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TBH: this is a long case.

If I were to digest only about fortuitous even the 2nd

issue should be removed. BUT atty. Toralba may ask question about liability
of any actors. So…



G.R. No. 150255. April 22, 2005.

J. Carpio-Morales


This is a petition for review on certiorari of the decision and resolution

of the Court of Appeals.

SYTCO Pte Ltd. Singapore shipped from Russia on board M/V

"Alexander Saveliev" (a vessel of Russian registry and owned by Black Sea)
545 hot rolled steel sheets in coil.The cargoes, which were to be
discharged at the port of Manila in favor of the consignee, Little Giant
Steel Pipe Corporation (Little Giant),were insured against all risks. The
vessel arrived at the port of Manila and was assigned place of berth at
the outside breakwater at the Manila South Harbor. Little Giant engaged
the services of Schmitz Transport to secure the requisite clearances, to
receive the cargoes from the shipside, and to deliver them to its
warehouse. Schmitz Transport, in turn engaged the services of TVI through
a Service Contract to send a barge and tugboat at shipside.

TVI‘s tugboat, after positioning the barge alongside the vessel, left
and returned to the port terminal. Then thearrastre operator commenced
to unload 37 of the 545 coils from the vessel unto the barge. The weather
condition had become inclement but the unloading unto the barge of
the 37 coils was accomplished. However, no tugboat pulled the barge
back to the pier.
Due to strong waves, the crew of the barge abandoned it and
transferred to the vessel. The barge pitched and rolled with the waves
and eventually capsized, washing the 37 coils into the sea. Almost two
hours later, a tugboat finally arrived to pull the already empty and
damaged barge back to the pier.

Little Giant thus filed a formal claim against the insurance company,
Industrial Insurance which paid it the amount of ₱5,246,113.11. In the
exercise of its right of subrogation, Industrial Insurance later filed a
complaint against Schmitz Transport, TVI, and Black Sea through its
representative Inchcape for recovery of sum of money. Industrial
Insurance faulted the defendants for undertaking the unloading of the
cargoes while typhoon signal No. 1 was raised in Metro Manila.

The RTC Manila held all the defendants negligent for unloading the
cargoes outside of the breakwater notwithstanding the storm signal
hence solidarily liable for the loss of 37 hot rolled steel sheets in coil that
were washed overboard the barge. Defendants‘ motion for
reconsideration was denied. The CA affirmed the Decision and Resolution
of the RTC. The appellate court ruled that "each one was essential such
that without each other‘s contributory negligence the incident would not
have happened and that "although defendants obviously had nothing to
do with the force of nature, they however had control of where to anchor
the vessel, where discharge will take place and even when the
discharging will commence."

Schmitz Transport (as petitioner) filed the present petition against TVI,
Industrial Insurance and Black Sea.Petitioner asserts that in chartering the
barge and tugboat of TVI, it was acting for its principal, consignee Little
Giant, hence, the transportation contract was by and between Little
Giant and TVI.

By its Comment, Black Sea argued that the cargoes were received
by Little Giant through Schmitz Transport in good order, hence, it cannot
be faulted, it having had no control and supervision thereover.For its part,
TVI maintained that it acted as a passive party as it merely received the
cargoes and transferred them unto the barge upon the instruction of
Schmitz Transport.


1. Whether or not the loss of the cargoes was due to a fortuitous event,
independent of any act of negligence on the part of Schmitz Transport,
Black Sea and TVI.

2. If there was negligence, whether or not liability for the loss may attach
to Black Sea, Schmitz Transport and TVI.


1.NO. Reading Article 1174 of the Civil Code, in order, to be considered a

fortuitous event:

(a) the cause of the unforeseen and unexpected occurrence, or the

failure of the debtor to comply with his obligation, must be independent
of human will;

(b) it must be impossible to foresee the event which constitute the

casofortuito, or if it can be foreseen it must be impossible to avoid;

(c) the occurrence must be such as to render it impossible for the debtor
to fulfill his obligation in any manner; and

(d) the obligor must be free from any participation in the aggravation of
the injury resulting to the creditor.

When the effect is found to be in part the result of the participation of

man, whether due to his active intervention or neglect or failure to act,
the whole occurrence is then humanized and removed from the rules
applicable to the acts of God.

From a review of the records of the case, there is no indication that there
was greater risk in loading the cargoes outside the breakwater. As the
defendants proffered, the weather remained normal with moderate sea
condition such that port operations continued and proceeded normally.
The weather data report verified by PAGASA states that while typhoon
signal No. 1 was hoisted over Metro Manila, the sea condition at the port
of Manila was moderate. It cannot, therefore, be said that the defendants
were negligent in not unloading the cargoes upon the barge on inside
the breakwater.

That no tugboat towed back the barge to the pier after the cargoes were
completely loaded by 12:30 in the morningis, however, a material fact
which the appellate court failed to properly consider and appreciate—
the proximate cause of the loss of the cargoes. Had the barge been
towed back promptly to the pier, the deteriorating sea conditions
notwithstanding, the loss could have been avoided. But the barge was
left floating in open sea until big waves set in at 5:30 a.m., causing it to sink
along with the cargoes.The loss thus falls outside the "act of God doctrine."


As to Schmitz Transport’s liability

Contrary to Schmitz Transport‘s insistence, the Court reiterated that

petitioner is a common carrier. For it undertook to transport the cargoes
from the shipside of "M/V Alexander Saveliev" to the consignee‘s
warehouse. The testimony of its own Vice-President and General Manager
Noel Aro that part of the services it offers to its clients as a brokerage firm
includes the transportation of cargoes reflects so.

As for petitioner‘s argument that being the agent of Little Giant, any
negligence it committed was deemed the negligence of its principal, it
does not persuade.True, petitioner was the broker-agent of Little Giant in
securing the release of the cargoes. In effecting the transportation of the
cargoes from the shipside and into Little Giant‘s warehouse, however,
petitioner was discharging its own personal obligation under a contact of

As for Schmitz Transport, for it to be relieved of liability, it should, following

Article 1739of the Civil Code, prove that it exercised due diligence to
prevent or minimize the loss, before, during and after the occurrence of
the storm in order that it may be exempted from liability for the loss of the
goods.While petitioner sent checkers and a supervisoron board the vessel
to counter-check the operations of TVI, it failed to take all available and
reasonable precautions to avoid the loss. After noting that TVI failed to
arrange for the prompt towage of the barge despite the deteriorating sea
conditions, it should have summoned the same or another tugboat to
extend help, but it did not.

As to TVI’s liability

Not being a party to the service contract between Schmitz Transport and
TVI, Little Giant cannot directly sue TVI based thereon but it can maintain
a cause of action for negligence. In the case of TVI, while it acted as a
private carrier for which it was under no duty to observe extraordinary
diligence, it was still required to observe ordinary diligence to ensure the
proper and careful handling, care and discharge of the carried goods.
This TVI did not do so.

TVI‘s failure to promptly provide a tugboat did not only increase the risk
that might have been reasonably anticipated during the shipside
operation, but was the proximate cause of the loss. A man of ordinary
prudence would not leave a heavily loaded barge floating for a
considerable number of hours, at such a precarious time, and in the open
sea, knowing that the barge does not have any power of its own and is
totally defenseless from the ravages of the sea. That it was nighttime and,
therefore, the members of the crew of a tugboat would be charging
overtime pay did not excuse TVI from calling for one such tugboat.

In LRTA v. Navidad, the Court held that liability for tort under the provisions
of Article 2176 and related provisions, in conjunction with Article 2180 of
the Civil Code. x xx[O]ne might ask further, how then must the liability of
the common carrier, on one hand, and an independent contractor, on
the other hand, be described? It would be solidary. A contractual
obligation can be breached by tort and when the same act or omission
causes the injury, one resulting in culpa contractual and the other in
culpa aquiliana, Article 2194 of the Civil Code can well apply. In fine, a
liability for tort may arise even under a contract, where tort is that which
breaches the contract. Stated differently, when an act which constitutes
a breach of contract would have itself constituted the source of a quasi-
delictual liability had no contract existed between the parties, the
contract can be said to have been breached by tort, thereby allowing
the rules on tort to apply.

As to Black Sea’s liability

As for Black Sea, its duty as a common carrier extended only from the
time the goods were surrendered or unconditionally placed in its
possession and received for transportation until they were delivered
actually or constructively to consignee Little Giant.Parties to a contract of
carriage may, however, agree upon a definition of delivery that extends
the services rendered by the carrier.

The Bill of Lading No. 2 covering the shipment provides that delivery be
made "to the port of discharge or so near thereto as she may safely get,
always afloat."The delivery of the goods to the consignee was not from
"pier to pier" but from the shipside of "M/V Alexander Saveliev" and into
barges, for which reason the consignee contracted the services of
petitioner. Since Black Sea had constructively delivered the cargoes to
Little Giant, through petitioner, it had discharged its duty. In fine, no liability
may thus attach to Black Sea.

WHEREFORE, judgment is hereby rendered ordering petitioner Schmitz

Transport & Brokerage Corporation, and Transport Venture Incorporation
jointly and severally liable for the amount of P5,246,113.11 with the
MODIFICATION that interest at SIX PERCENT per annum of the amount due
should be computed from the promulgation on November 24, 1997 of the
decision of the trial court.