructional process


Motivational Hook

Lesson 1:
Timing: 5 minutes
 The lesson will open with a definitions quiz of what to engage the students’ prior knowledge of this genre.

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Lesson 2:
Timing: 2-3 minutes
 Recap of Meet Tom Longboat

Lesson 3:
Timing: 5 minutes
 Movie poster task Q and A

Open

Lesson 1:
Timing: 5 minutes
 Provide instruction for their individual work tasks (elements graphic organizer and inquiry task)
o For the elements graphic organizer students will decide on 5 headings (elements) they think are main characteristics of
biographies (i.e. genealogy, early life, life events, major accomplishments/ why the person is important, and interesting
facts).
o For the inquiry task students will form their own question about something that they wish to know more about based on the
biography and fill out the graphic organizer based on the headings provided.
 Introduce book and inquire if students have any prior knowledge of Tom Longboat.

Lesson 2:
Timing: 5 minutes
 Review objectives of inquiry task
 Show video as a starting point for inquiry

Lesson 3:
Timing: 5 minutes
 Rapid fire mind map poster ideas
Body

Lesson 1:
Timing: 10-12 minutes
 Students will prepare their graphic organizers

Lesson 2:
Timing: 20 minutes
 Individual research time

Lesson 3:
Timing: 25 minutes
 Groups create their posters

Consolidation

Lesson 1:
Timing: 20 minutes
 Read biography; during this time students will fill out graphic organizer.
Lesson 2:
Timing: 10-12 minutes
 Class discussion of inquiry questions and findings, students will address the “one main point section” for this.
Lesson 3:
Timing: 5 minutes
 Poster gallery walk.

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Closure

Lesson 1:
Timing: 2-3 minutes
 Check progress.
 Note agenda for the beginning of next lesson.
Lesson 2:
Timing: 5 minutes
 Note agenda for the beginning of next lesson (explain movie poster task, provide checklist for requirements). Students will
design a movie poster for a biopic of Tom Longboat, which incorporates English, French, and Onondaga Language and includes
pictures that represent something about Tom and his life.
 Assign groups.

Lesson 3:
Timing: 5 minutes
 Exit ticket, students will address what they took away from the 3 lessons and why they think they are important.

Lesson Plan Outline Two

Title: What are the Odds: probability of winning a Marathon and other investigations
Grade: 5
Subject/Course: Mathematics, Heath and Physical Education
Strand: Mathematics: Data Management and Probability Heath and Physical Education: A. Active Living
Time: Approximately two, 60-minute classes
Lesson Description key goal(s) After having learned about Tom Longboat, this lesson will have students consider the probability of
placing in the top three in a marathon and the probability of winning a marathon. During this lesson students will also graph data
according to the results of a race, using categories such as age and gender. In addition, students will collect their own data by running
their own races. This connects the mathematical process expectation that students make connections between math and other
contexts, such as sports.
Stage 1: Desired Results
Essential Question/Big Ideas:

Essential Question: What is the probability of winning a race? How can you represent the outcomes visually and numerically?

Mathematics
Big Ideas:
 Collection and Organization of Data
 Data Relationships
 Probability

Heath and Physical Education


Big Ideas:
 Active Participation
 Active Living
Ontario Ministry Curriculum Overall Expectation(s)
Mathematics:
1) Mathematical process expectations:
 Make connections among mathematical concepts and procedures, and relate mathematical ideas to situations or phenomena
drawn from other contexts (e.g., other curriculum areas, daily life, sports)

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2) Data Management and Probability:


 Collect and organize discrete or continuous primary data and secondary data and display the data using charts and graphs,
including broken-line graphs
 Read, describe, and interpret primary data and secondary data presented in charts and graphs, including broken-line graphs
 Represent as a fraction the probability that a specific outcome will occur in a simple probability experiment, using systematic
lists and area models

Heath and Physical Education:


1) Active Living
 Active Participation A1. Participate actively and regularly in a wide variety of physical activities, and demonstrate an
understanding of factors that encourage lifelong participation in physical activity
Stage 2: Evidence of learning and assessment purpose/procedure
Assessment task(s) (i.e., what students will being Purpose of assessment (e.g., Tool(s) for assessing learning (e.g.,
saying, writing and/or doing that will provide evidence diagnostic, formative, checklist, marking scheme, rubric,
of their learning): summative): observational record):
Task 1: Winning a marathon word problem Formative Anecdotal record (Class discussion)
Task 2: Graphing outcomes of secondary data Formative (assessment as learning Checklist
– self assessment)
Task 3: Running races – collecting and presenting Formative Checklist
secondary data
Stage 3a: Planning learning experience and instruction
Instructional strategies Student Grouping

Class 1: Class 1:
 Direct instruction for going over word problems and 1) Whole class
criteria for graphing of secondary data 2) Individual work time
 Individual work time for word problems 3) Pairs
 Pair work for graphing race outcomes
 Class discussion of word problem answers and graphing
race outcomes

Class 2: Class 2:
 Direct instruction for going over the format of the races 1) Whole class
and criteria for collecting primary data 2) Groups
 Groupings for races 3) Pairs
 Pair work for collecting and presenting race outcomes
 Class discussion of data and chosen presentation of data

Resources Considerations:
 Electronic copies of word problems and data, some students
Class 1: may require use of computer
 Word problems  Some students may require the use of graphing software to
 Secondary Data for graphing with attached checklist for complete their graph
self-assessment
 Graphing paper
 Markers
 Devices with graphing software

Class 2:
 If the weather is not preferable, use gymnasium
 Lined paper for data collection
 Graphing paper

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 Markers
 Devices with graphing software
 Checklist

Stage 3b: Learning experience and instructional process


Motivational Hook

Lesson 1:
Timing: 5 minutes
 Math minds on – students will be given a question to activate their knowledge for this lesson. Once they have completed
them, the answers will be discussed as a class.

Lesson 2:
Timing: 5-8 minutes
 Have groups explain their race formats.
Open

Lesson 1:
Timing: 10 minutes
 Take up math minds on questions.
 Introduce graphing race results task and go over criteria for graphing secondary data.

Lesson 2:
Timing: 5-8 minutes
 Review task requirements and address any questions.

Body

Lesson 1:
Timing: 25 minutes
 In pairs, students will decide on the best type of graph(s) to display their data and include all of the required elements for
that type of graph in their work.
 Conduct self-assessment.

Lesson 2:
Timing: 30 minutes
 Students will conduct races and collect race data.

Consolidation

Lesson 1:
Timing: 10-15 minutes
 Each pair will present their graph to the class, justifying why they chose the graph data in the way they did (including an
explanation of title chosen, labels, and key).
 Collect self-assessment.

Lesson 2:
Timing: 15 minutes
 Students will begin to organize race data from their groups in pairs, deciding on the best method of presenting their data

Closure

Lesson 1:

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Timing: 5-10 minutes


 Note agenda for the beginning of next lesson, introduce running races task (provide checklist), and assign groupings for
races and have students decide on the parameters of their race, i.e. distance, timing, and format.

Lesson 2:
Timing: 5 minutes
 Check in on task progress (students will be given time to complete a task in a following class. They will submit completed
work for assessment).

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Connections to Course Readings and Classroom Content


In creating this resource, we recognize that there are many important things to consider
when we introduce Indigenous affairs into the classroom. One of these important aspects
includes putting forward resources that are authentic. In other words, as educators, it is our
responsibility to ensure that we are representing Indigenous affairs in a way that avoids
Eurocentric views. Chelsea Vowel’s article touches upon this in her article entitled Check the tag
on that “Indian” story: How to find authentic indigenous stories. She talks about how there are
many “Native American Legends that are not exactly rooted in true indigenous beliefs” (Vowel,
2016). She goes on to explain how these inauthentic stories confuse both native and non-native
individuals and are filled with Christian and Western influences (Ibid).

As educators, we acknowledge the concerns that Vowel puts forth in her article. As one
of our lesson plans focuses on biographies of Indigenous peoples, we are mindful of the author’s
roles. In the book we use, Meet Tom Longboat, the book is written by Elizabeth MacLeod and
illustrated by Mike Deas. Although MacLeod does not come from an Indigenous background,
she was sure to meaningfully consult Tom Longboat’s family when writing this book. She is a
Canadian author who mainly writes books for elementary level students. The reason we feel that
this is important to mention, is that we encourage students and other educators to always know
where the written text is coming from and to acknowledge possible criticisms that exist around a
text. When considering Indigenous issues, we know that it is important to find information from
those who possess genuine knowledge or those who have meaningfully consulted with those who
possess genuine knowledge.

This resource guide also aims to bring to light how much Indigenous traditions, culture,
education, etc. has to offer in schools. In her article Nourishing the Learning Spirit, Marie
Battiste (2012) outlines various points that bring powerful meaning to Indigenous education.
Although it is difficult to fully integrate her ideas into our resource, we acknowledge and
encourage all educators to take the aspects that she has put forth into consideration when they are
teaching. Battiste (2012) offers a different approach to teaching and learning. She writes
“Through our families, peers and communities, we come to learn about ourselves through our
ecologies, land and environments” (Battiste, 2012, p.14). We find that this approach to teaching
and learning is undervalued and often overlooked by educators. Battiste (2012) goes on to say
that through this method, learning becomes holistic, lifelong, purposeful, experiential,
communal, and spiritual through language and culture (Ibid,p.15).

One of the most significant aspects that she writes about is the notion of the “learning spirit”.
She discusses how schooling has eroded education and that learning sometimes loses its meaning
and purpose (Ibid). With such a strict focus on curriculum and a certain form of education,
Aboriginal peoples are often depicted as not on par in terms of knowledge when it comes to
other Canadians (Ibid). With these aspects in mind, we acknowledge the importance of valuing
Indigenous approaches to education and the importance of being willing to hear and learn these
approaches. One of the main aspects that stood out to us in this article was the value of
appreciating land and environments. Although we do not make explicit connections to
Indigenous education and the outdoors, we believe that the act of doing an activity outside is a
step in the right direction. It is our intention to make students aware of our outside land and

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environment, who it belongs to, and why this is important. What we want to explicitly avoid with
this resource is creating lessons that address Indigenous affairs through a Eurocentric lens. We
encourage educators to use this resource and to reach out to Indigenous communities to
incorporate authentic and legitimate voices into the classroom that lead to decolonization and
reconciliation for our First Nations peoples.

The resource guide has been developed to focus on world issues. Students are being asked to
examine text, conveying Indigenous voices. The students are tasked with examining the
biography of Tom Longboat and creating a poster for the biopic of Tom Longboat. Throughout
the process, students are creating a public dialogue highlighting civic engagement. Jennifer
Tupper (2014) discusses civic engagement in her article, Social Media and the Idle No More
Movement: Citizenship, Activism and Dissent in Canada. Civic engagement involves working
towards making a difference in our communities, which can occur by “influencing the ways in
which young people understand and negotiate their civic identities” (Tupper, 2014, pg.2). Tupper
(2014) identifies social media as a medium for young people to become civically engaged, using
it for social activism. Throughout this unit, as proposed in lesson one, the students are tasked
with creating a poster, their own form of media, pertaining to Indigenous world views. Tupper
suggests media, more specifically social media, propagates social activism. By having students
engage with the biographies of Indigenous peoples, we are attempting to increase their awareness
of the social and cultural genocide that occurred in Canada, while providing our students with the
tools to become civically engaged, creating their very own civic identity.

In Cynthia Chambers’ (2008) article entitled Where are we? Finding Common Ground in a
Curriculum of Place, she discusses four dimensions of a curriculum of place:
1. A different sense of time
2. Enskillment
3. Education of attention
4. Wayfinding
This teacher resource guide touches on all four dimensions of a curriculum of place. This
resource attempts to create and foster ideas/perspectives that will last longer than an individual
lesson or unit. While examining various biographies, students will develop their personal
perspective in regards to the treatment of the Indigenous population in Canada, and their
perspective will help shape their future identity. Chambers (2008) identifies enskillment as the
process of bringing intentionality and functionality into a practice. This teacher resource is
deliberately incorporating Indigenous world views, through the functional use of biographies, to
develop the perspective-taking skill within the students. This teacher resource guide attempts to
aid teachers in developing critically literate students that can understand another individual’s
point-of-view. This teacher resource attempts to engage students intellectually on an important
social issue, the treatment of Indigenous peoples while also developing form and style in
language, along with probability in mathematics, and active participation in physical fitness.
Wayfinding typically refers to systems guiding individuals through physical environments;
however, for the purposes of this teacher resource, wayfinding refers to guiding students through
a complex social issue. While bringing students on this journey we are attempting to create a
curriculum of place, immersing students into a relationship with their learning, and social
activism.

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References

Battiste, M. (2012). Nourishing the learning spirit. Education Canada, 50(1), 14-18.

https://www.edcan.ca/wp-content/uploads/EdCan-2010-v50-n1-Battiste.pdf.

Chambers, C. (2008). Where are we? Finding Common Ground in a Curriculum of Place.

Journal of the Canadian Association for Curriculum Studies, 6(2), 113-128.

Dion, D.S. (2007). Disrupting Molded Images: Identities, responsibilities and relationships –

teachers and indigenous subject material. Teaching Education, 18(4), 329-342. Doi:

https://doi.org/10.1080/10476210701687625

Kidd, B. (2013, July 3). Tom Longboat. The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved from

https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/tom-longboat.

Nugent, C. (2018, June 4). Who was Tom Longboat? Canada’s ‘greatest long-distance runner’

overcame racism and set records. Time. Retrieved from http://time.com/5300025/tom-

longboat/.

Ontario Ministry of Education. (2009). The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 1-8, The Arts (Revised).

Retrieved from http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/curriculum/elementary/arts18b09curr.pdf.

Ontario Ministry of Education. (2010). The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 1-8, Health and Physical

Education, Interim Edition (Revised). Retrieved from

http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/curriculum/elementary/healthcurr18.pdf.

Ontario Ministry of Education. (2006). The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 1-8, Language

(Revised). Retrieved from

http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/curriculum/elementary/language18currb.pdf.

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Ontario Ministry of Education. (2005). The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 1-8, Mathematics

(Revised). Retrieved from

http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/curriculum/elementary/math18curr.pdf.

Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. (2015). Truth and Reconciliation Commission

of Canada: Calls to Action. Retrieved from Truth and Reconciliation Commission of

Canada:

h_p://www.trc.ca/websites/trcins_tu_on/File/2015/Findings/Calls_to_Ac_on_English2.

Pdf.

Tupper, J. (2014). Social Media and the Idle No More Movement: Citizenship, Activism and

Dissent in Canada. Journal of Social Science Education, 13, 87-94.

Unwin, P. (2013). Canadian Folk: Portraits of remarkable lives. Retrieved from

https://www.deslibris.ca/ID/444897.

Vowel, C. (2016). Check the tag in that “Indian” story: How to find authentic indigenous stories.

In Indigenous writes: A guide to First Nations, Metis & Inuit issues in Canada. Winnipeg:

Highwater Press. (See also: https://apihtawikosisan.com/2012/02/check-the-tag-on-that-

indianstory/)

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Appendix A – Worksheets needed for lessons

Inquiry Graphic Organizer Template Biography Graphic Organizer Template

Marathon Word problem

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Appendix B – Assessment tools


Movie poster checklist

Self-Assessment for second lesson

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Appendix B – Assessment tools

Checklist

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