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PMI-ACP Exam Prep

PMI-ACP Exam
Prep Seminar

Overview: All About the PMI-ACP


Certification
• Qualifications for the PMI-ACP Exam
• Applying for the PMI-ACP Exam
• Money and the PMI-ACP Exam
• Passing the PMI-ACP Exam
• Preparing a Study Strategy - to Pass!
• What to Expect on Testing Day
• What Your Exam is Based Upon
• PMI-ACP Exam Domains

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PMI-ACP Exam Prep

About the PMI-ACP Exam


• Agile approaches – Scrum, XP, Lean, Kanban
• Test-driven development (TDD)
• Collaboration skills
• PMI’s fastest growing certification

PMI-ACP Exam Details


• 100 scored test questions
• 20 unscored test questions
• 120 total questions
• Three hours to complete the exam
• Pre-test tutorial/post-test survey

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PMI-ACP Exam Prep

PMI-ACP Exam Domain Blueprint


Domain Exam Percentage
Agile Principles and Mindset 16
Value-driven Delivery 20
Stakeholder Engagement 17
Team Performance 16
Adaptive Planning 12
Problem Detection and 10
Resolution
Continuous Improvement 9

Qualifications for the PMI-ACP Exam


• High school diploma or better
• 2,000 hours (12 months) working on project teams
• Or PMP/PgMP credential
• 1,500 hours using agile methodologies with last three years
• 21 contact hours of agile education

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PMI-ACP Exam Prep

Random Audits

• You’ll mail to PMI:


• Copies of your diploma/global equivalent
• Signatures from your supervisor(s) or
manager(s) from the project(s) recorded
in the experience verification section of
the application
• Copy of certificate

Applying for the


PMI-ACP Exam
• www.pmi.org
• Paper-based app with PMI
permission
• 90 days to complete
application
• PMI Code of Ethics and
Professional Conduct

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PMI-ACP Exam Prep

Document Project Team Experience


• 2,000 hours total project team experience
• 12 months of unique experience within last five years
PROJECT 1 PROJECT 3
PROJECT 2

JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC

Document Agile Experience


• 1,500 hours of agile experience
• Eights months experience within last three years
• In addition to general project experience

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PMI-ACP Exam Prep

Document Contact Hours


• 21 contact hours of agile education
• This complete course
• Lectures
• Exercises
• Exams
• PMI-ACP Exam Prep Seminar
• Instructing.com, LLC
• PMI REP #4082
• Activity ID: PMIACP318
• 21 Professional Development Units/Contact hours

• Prometric website
(www.prometric.com/pmi).
• Select “Schedule an Appointment.”
• Unique PMI Eligibility and the first
four letters of your last name
• Search for testing sites in your area
• Available dates will appear in blue on
the calendar
• Confirm contact information and
provide a valid email address
• Your examination confirmation, along
with your 16 digit unique confirmation
number, will be displayed.

How to Schedule the Exam

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PMI-ACP Exam Prep

PMI member $435 or €365

Not a PMI member $495


Money and or €415
the PMI-
Reexamination, PMI member
ACP Exam
$335 or €280
Reexamination, nonmember
$395 or €330

PMI-ACP Refund Policy


• You must make a request at least 30 days before the exam
eligibility expiration date.
• A refund of US$200 will be made if you have not yet scheduled
or taken the examination.

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PMI-ACP Exam Prep

• One-year eligibility period expired and


you have not scheduled the exam, you will
PMI-ACP not receive a refund.
Refund • Scheduled the exam but did not take it or
reschedule, you will not receive a refund.
Policy • You will forfeit the fee and not be able to
apply it to anything else.

Rescheduling/Cancelling
an Exam

• Within 30 days: $70


• Within 2 days: Forfeit fee
• No-show is a forfeiture
• Emergencies: PMI will
determine if the emergency
qualifies
• Work emergencies do not
qualify as an emergency

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PMI-ACP Exam Prep

Join PMI
• Be part of the largest PM community
• Track your certification status with myPMI
• Download the PMBOK® Guide for free
• Save on career-advancing certifications
• Unlock 1,000+ tools and templates
• Find relevant jobs with the PM Job Board
• Get more, free opportunities to earn PDUs
• Stay up-to-date with PMI publications

PMI Membership Fees


• $129 per year
• Save on exam fees
• Also consider local PMI chapter – usually about $30

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PMI-ACP Exam Prep

Passing the Exam is Our Goal


• First goal of the course is you passing the exam
• Second goal, is build a deep understanding of agile
methodologies
• This is not a course on:
• How to apply agile project management
• How to be a good project manager
• Me helping you do your job

Course Structure Details


• Watch the lectures
• Complete the section exams
• Write down the key terms
• Repeat the section exams until you can score 100%
• Complete the assessment exam after all the module exams

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PMI-ACP Exam Prep

Resources from this course


• PDF of the course lectures
• Ask questions about the course/exam content
• Nope:
• Downloadable lectures in video or MP3
• PowerPoint slides
• Me helping you manage a project

Creating A
SMART Goal

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PMI-ACP Exam Prep

Create a Strategy
• 9 modules of learning – watch at least twice
• Study the flashcards daily through exam day
• Focus on the most important exam domains
• Value-driven delivery, 20 percent
• Stakeholder engagement – 20 percent
• Agile principles and mindset – 16 percent
• Team performance – 16 percent
• Adaptive planning – 12 percent
• Problem detection and resolution – 10 percent
• Continuous improvement – 9 percent

Create a Place to
Learn
• Emulate the exam environment
• Quiet, no distractions
• Emails
• Texts
• Visitors
• Two hours of quiet time
• Immerse yourself in PMI-ACP

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PMI-ACP Exam Prep

Complete the Course


• Take the course in any order you like
• Take notes as you move through the course
• Review your notes before leaving a module
• Ask questions!

Assignment: Creating a Study Strategy


• PMI-ACP Course
• Create of schedule to complete the class
• Follow-through on schedule
• Track your chapter scores
• Complete end of class exam
• Schedule your study strategy
• Don’t take too long

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PMI-ACP Exam Prep

Prepare to Pass
the PMI-ACP
Exam
• Complete your application as
part of this course
• Create a deadline
• If you don’t understand a
concept or term – Ask!

Testing Center Details


• Computer-based test
• Paper-based test
• At least 300 km from a Prometric CBT site
• PBTs must have at least 10 participants
• Schedule your exam ASAP!

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PMI-ACP Exam Prep

Testing Center
Details

• Valid government-issued ID
• English characters/translation
• Your photograph
• No photo? Need a secondary ID with your
name and photo
• Your name must match the PMI-used name
• Not accepted:
• Social security cards
• Library cards

Testing Center Process


• Arrive 30-minutes before exam start time
• You’ll be assigned a locker for your belongings
• Nothing can go into the testing center with you
• Sweaters and coats can be worn, but not removed
• The Testing Center Administrator will ask you to empty your
pockets and roll up your sleeves, and will scan you with a
metal-detecting wand

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PMI-ACP Exam Prep

Testing Center Process


• Booklet of scratch paper and two pencils, or
• Dry-erase board and marker
• You don’t get to choose
• Calculator (in exam software)
• Ear plugs or head phones

Final Testing Center Details


• Can take a break
• Cannot access locker
• No pause in the exam timer
• You can get booted for:
• Disruptions
• Trying to cheat
• Trying to keep scrap paper (even tearing)
• Eating or drinking in testing room
• Attempting to tamper with computer
• Being a moron

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PMI-ACP Exam Prep

• CBTs report the Pass/Fail immediately after


survey
• PMI defines the levels of “proficiency” as
follows:
Examination • Proficient –performance above average
level of knowledge
Report • Moderately Proficient –performance is at
average level of knowledge
• Below Proficient –performance is below
average level of knowledge
• PMI doesn’t reveal passing score

Domains are
categories of
Domains
knowledge
and Tasks
Tasks are activities
within that domain

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PMI-ACP Exam Prep

PMI-ACP Exam Domain Blueprint


Domain Exam Percentage
Agile Principles and Mindset 16
Value-driven Delivery 20
Stakeholder Engagement 17
Team Performance 16
Adaptive Planning 12
Problem Detection and 10
Resolution
Continuous Improvement 9

Agile Principles and Mindset


• Nine tasks
• Explore, embrace, and apply agile principles and the agile
mindset within the context of the project team and organization
• 16 percent of exam; roughly 19 questions

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Agile Principles and Mindset


• Advocate for agile principles by modeling those principles and
discussing agile values in order to develop a shared mindset
across the team as well as between the customer and the team.
• Help ensure that everyone has a common understanding of the
values and principles of agile and a common knowledge around
the agile practices and terminology being used in order to work
effectively.

Agile Principles and Mindset


• Support change at the system or organization level by
educating the organization and influencing processes,
behaviors, and people in order to make the organization more
effective and efficient.
• Practice visualization by maintaining highly visible information
radiators showing real progress and real team performance in
order to enhance transparency and trust.

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PMI-ACP Exam Prep

Agile Principles and Mindset


• Contribute to a safe and trustful team environment by allowing
everyone to experiment and make mistakes so that each can
learn and continuously improve the way he or she works.
• Enhance creativity by experimenting with new techniques and
process ideas in order to discover more efficient and effective
ways of working.

Agile Principles and Mindset


• Encourage team members to share knowledge by collaborating
and working together in order to lower risks around knowledge
silos and reduce bottlenecks.
• Encourage emergent leadership within the team by establishing
a safe and respectful environment in which new approaches
can be tried in order to make improvements and foster self-
organization and empowerment.

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PMI-ACP Exam Prep

Agile Principles and Mindset


• Practice servant leadership by supporting and encouraging
others in their endeavors so that they can perform at their
highest level and continue to improve.

Value-Driven Delivery
• Four subdomains; 14 tasks
• 20 percent of exam; 24 questions
• Deliver valuable results by producing high-value increments for
review, early and often, based on stakeholder priorities. Have
the stakeholders provide feedback on these increments, and
use this feedback to prioritize and improve future increments.

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Value-Driven Delivery
• Define Positive Value
• Define deliverables by identifying units that can be produced
incrementally in order to maximize their value to stakeholders while
minimizing non-value added work.
• Refine requirements by gaining consensus on the acceptance criteria
for features on a just-in-time basis in order to deliver value.
• Select and tailor the team’s process based on project and
organizational characteristics as well as team experience in order to
optimize value delivery.

Value-Driven Delivery
• Avoid Potential Downsides
• Plan for small releasable increments by organizing requirements into
minimally marketable features/minimally viable products in order to
allow for the early recognition and delivery of value.
• Limit increment size and increase review frequency with appropriate
stakeholders in order to identify and respond to risks early on and at
minimal cost.
• Solicit customer and user feedback by reviewing increments often in
order to confirm and enhance business value

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Value-Driven Delivery
• Prioritization
• Prioritize the units of work through collaboration with stakeholders in
order to optimize the value of the deliverables.
• Perform frequent review and maintenance of the work results by
prioritizing and maintaining internal quality in order to reduce the
overall cost of incremental development.
• Continuously identify and prioritize the environmental, operational, and
infrastructure factors in order to improve the quality and value of the
deliverables.

Value-Driven Delivery
• Incremental Development
• Conduct operational reviews and/or periodic checkpoints with
stakeholders in order to obtain feedback and corrections to the work in
progress and planned work.
• Balance development of deliverable units and risk reduction efforts by
incorporating both value producing and risk reducing work into the
backlog in order to maximize the total value proposition over time.
• Re-prioritize requirements periodically in order to reflect changes in the
environment and stakeholder needs or preferences in order to
maximize the value.

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PMI-ACP Exam Prep

Value-Driven Delivery
• Incremental Development
• Elicit and prioritize relevant non-functional requirements (such as
operations and security) by considering the environment in which the
solution will be used in order to minimize the probability of failure.
• Conduct frequent reviews of work products by performing inspections,
reviews, and/or testing in order to identify and incorporate
improvements into the overall process and product/service.

Stakeholder Engagement
• 9 tasks
• 3 subdomains
• 17 percent of exam; 20 questions
• Engage current and future interested parties by building a
trusting environment that aligns their needs and expectations
and balances their requests with an understanding of the
cost/effort involved. Promote participation and collaboration
throughout the project life cycle and provide the tools for
effective and informed decision making.

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Stakeholder Engagement
• Understand Stakeholder Needs
• Identify and engage effective and empowered business stakeholder(s)
through periodic reviews in order to ensure that the team is
knowledgeable about stakeholders’ interests, needs, and expectations.
• Identify and engage all stakeholders (current and future) by promoting
knowledge sharing early and throughout the project to ensure the
unimpeded flow of information and value throughout the lifespan of the
project.

Stakeholder Engagement
• Ensure Stakeholder Involvement
• Establish stakeholder relationships by forming a working agreement
among key stakeholders in order to promote participation and effective
collaboration.
• Maintain proper stakeholder involvement by continually assessing
changes in the project and organization in order to ensure that new
stakeholders are appropriately engaged.
• Establish collaborative behaviors among the members of the
organization by fostering group decision making and conflict resolution
in order to improve decision quality and reduce the time required to
make decisions.

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Stakeholder Engagement
• Manage Stakeholder Expectations
• Establish a shared vision of the various project increments (products,
deliverables, releases, iterations) by developing a high level vision and
supporting objectives in order to align stakeholders’ expectations and build
trust.
• Establish and maintain a shared understanding of success criteria,
deliverables, and acceptable trade-offs by facilitating awareness among
stakeholders in order to align expectations and build trust.
• Provide transparency regarding work status by communicating team
progress, work quality, impediments, and risks in order to help the primary
stakeholders make informed decisions.
• Provide forecasts at a level of detail that balances the need for certainty and
the benefits of adaptability in order to allow stakeholders to plan effectively.

Team Performance
• 9 tasks
• 3 subdomains
• 16 percent of exam; 19 questions
• Create an environment of trust, learning, collaboration, and
conflict resolution that promotes team self-organization,
enhances relationships among team members, and cultivates a
culture of high performance.

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Team Performance
• Team Formation
• Cooperate with the other team members to devise ground rules and
internal processes in order to foster team coherence and strengthen
team members’ commitment to shared outcomes.
• Help create a team that has the interpersonal and technical skills
needed to achieve all known project objectives in order to create
business value with minimal delay.

Team Performance
• Team Empowerment
• Encourage team members to become generalizing specialists in order
to reduce team size and bottlenecks, and to create a high performing
cross-functional team.
• Contribute to self-organizing the work by empowering others and
encouraging emerging leadership in order to produce effective
solutions and manage complexity.
• Continuously discover team and personal motivators and demotivators
in order to ensure that team morale is high and team members are
motivated and productive throughout the project.

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Team Performance
• Team Collaboration and Commitment
• Facilitate close communication within the team and with appropriate
external stakeholders through co-location or the use of collaboration
tools in order to reduce miscommunication and rework.
• Reduce distractions in order to establish a predictable outcome and
optimize the value delivered.
• Participate in aligning project and team goals by sharing project vision
in order to ensure the team understands how their objectives fit into the
overall goals of the project.
• Encourage the team to measure its velocity by tracking and measuring
actual performance in previous iterations or releases in order for
members to gain a better understanding of their capacity and create
more accurate forecasts.

Adaptive Planning
• 10 tasks
• 3 subdomains
• 12 percent of exam; 14 questions
• Produce and maintain an evolving plan, from initiation to
closure, based on goals, values, risks, constraints, stakeholder
feedback, and review findings.

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Adaptive Planning
• Levels of Planning
• Plan at multiple levels (strategic, release, iteration, daily) creating
appropriate detail by using rolling wave planning and progressive
elaboration to balance predictability of outcomes with ability to exploit
opportunities.
• Make planning activities visible and transparent by encouraging
participation of key stakeholders and publishing planning results in
order to increase commitment level and reduce uncertainty.
• As the project unfolds, set and manage stakeholder expectations by
making increasingly specific levels of commitments in order to ensure
common understanding of the expected deliverables.

Adaptive Planning
• Adaptation
• Adapt the cadence and the planning process based on results of
periodic retrospectives about characteristics and/or the
size/complexity/criticality of the project deliverables in order to
maximize the value.
• Inspect and adapt the project plan to reflect changes in requirements,
schedule, budget, and shifting priorities based on team learning,
delivery experience, stakeholder feedback, and defects in order to
maximize business value delivered.

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Adaptive Planning
• Agile Sizing and Estimation
• Size items by using progressive elaboration techniques in order to determine
likely project size independent of team velocity and external variables.
• Adjust capacity by incorporating maintenance and operations demands and
other factors in order to create or update the range estimate.
• Create initial scope, schedule, and cost range estimates that reflect current
high level understanding of the effort necessary to deliver the project in order
to develop a starting point for managing the project.
• Refine scope, schedule, and cost range estimates that reflect the latest
understanding of the effort necessary to deliver the project in order to manage
the project.
• Continuously use data from changes in resource capacity, project size, and
velocity metrics in order to evaluate the estimate to complete.

Problem Detection and Resolution


• 5 tasks
• 10 percent of exam; 12 questions
• Continuously identify problems, impediments, and risks;
prioritize and resolve in a timely manner; monitor and
communicate the problem resolution status; and implement
process improvements to prevent them from occurring again.

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Problem Detection and Resolution


• Create an open and safe environment by encouraging
conversation and experimentation, in order to surface problems
and impediments that are slowing the team down or preventing
its ability to deliver value.
• Identify threats and issues by educating and engaging the team
at various points in the project in order to resolve them at the
appropriate time and improve processes that caused issues.
• Ensure issues are resolved by appropriate team members
and/or reset expectations in light of issues that cannot be
resolved in order to maximize the value delivered.

Problem Detection and Resolution


• Maintain a visible, monitored, and prioritized list of threats and
issues in order to elevate accountability, encourage action, and
track ownership and resolution status.
• Communicate status of threats and issues by maintaining threat
list and incorporating activities into backlog of work in order to
provide transparency.

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Continuous Improvement
• 6 tasks
• 9 percent of exam; 11 questions
• Continuously improve the quality, effectiveness, and value of
the product, the process, and the team.

Continuous Improvement
(Product, Process, People)
• Tailor and adapt the project process by periodically reviewing
and integrating team practices, organizational culture, and
delivery goals in order to ensure team effectiveness within
established organizational guidelines and norms.
• Improve team processes by conducting frequent retrospectives
and improvement experiments in order to continually enhance
the effectiveness of the team, project, and organization.
• Seek feedback on the product by incremental delivery and
frequent demonstrations in order to improve the value of the
product.

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Continuous Improvement
(Product, Process, People)
• Create an environment of continued learning by providing
opportunities for people to develop their skills in order to
develop a more productive team of generalizing specialists.
• Challenge existing process elements by performing a value
stream analysis and removing waste in order to increase
individual efficiency and team effectiveness.
• Create systemic improvements by disseminating knowledge
and practices across projects and organizational boundaries in
order to avoid re-occurrence of identified problems and improve
the effectiveness of the organization as a whole.

Official Exam Objectives


• https://www.pmi.org/certification/agile-management-acp.aspx

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PMI-ACP Exam Prep

PMI-ACP
Coach

PMI-ACP
Learning
Game

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PMI-ACP Exam Prep

Section Summary
• Qualifications for the PMI-ACP Exam
• Applying for the PMI-ACP Exam
• Money and the PMI-ACP Exam
• Passing the PMI-ACP Exam
• Preparing a Study Strategy - to Pass!
• What to Expect on Testing Day
• What Your Exam is Based Upon
• PMI-ACP Exam Domains
• Practice Exam

Key terms

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PMI-ACP Exam Prep

Practice
Exam

Overview of Domain I: Agile Principles


and Mindset
• Defining Agile Values for Projects
• Embracing the Agile Mindset
• Exploring the Declaration Of Interdependence
• Doing Agile Project Management
• Reviewing the Agile Manifesto
• Twelve Principles of Agile
• Comparing Agile Project Management Approaches
• Leading an Agile Project
• Management and Leadership in Agile
• Practice Visualization to Enhance Transparency
• Experiment to Find Efficient And Effective Ways Of Working
• Encourage Emergent Leadership

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Agile Principles and Mindset


• Think agile and value for the exam
• 16 percent of the exam content
• 19 questions
• Agile fundamentals
• Values for agile projects
• Agile principles and methodologies
• Serving as an agile leader

Agile Principles and Mindset Tasks


• Advocate for agile principles and values in the organization
• Ensure common understanding of agile principles
• Educate and influence agile
• Transparency equates to trust
• Safe environment for experimenting

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Agile Principles and


Mindset Tasks

• Experiment with new techniques


and processes
• Share knowledge new collaboration
• Emergent leadership
• Practice servant leadership

Agile Values and Principles


There are two strategies to fulfill agile values and principles:
1. Adopt a formal agile approach, designed
and proven to achieve desired results.
2. Implement changes to project practices in
a manner that fits the project context to
achieve progress on a core value or principle.

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Utilizing Agile
• Why use agile?
• Different types of projects use
different approaches
• Predictive project plan up front
• Knowledge work has many
unknowns

Knowledge Work
Projects are Special
• Industrial work requires up-front
planning
• Knowledge work expects change
• Knowledge work is invisible work
• Agile is best suited for software
development projects

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Industrial Vs. Knowledge Work Projects

Industrial projects Knowledge work projects


• Visible • Invisible
• Stable • Lots of changes
• Running things • Changing environment
• Structure • Less structure
• Correct answers • Lots of questions
• Task driven • Value-driven
• Command and control • Autonomy driven
• Standards • Innovation
• Performance measurement • Learning and teaching
• Cost of workers for a task • Workers are an asset not a cost

Definable vs.
High-Uncertainty
Work
• Definable work projects have
clear procedures that have
proven successful
• High-uncertainty projects have
high rates of:
• Change
• Complexity
• Risk

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Defined Processes

• Repeatable processes
• Do the work the same way each time
• Prescribed process of action

Empirical
Processes
• Based on experience and
observation
• Transparency
• Inspection
• Adaptation

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Defined processes vs.


Empirical processes
• Industrial work relies on defined processes
• Knowledge work relies on empirical processes
• A defined process defines all steps in advance

Defined processes vs.


Empirical processes
• Empirical processes are:
• Interactive
• Incremental
• Change often
• Adapt
• Pass through reviews

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PMI-ACP Exam Prep

Agile Declaration of Interdependence


Some of the general characteristics of the agile mindset includes the Declaration
of Interdependence (DOI).

The DOI outlines six rules…

Increase
return on
investment.

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PMI-ACP Exam Prep

Deliver reliable results.

Expect
uncertainty.

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Unleash creativity and


Innovation.

Boost performance.

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PMI-ACP Exam Prep

Improve
effectiveness
and reliability.

Exam Tip
• You must be agile not only know agile
• Embrace empirical processes
• Knowledge work is invisible work
• Communication and collaboration is paramount

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Being Agile
Agile is a mindset that is:
• Defined by values
• Guided by principles
• Manifested through many different practices

The Agile Mindset


What does it mean to “BE AGILE”?

Being agile isn’t simply a matter of using a certain –


Set of tools or practices
or following a specific methodology

Agility involves a new mindset – way of thinking –


based on the Agile Manifest including
values and principles

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Summing Agile Core Principles

Welcome and expect change


Create small value-added increments
Utilize feedback loops
Constantly learn through discovery and creativity
Focus on developing a value for stakeholders
It’s okay to fail fast
Deliver value throughout the project
Constantly improve upon the project and the project work

Creating
Organizational
Agility
• Think and embrace agile as an
individual
• Doing and understanding agile
helps us to begin to influence
others to embrace agile
• Influence others to embrace
agile through education and
demonstration

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Inverted Triangle Model


• Time/cost/scope
• What’s a variable and what is fixed

scope fixed time cost

Agile Triangle of
constraints

Triple
constraints

time cost varies scope

Exam Tip
• Don’t cram for the PMI – ACP exam
• Embrace the mindset of agile
• Understand agile from a leader’s perspective

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One person

If one member of an
organization adopts an
agile mindset, it can
help that person
become more effective.

One team

If one team in the


organization adopts
agile principles and
practices, it can help
the team members
become more effective
at delivering their
project work.

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If the entire
organization adopts
agile principles and
practices, it helps many
Organization
team members become
more effective at
delivering their project
work.

Agile • How can the project team act in an


agile manner?
Mindset
• What can the team deliver quickly and
obtain early feedback to benefit the next
delivery cycle?
• How can the team act in a transparent
manner?
• What work can be avoided in order to
focus on high-priority items?
• How can a servant-leadership approach
benefit the achievement of the team’s
goals?

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• Increase return on
investment
• Deliver reliable
results
• Expect uncertainty
• Unleash creativity
and innovation
• Boost performance
• Improve
effectiveness and
reliability
Agile Leadership Network

Doing Agile Versus Being Agile

Doing Agile Being Agile


• Agile practices • Agile mindset
• Iterations • Embracing agile principles
• Stand-up meetings
• Tailoring processes
• No agile mindset

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Personal
• You, the project
manager, must:
• Embrace agile
mindset
• Understand agile
principles
• Sell the idea of
agile
• Expect skeptics

Team

• Agile team
members must:
• See the value of
agile approach
• Experience
benefits agile
provides
• Have quick
victories

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Stakeholders

• Project stakeholders
must:
• Be willing to try
agile approach
• Be convinced on
agile values
• Experience quick
ROI
• Eat dessert first

The Agile Manifesto


The Agile Manifesto includes four value statements and twelve guiding
principles.

The Agile Manifest was written by software development experts. It uses terms
from the IT field to express ideas. Those ideas are applicable to any kind of
knowledge work project, so be prepared to recognize these ideas in other
contexts.

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The Four Values

Individuals and
Interactions over
processes and tools

Working software
over comprehensive
documentation

The Four
Values

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The Four
Values
Customer
collaboration
over contract
negotiation

The Four
Values

Responding to change
over following a plan

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Individuals And Interactions Over


Processes and Tools
• Individuals and interactions are most important
• Processes and tools will be needed on projects
• Projects are completed by people not processes and tools
• Agile projects are people driven

Focus on People First


• People complete projects
• People negotiate
• People do knowledge work
• Processes create repeatable results
• Agile is not a machine

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Working Software Over Comprehensive


Documentation
• Agile project need to deliver value
• Value is about the purpose or business need the project aims to
deliver
• Documentation is barely sufficient
• Documentation is done just in time – as the last responsible
moment
• Documentation might also be just because
• Industry requirements
• Organizational requirements

Beware Documentation
• Documentation adds no value
• Who reads the EULA?
• Who reads the reports?
• Comments are okay, excessive documentation is waste

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Customer Collaboration Over Contract


Negotiation
• Agile is flexible, accommodating, and willing to change
• Contracts are often rigid and uncooperative
• Agile contracts must accommodate change
• Difference between being right and doing the right thing

Contracts and Agile


Projects

• Agile is uncertain
• Contracts are legal documents
• Contracts want certainty
• Define project approach
• Nature of agile to change

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Responding to Change Over Following A


Plan
• Agile welcomes change
• Predictive projects plan everything in advance
• Agile projects have lots and lots of many changes
• Agile projects have uncertainty up front

Our highest priority is to satisfy the customer through early and


continuous delivery of valuable software.

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Welcome changing
requirements, even
late in development.
Agile processes
harness change for
the customer's
competitive
advantage.

Deliver working
software
frequently, from a
couple of weeks
to a couple of
months, with a
preference to the
shorter timescale.

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Business people and


developers must work
together daily
throughout the project.

Build projects
around motivated
individuals. Give
them the
environment and
support they need,
and trust them to
get the job done.

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The most efficient and


effective method of
conveying information
to and within a
development team is
face-to-face
conversation.

Working
software is
the primary
measure of
progress.

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Agile processes
promote sustainable
development. The
sponsors, developers,
and users should be
able to maintain a
constant pace
indefinitely.

Continuous
attention to
technical
excellence and
good design
enhances
agility.

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Simplicity--the art of maximizing the


amount of work not done--is essential.

The best
architectures,
requirements,
and designs
emerge from
self-organizing
teams.

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At regular
intervals, the
team reflects on
how to become
more effective,
then tunes and
adjusts its
behavior
accordingly.

Agile Approaches and Methods


Agile approaches and agile methods are umbrella terms that cover a variety of
frameworks and methods.

Lean
Agile
Kanban ScrumBan
Crystal

AUP
Scrum
XP
FDD DSDM

Source: TOGETHER FOR THE FIRST TIME


PMBOK ® GUIDE – Sixth Edition + Agile Practice Guide, Page 11

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Iterative and Incremental Approaches


Iterative and incremental approaches reduce waste and rework because of
feedback. These approaches use:
• Very short feedback loops
• Frequent adaptation of process
• Reprioritization
• Regularly updated plans
• Frequent delivery

Core Principles of Agile


Let’s sum up the core principles of agile:
• Welcome change
• Work in small value-added increments
• Use build and feedback loops
• Learn through discovery
• Value-driven development
• Continuous delivery
• Continuous improvement

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Four Types of Life Cycles


Predictive life cycle…

Source: TOGETHER FOR THE FIRST TIME


PMBOK ® GUIDE – Sixth Edition + Agile Practice Guide, Page 18

Four Types of Life Cycles


Agile life cycle…

Source: PMBOK ® GUIDE – Sixth Edition + Agile Practice Guide, Page 18

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Tailoring Circumstances
Once a situation arises that requires tailoring, discuss those
changes with those who will be impacted by the change.
Plan a short trial, along with an honest follow-up review before
committing to the change.

Tailoring Risks and Mitigation


The tailoring process can be effective and productive, but may
involve some risks. The team can mitigate these risks with the
following best practices:
• Get used to normal, out-of-the-box agile before attempting to
change it
• Carefully examine the motivation to drop, amend, or append
a practice

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Introducing Scrum
• Scrum is easy to understand, but can be difficult to master
• Scrum is a rugby term
• Scrum uses a methodology called the scrum framework
• The scrum framework is a set of practices, roles and
responsibilities, events, artifacts, and rules

Scrum Pillars and Values


• Transparency – a common understanding of what done means
in a scrum project
• Inspection – reviewing the project to determine the
completeness of the project; finding root cause of variances
from the project goals
• Adaptation – making adjustments to the scrum process to
mitigate problems or bad trends

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Introducing Scrum Sprints


• Timebox iteration for project work
• A timebox is a predetermined duration
• Scrum sprints are between one and four weeks in duration
• During a sprint no changes are made that would affect the goal
of the sprint
• A sprint can be cancelled if they change in the project goals
make the sprint goals obsolete
• Only the product owner may cancel a sprint

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More About Scrum Sprints


• If a sprint is cancelled, uncompleted backlog items are returned
to the product backlog
• Within a sprint there are several activities:
• Sprint planning meeting
• Development
• Daily scrums
• Sprint review meeting
• Sprint retrospective meeting

Introducing Scrum Team Roles


• Scrum Master – responsible for communicating the scrum
methodology and ensuring the methodology is used effectively
• Product owner – prioritizes the product backlog to ensure value
from each sprint
• Development team – the software developers who create the
product through the sprint

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Looking At The Scrum Activities


• Scrum activities are also known as events or ceremonies
• There are five scrum ceremonies:
• Product backlog refinement
• Sprint planning meetings
• Daily scrum
• Sprint reviews
• Sprint retrospective

Grooming
the Backlog
• The product owner owns
the backlog
• Backlog refinement is the
prioritization backlog items
• The entire project team
may participate in the
backlog grooming

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Sprint Planning Meeting


• Project team needs to discuss the goals of the upcoming sprint
• Team discusses how the work will be accomplished
• Product owner reviews with team items in the updated backlog
• Development team defines how the work will be done in the
goals of the sprint will be achieved
• The development team is self-organized

Participating In
a Daily Scrum
• The daily scrum is also known
as a stand-up meeting
• This is a 15-minute time-boxed
meeting
• The daily scrum is held every
day at the same time and
location
• The daily scrum is for the
development team only

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Daily Scrum Meeting Questions

01 02 03
What have I done What do I plan to Are there any
since the last daily do today? impediments to my
scrum? progress?

Working With Large Scrum Teams


• Scrum of scrums
• Scrum of scrums of scrums
• Four questions are answered:
• What has your team done since we last met?
• What will your team do before our next meeting?
• Are there any roadblocks in your team’s way?
• Will your team put anything in another team’s way?

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Introducing A Sprint Review


• Hosted at the end of every sprint
• Attendees will be the development team, the product owner,
scrum master, and sometimes other project stakeholders
• Development team will demo the work created in the increment
• The group will decide if “Done” has been achieved
• The development team and the product owner will discuss the
sprint and the remaining items in the product backlog

Introducing a Sprint Retrospective


• The development team meeting posted after the sprint review,
but before the next sprint planning meeting
• This is a meeting to inspect an adapt
• Lessons learned and opportunities for improvement
• Review of the product owner’s feedback about the last iteration
• An opportunity to improve on their approach based on the
retrospective and the last sprint

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Scrum Artifact – Product Increment

01 02 03
The product The product The development
increment is the increment is a chunk team and the
outcome of an of the project work product owner must
iteration be in agreement of
what done means for
an increment

Scrum Artifact – Product Backlog


• The product backlog is the source for all product requirements
• The product owner sorts and prioritizes the backlog items
• The development team always works on the most important
items based on the prioritized items in the product backlog
• The backlog is always prioritized before the current sprint
• Backlog refinement is done by both the product owner and the
development team working in harmony
• The team estimates their capacity to attack the items in the
product backlog

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Scrum Artifacts – Sprint Backlog


• Sprint backlog is a subset of the product backlog
• Sprint backlog serves as the goal for the current iteration
• Sprint backlog is a view into the work to be accomplished in the
current sprint
• Sprint backlog is updated and refined by the development team

All About Kanban


• Originated at Toyota
• Japanese word meaning “signboard”
To Do In Progress Done
Create landing page Server setup Domain purchased
Build shopping cart Domain routing Logo created
Payment gateway Printed materials
Catalog search Marketing emailer
Site search

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Kanban Pull System


• A pull system moves work through development
• The development team completes an item; the next item in
queue is pulled into the next stage of the process
• Kanban does not use time boxed iterations
• Only so many items can be in each stage of the project
• Work moves from left to right

Kanban
Board

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Exam Tip
• Kanban Boards are pull systems
• They visualize the project
• Kanban boards are sign boards
• Kanban in Japanese means “cards you can see”

Principles of Kanban
• Visualize the workflow
• Limit work in progress
• Manage the workflow
• Make process policies clear
• Aim for collaborative improvements

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Kanban Pull System


• Work item completed
• Next item pulled into WIP
• Only so many items allowed in WIP
• Not a real need for iterations

Extreme Programming
• Extreme programming is also known as XP
• XP is all about software development best practices
• The PMI-ACP exam will lightly test your knowledge of XP

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XP Core Values
• Simplicity – reducing complexity, extra features, and waste
• Find the simplest thing that could possibly work

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Extreme Programming Core Values


• Communication
• Ensuring that the
project team knows
what is expected of
them
• Ensuring the project
team knows what
other people are
working on
• The daily standup
meeting is an
excellent
communication tool

Extreme Programming
Core Values

• Feedback:
• The development team
needs feedback early in
the project
• Failing fast is a way to get
feedback early
• Feedback gives the team
an opportunity to improve
the project

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• Courage
• Developers’
work is entirely
visible to others
on the project
team
• Team members
share code and
correct each
other’s code
Extreme Programming • XP uses pair
programming
Core Values

Extreme Programming
Core Values

• Respect
• Team members must
respect one another
• Everyone is responsible
for the success and or
failure of the project
• Everyone works differently
but must work together

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XP Team Roles
• Coach – mentor/guide/facilitator/communicator similar to the
ScrumMaster
• Customer – the individual who provides requirements priorities
and direction for the project similar to the product owner
• Programmer – the developers who write the code
• Testers – Define and write the acceptability test

XP Core
Practices:
Whole Team
• XP team members
are collocated
• Generalizing
specialist not role
specialist
• Efficient and sharing
of information

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• Planning games are just planning activities


XP Core • Release planning is the release of new
functionality
Practices: • No more than one/two releases per year
Planning • The customer outlines the functionality
required in the release
Games • Developers estimate the difficulty to
build the functionality

XP Core • Iteration planning is similar to sprint


Practices: planning
Planning • Iteration planning happens at the
Games start of every iteration
• The customer defines what
functionality they want to see by
the end of the iteration
• The development team estimates
the difficulty to build the
functionality

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XP Core • Small releases to test environment are part


of the XP practices
Practices: • Increases visibility to the customer
Small • Helps to deploy working software to the end
Releases users

XP Core Practices: Customer Tests


• Definition of the required functionality
• One or more test criteria for the software to be working

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XP Core Practices: Collective Code


Ownership
• Any pair of developers can improve or amend the code
• Multiple people will work on all the code
• Improve defect resolution in discovery
• Knowledge is shared not isolated

XP Core 01 02 03
Practices: A coding The team Provides for

Code
standard is adheres to the consistency in
defined standard writing the
code
Standards

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XP Core Practices: Sustainable Pace


• Productivity is optimized through a sustainable pace
• Consistent overtime and long hours are not sustainable

XP Core Practices: Metaphor


• Metaphors and similes are used to explain designs
• Metaphors help communicate the software to the customer

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XP Core Practices: Continuous


Integration
• Compiling the code frequently throughout the day
• Programmers check-in code to the code repository
• Integration test run automatically for immediate feedback

Acceptance test are written


prior to developing new code

XP Core Initial tests will fail because the


Practices: code has not been fully
Test-driven developed yet
Development
When the code has been
written correctly it will pass
the test

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XP Core Practices: Refactoring


• Cleaning up the code
• Removing duplicated code
• Lowering coupling
• Increasing cohesion

Exam Tip
• Embrace the idea of refactoring
• Cleans up the code to make it:
• Simpler
• Easier to understand
• Adhere to standards
• Future work

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What is the simplest


thing that could work?
XP Core
Practices: Simple does not mean
Simple easy
Design
Simple design is a risk
mitigation approach

One person writes the code


while the second person
reviews the code
XP Core The two people change roles
Practices: frequently
Pair
Programming
The pair will catch mistakes
and speed up productivity

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Lean Product Development


• Toyota production system
• Visual management tools
• Customer requirements to find value
• Learning and continuous Improvement

Seven Lean Core Concepts


• Eliminate waste
• Empower the team
• Deliver fast
• Optimize the whole
• Build quality in
• Defer decisions
• Amplify learning

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Seven Wastes Of Lean


• Partially done work
• Extra processes
• Extra features
• Task switching
• Waiting
• Motion
• Defects

Dynamic Systems Development Method


• Focus on the business need
• Deliver on time
• Collaborate
• Never compromise quality
• Build incrementally from foundations
• Develop iteratively
• Communicate continuously and clearly
• Demonstrate control

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Feature-Driven Development
• The development team creates a model for the product
• They will build a feature list and a plan for the work
• The team moves through the design and build the directions for
the product features
• The team designs by features and builds by features

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Domain object modeling


Developing by feature
Individual class code ownership
Feature-Driven Feature teams
Development
Inspections
Characteristics
Configuration management
Regular builds
Visibility of progress and results

Crystal
• Customized methodologies coded by color names
• Methodologies are appropriate for different criticalities and team
sizes
• Criticality is about the impact of a product defect design

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Crystal Details
• Crystal Clear
• Crystal Yellow
• Crystal Orange and others
• Unique characteristics are driven by several factors such as
team size, system criticality, and project priorities.
• This Crystal family addresses the realization that each project
may require a slightly tailored set of policies, practices, and
processes in order to meet the project ‘s unique characteristics.

Product Vision
• A product vision is created
• The product must be in alignment with the company’s strategy
• This is done by the product owner

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Creating the
Product
Roadmap
• The visualization of
product features
• The product
roadmap equates to
the product division
as a whole
• This is done and
owned by the
product owner

Release Planning
• The release timing for specific product functionality
• Priorities are assigned to the product features from most
important to least important
• These features become the product backlog
• Owned by the product owner

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Iteration Planning
• Goals are established for the current Sprint or iteration
• Goals are based on the product backlog
• Product owner in the development team work together to
prioritize features
• This is done at the start of each Sprint

• The development team meets


each day throughout the Sprint
• What have you done since the
last daily scrum?
• What will you do today?
• Are there any impediments in
your way?

Daily Scrum

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Sprint Review
• The development team provides a demo of the product
• Happens at the end of each Sprint
• Product owner and development team own the stage

Sprint Retrospective
• A look back at the last sprint
• Opportunity to optimize efficiency
• Opportunity to refine environment and processes

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Released
Product
The product is released
according to the project’s
release plan

Agile Roles Team facilitator

In agile, three common roles are used:

Cross-functional
Team Members

Product owner

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Cross-functional
Team Members

Cross-functional team
members have the skills to
produce a working product.
Cross-functional development
teams deliver potentially
releasable product on a
regular cadence.

Cross-functional teams are critical


because:

01 02 03
They can deliver With higher quality Without external
finished work in the dependencies
shortest possible
time

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Management vs. Leadership


• Management is about getting things done
• Leadership is about getting people to want to do what needs to
be done
• Management is more concerned with task control command

Comparing Management and Leadership

Management Leadership
• Task and things • People
• Control • Empowerment
• Efficiency • Being effective
• Speed • Direction
• Command • Principles
• Doing things right • Doing the right things

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Product Owners
Critical success factor for agile teams is
strong product ownership

Product Owners
Create the backlog for and with the team
Backlog helps teams determine how to deliver the highest value
without creating waste

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Product
Owners
• The product owners:
• Guide the direction
of the product
• Rank the work
based on its
business value
• Provide feedback
• Set direction on
next deliverable

Product Owners
• Work with stakeholders, customers, and teams to define
direction
• Typically have a business background and provides deep
subject matter expertise to decisions
• May requests help from other SMEs

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Team Facilitator
A team facilitator or servant leader is typically seen on agile teams, and may be
know as:

Project manager

Scrum manager
Project team lead

Team coach Team facilitator

Management vs. Leadership


• Management is about getting things done
• Leadership is about getting people to want to do what needs to
be done
• Management is more concerned with task control command

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Servant Leadership Empowers the Team


Servant leadership is the practice of leading through service to the
team, by focusing on addressing the needs of the team to enable the
highest possible team performance.

Purpose People Process

Servant Leadership Characteristics


These characteristics enable project leaders to become more agile and facilitate
the team’s success:

Promoting self-awareness

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Servant Leadership Characteristics


These characteristics enable project leaders to become more agile and facilitate
the team’s success:

Listening

Servant Leadership Characteristics


These characteristics enable project leaders to become more agile and facilitate
the team’s success:

Serving those on the team

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Servant Leadership Characteristics


These characteristics enable project leaders to become more agile and facilitate
the team’s success:

Helping people grow

Servant Leadership Characteristics


These characteristics enable project leaders to become more agile and facilitate
the team’s success:

Coaching vs. controlling

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Servant Leadership Characteristics


These characteristics enable project leaders to become more agile and facilitate
the team’s success:

Promoting safety, respect, and trust

Servant Leadership Characteristics


These characteristics enable project leaders to become more agile and facilitate
the team’s success:

Promoting the energy and intelligence of others

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Servant Leader
Responsibilities

Servant leaders
manage
relationships to build
communication and
coordination across
the organization.

Servant Leader Responsibilities


• Educate stakeholders around why and how to be agile
• Support the team through mentoring, encouragement
• Celebrate with the team and external groups
• Help team with technical project management activities

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Servant Leaders Facilitate


When project managers act as servant leaders, the emphasis shifts from:

Managing TO
Facilitating
Coordination Collaboration

Servant Leaders
Remove
Impediments
• Servant leaders are responsible
to streamline processes that
are impeding a team or
organization.

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Primary Role of Servant Leader


Summing up the PRIMARY role of a servant leader is to:
• Shield the team from interruptions
• Remove impediments to progress
• Communicate and re-communicate the project vision
• Carry food and water

Servant Leadership
Success

Servant leaders can usually see how well their


leadership integrates into the agile mindset and
value.

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Leadership Tasks
• Give transparency through visualization
• Create a safe environment for experimentation
• Experiment with new techniques and processes
• Share knowledge through collaboration

PMI-ACP
Coach

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Team Formation and Development


Forming The agile process of team
formation and
development is based on
the Bruce Truckman
Storming Norming Performing model.

Adjourning

Source: PMI-ACP® Exam Prep, Page 214

Agile Teams
In practice, the most effective agile teams tend to range in size from:
• Three to nine members
• Located in a team space
• 100% dedicated to the team

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Agile Teams

Agile encourages self-managing teams, where


the members decide who will perform the work
within the next period’s defined scope.

Agile teams thrive with servant leadership, who


support the approach to their work.

Creating Collaborative Team Spaces


Characteristics and location of the delivery team
Work environment has significant impact on the team’s capacity
for collaboration and communication
Collocated teams, but this comes with some challenges

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Collocated Teams
Agility’s definition of a collocated team isn’t enough to locate all team
members in the same city or even the same floor of the same building.
An agile team is considered to be collocated if all its members are working
within 33 feet of each other, with no physical barriers.

Osmotic
Communication
A benefit of collocated
teams is osmotic
communication.
Useful information that
flows between team
members who are in close
proximity.

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At least one team member is working off-site

Distributed Majority of agile teams are distributed


Communication tools and reduced
Teams communication costs
Cost-effective approach

Global, Cultural, and Team Diversity


As communication options expand, it’s not uncommon to have
team member from different countries working together.
However, this may create challenges:
• Different time zones
• Different cultures
• Different communication styles
• Different native languages

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Digital Tools for Distributed Teams


• There are a host of electronic tools that distributed teams can
use to mimic the low-tech, high-touch tools favored by agile
teams and establish osmotic communication.
• Videoconferencing, live chat, Skype
• Interactive whiteboards
• Instant messaging (IM), and VoIP
• (Voice over Internet Protocol) headsets

Digital Tools for Distributed Teams


• Electronic tools for distributed teams to mimic the low-tech,
high-touch tools:
• Presence-based applications
• Electronic task boards and story boards
• Web-based meeting facilitators
• Survey applications
• Agile project management software
• Virtual card walls

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Distributed vs.
Outsourced Teams
Distributed team: multiple development
sites that can span buildings, cities, or
countries
Outsourced team: multiple legal entities,
contracting, contract administration and
different development infrastructures

Encourage Emergent Leadership


• Team success is more important than individual success
• Anyone can be a leader on an agile team
• Understanding roles and responsibilities

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Fostering Emergent Leadership


• Allow team members to take charge
• Motivate the team members
• Show recognition of individuals and team
• Avoid zero sum rewards

Assignment: Roles and Responsibilities

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Learning Game

Section Summary
• Defining Agile Values for Projects
• Embracing the Agile Mindset
• Exploring the Declaration Of Interdependence
• Doing Agile Project Management
• Reviewing the Agile Manifesto
• Twelve Principles of Agile
• Comparing Agile Project Management Approaches
• Leading an Agile Project
• Management and Leadership in Agile
• Practice Visualization to Enhance Transparency
• Experiment to Find Efficient And Effective Ways Of Working
• Encourage Emergent Leadership

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Practice
Exam

Value-Driven Delivery for the PMI-ACP


Exam
• 20 percent of the exam
• Roughly 24 exam questions
• Know this topic for exam and agile success

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14 Tasks for Value-Driven Delivery


• Plan work incrementally • Refactor code often
• Gain consensus on just in time • Optimize environmental
acceptance criteria operational it infrastructure
• Tune process to organization factors
team and project • Review and checkpoint often
• Release minimal viable product • Balance value and risk
• Work in small batches • Reprioritize to maximize value
• Review often • Prioritize nonfunctional
• Prioritize work requirements
• Review and improve the overall
process and product

Value-driven Delivery Definition


• Projects exist to create business value
• The project manager’s goal is to increase value and reduce risk
as early as possible
• Value-driven delivery has the most weight of all PMI-ACP exam
domains

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• Value is delivered first


Deliver Value • Longer projects mean more risk

Early in the • Delivering high-value items early means the


team understands the customers’ needs
Project • Early value help stakeholders maintain
synergy and interest in the project

Making Value-Based Decisions


• What adds the most value?
• Think of the customer of the project
• What is the definition of value for the project?
• Value is in working software
• Value is in results

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Minimize Waste is a Constant Goal


• Waste reduces value
• Poppendieck’s Seven Areas of Waste:
• Partially done work
• Extra processes
• Extra features
• Task switching
• Waiting
• Motion
• Defects

Identify Waste
• What’s lurking to do in the project?
• Where are bottlenecks and time sucks?
• Are team members pulled between activities?
• What are you and the team waiting for?
• What type of escaped defects have you experienced?

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Exam Tip
• Formulas and calculations are unlikely in
the PMI-ACP exam
• Be topically familiar with the topics in this
lecture

Return On
Investment –
ROI
• Profitability in a project
• Value of the project
minus the investment
• Higher ROI means a
better return – bigger is
better
• ROI is not the best
approach to
discovering business
value

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Present Value
• The calculation of a future amount in today’s terms given and
assumed interest rate and inflation rate
• Present value = (Predicted amount)/(1+i)n
• PV = (450,000)/(1.06)3
• PV = $377,828.68

Future Value
• The calculation of a present amount in today’s terms given and
assumed interest rate and inflation rate
• Future value = (known amount)*(1+i)n
• FV = (735,000)*(1.06)3
• FV = $875,396.76

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Net Present Value


• Present value of a revenue stream over a series of time periods
• Higher net present values are good

Internal Rate Of Return


• Calculates the NPV of the cost of the project and when the NPV
of the project meets or exceeds the NPV of the benefits of the
project
• The higher the IRR the more valuable the project is

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Earned Value Management For Agile


Projects
• It’s unlikely you’ll see earned value management on the exam
• EVM is a suite of formulas to show performance
• Earned value compared to actual performance to planned
performance

EVM Foundation
BAC = $100,000
Total Project

25%
Complete Month 6 = 50%

Earned Value Planned Value


%COMP X BAC What the project should be worth at
$25,000 this point in the schedule.
Actual Costs
$50,000
How much was
actually spent?
$27,000

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Finding the Variances


• Cost variance= EV-AC
• Schedule variance=EV-PV
BAC = $100,000
Total Project

25%
Complete Month 6 = 50%

Earned Value Planned Value


%COMP X BAC What the project should be worth at
$25,000 Actual Costs this point in the schedule.
How much was $50,000
actually spent?
$27,000

Measuring Performance
CPI= EV/AC SPI=EV/PV
CPI=25,000/27,000 SPI=25,000/50,000
CPI=.93 SPI=.50

BAC = $100,000
Total Project

25%
Complete Month 6 = 50%

Earned Value Planned Value


%COMP X BAC What the project should be worth at
$25,000 this point in the schedule.
Actual Costs
$50,000
How much was
actually spent?
$27,000

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Predicting the Future EAC=$100,000/.93


EAC=$107,526

• Estimate at Completion=BAC/CPI ETC=$107,526-$27,000


ETC=$80,526

• Estimate to Complete=EAC-AC
VAC=$100,000-$107,526 BAC = $100,000
VAC= -$7,526
Total Project

25%
Complete Month 6 = 50%

Earned Value Planned Value


%COMP X BAC What the project should be worth at
$25,000 this point in the schedule.
Actual Costs
$50,000
How much was
actually spent?
$27,000

EAC in Action

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To-Complete
Performance Index
• Efficiency needed to meet BAC:
• TCPI=(BAC-EV)/(BAC-AC)

• Efficiency needed to meet EAC:


• TCPI=(BAC-EV)/(EAC-AC)

• Great than 1, hard to accomplish


• Exactly 1, same level of efficiency
• Less than 1, easier to accomplish

TCPI=(BAC-EV)/(BAC-AC)
• TCPI=($100,000-$25,000)/($100,000-$27,000)
• TCPI=75,000/73,000
• TCPI=1.0273

BAC = $100,000
Total Project

25%
Complete Month 6 = 50%

Earned Value Planned Value


%COMP X BAC What the project should be worth at
$25,000 this point in the schedule.
Actual Costs
$50,000
How much was
actually spent?
$27,000

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TCPI=(BAC-EV)/(EAC-AC)
• TCPI=($100,000-$25,000)/($107,526-$27,000)
• TCPI=75,000/80,526
• TCPI=.93

BAC = $100,000
Total Project

25%
Complete Month 6 = 50%

Earned Value Planned Value


%COMP X BAC What the project should be worth at
$25,000 this point in the schedule.
Actual Costs
$50,000
How much was
actually spent?
$27,000

Story Points and EVM


• Can use Story Points instead of dollars
• Planned to complete 20 story points
• Completed 18 instead
• SPI=EV/PV
• SPI=18/20
• SPI=.90

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Five EVM Rules


• EV is first
• Variance means subtract
• Index means division
• Less than one is bad in an index
• Negative is bad in a variance

Agile Project
Accounting
• Agile accounting defines the
economic models of agile projects
• Project work and smaller chunks of
a larger project
• Smaller chunks of work are less
risky
• Accountability of invested in
relation to the ROI

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Intermittent Releases and Value


• MVP – minimal viable product
• Incremental funding
• Incremental ROI
• Business usage in “chunks”

Key Performance Indicators


• Key performance indicators are metrics to show how well the
project is performing
• Rate of progress
• Remaining work
• Likely completion date
• Likely cost remaining

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KPIs and Project Life Cycles


• Predictive life cycle
• Performance measurement baseline
• Scope
• Schedule
• Cost
• Agile life cycle
• All about getting things done
• Likelihood of targets

Managing Risk in an Agile Project


• Risk in an agile project is anything that threatens the project’s
goals
• Risk is considered an anti value
• Risk must be managed in a project
• Risk identification is an iterative activity
• Risk a recorded in a risk log

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Addressing Features With High-risk


• Features with high risk addressed early in project iteration
• High risk need to be addressed sooner rather than later
• Risk-adjusted backlog brings risk to early portion of project
• Risk burndown chart tracks risk as they move down in priority
and elimination

Risk
Burndown
Chart

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Regulatory Compliance for Agile Projects


• Regulations are requirements
• Regulatory compliance is one instance for documentation
where just because is utilized

Customer Value Prioritization

Agile teams work on the items that yield the highest value to the customer first

The product owner is responsible for keeping items in the backlog prioritized by business value

When changes are added to backlog, they must be prioritized for value

The customer is the person who will declare what success looks like

The team will discuss with the customer at the end of each iteration the priority of the remaining
work items

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Prioritization Schemes
• How the work is prioritized
• The team agrees on the prioritization scheme
• The prioritization scheme is communicated and agreed upon by
the entire agile team

Simple Scheme for Prioritization


• Items in the product backlog are ranked:
• Priority one (high)
• Priority two (medium)
• Priority three (low)
• This approach has a risk that everything is ranked as priority
one

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Customer-Valued Prioritization
• What has highest value first?
• Grooming backlog for value
• Politics and organizational goals
• Product owner

MoSCoW Prioritization Scheme


• Made popular by DSDM
• Must have
• Should have
• Could have
• Would like to have, but not this time

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Assignment: Using MoSCoW

5 Categories of Customer Preferences


• Must-be quality
• Ignored when met, dissatisfied when not met
• One-dimensional quality
• Spoken attributes that are promises
• Attractive quality
• Nice-to have features, but not necessarily required
• Indifferent quality
• Customers are indifferent to the quality feature
• Reverse quality
• Some customers will love, others will hate the feature

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Kano Analysis
• Delighters exciters
• Satisfiers
• Dissatisfiers
• Indifferent

Dot Voting Or Multi


Voting
• Stakeholders gets a predetermined
amount of dots
• Dots are assigned to the business
features
• Dots could be check marks or stickers
• Also known as “dotmocracy”

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Dot Voting Variations


• Color of dots could represent opinion
• Red or green
• Color of dots could represent stakeholder
• Management
• Team
• Customer

Dot Voting Risks


• New features can’t be considered once voting begins
• Review all features before voting – avoid too many options
• Similar options are basically penalized
• People follow crowd rather than consider options

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Monopoly
Money
• Stakeholders receive monopoly
money equal to the amount of
the project budget
• The monopoly money is
distributed among the system
features
• This approach is most effective
when it’s limited to prioritizing
business features

Monopoly Money Considerations


• Consider cost of:
• User-suggested features
• Rival product features
• Research-based features
• Market research-based features

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100-Point Method
• Each stakeholder is allotted 100 points
• The points are assigned to the most important requirements
• Weighted distribution of points

100-Point Considerations
• Public or private voting
• Participants understand process
• Deceptively simple
• Vote on each feature

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Requirements Prioritization Model


• Uses a scale of 1 to 9
• Benefit, penalty, cost, and risk of every feature

Considerations for Requirements


Prioritization Model
• Value – business benefit
• Cost – expense versus ROI
• Risk – riskiest requirements first
• Difficulty of implementation – safest first
• Success factors – high probability of success
• Regulatory compliance – laws and regulations
• Relationship to other requirements – linked to other requirements
• Stakeholder agreement – consensus on requirement
• Urgency – time-sensitive requirement

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Relative Prioritization Ranking

Priority of features

Simplest the features from most important to least important

Determination made to meet budget and schedule

Changes may change the prioritize list

Changes may bump some priorities from the list

Prioritized Backlog
• List of all requirements
• Prioritized with product owner
• Priorities can change with each grooming
• Priorities don’t change during the iteration

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Incremental
Delivery
• The team regularly
deploys working
increments
• Usually to a test
environment for
evaluation
• This is an opportunity
for an early return on
investment

Incremental Model
• System is broken down into many mini development projects
• Partial systems are built to produce the final system
• First tackled highest priority requirements
• The requirement of a portion is frozen once the incremented
portion is developed

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Pros: Incremental Delivery


• After each iteration, regression testing needed
• Defects identified because few changes are made within any single
iteration
• Allows for more targeted testing of each element
• Customer can respond to features and review the product
• Initial product delivery is faster and costs less

Cons: Incremental Delivery


• Cost may exceed business value
• Added functionality can reveal problems related to system
architecture which were not evident earlier

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Reviewing the Cost of Change


• Change is least expensive at the start of the project
• Change increases as product functionality increases
• Change is expected, but can be expensive – and timely

Reviewing the Cost of Change


Cost of change

Project timeline
Req Design Code Test UAT Production

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Minimum Viable
Product
• Complete enough to be useful
• Small enough that it does not
represent the entire project
• Also known as the minimal
marketable feature
• Barebones essentials of a
product

• Cards
Examples Of • Charts
Low-tech • Information radiator
• Tools that promote communication and
High-touch collaboration
Tools • Tools that promote learning and knowledge
transfer

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Agile Tooling
• Agile teams prefer low-tech high-touch tools over-sophisticated
computerized models
• Technical tools can exclude team members from interacting
• Consider high-tech tools for scheduling:
• Data accuracy perception increases
• A bad estimate is a bad estimate
• Barriers for stakeholder interaction are created

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Value, Verification,
and Validation
Ensuring value with agile project

Gulf of Evaluation
• The difference between what is said and what is understood
• Intangible projects often experience this gulf
• What does done looks like?

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Frequent Verification and Validation


• Testing checkpoints and reviews
• Frequent verification and validation happened throughout the project
• Build consensus between the project team and the project
stakeholders

Examples Of Verification and Validation In XP


Pair programming

Unit testing

Customer collaboration

Stand up meetings

Acceptance testing

Iteration demonstrations

Product release

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Exploratory Testing
• The tester aims to discover issues and unexpected behavior
• The tester explores the software
• This is in addition to scripted testing

Usability Testing
• How will a user respond to the system under realistic conditions?
• How easy is it to use the system?
• What improvements need to be made for usability?

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Continuous Integration in Agile Projects


• Incorporate new and changed code into the code repository
• Small code commits
• Frequent integration
• Relies on automated tools to integrate code when new code is
checked in

Continuous Integration System

Source code control system – version control

Build tools – build tools compile the code

Test tools – unit test to ensure functionality operates as expected

Scheduler or trigger – builds are launched on a schedule or based on conditions

Notifications – an email or instant message reporting on the results of a build

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Why Continuous Integration?


• Early warning a broken conflicting or incompatible code
• Problems are fixed as they occur
• Immediate feedback
• Frequent unit testing define issues quickly
• Easy to reverse the code back to the last known good

Disadvantages Of Continuous Integration


• Set up time is lengthy
• Often called Iteration 0
• Cost of a dedicated server
• Time required to build a suite of automatic tests

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Exploring Test-driven Development


• Also called test first development
• Test are written before the code is written
• Nunit
• Junit
• Code is developed and edited until the code passes all tests
• Refactoring is the final step to clean up the code

Test-driven Development
• Red – green – re-factor
• Red – green – clean
• Focus on the test first
• Early testing helps catch defects early in development
• Beware of developers writing their own test

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Acceptance Test Driven Development


• Testing focus is on business requirements
• Test represent the functionality the software is to have
• It’s all about the desired behavior
• FIT – framework for integrated testing
• Also called FitNessee
• http://www.fitnesse.org/

Acceptance Test-driven Development Cycle


• Discuss the requirements – developers as the product owner
questions that are designed to gather acceptance criteria
• Distill test in a framework friendly format – gets the test ready to be
entered into the acceptance test tool
• Developed the code and run the test – test initially fail because the
code hasn’t been written completely
• Demo – with automated acceptance testing scrips and
demonstrations of the software

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Scheduling Software
Vs. Kanban Board

• Also known as a task board


• Help teams monitor the work
in progress

Kanban Board

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Digital Tools for


Distributed
Teams
• Electronic tools to mimic low-
tech, high-touch tools:
• Presence-based
applications
• Electronic task boards and
story boards
• Web-based meeting
facilitators

Assignment: Creating a Sign Board

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Work In Progress (WIP)


• Also known as a work in process and work in play
• WIP is risk
• WIP hides bottlenecks
• WIP requires investment
• WIP delivers no return until work is complete
• WIP needs to be limited

Limiting Work In Progress


• Agile attempts to limit WIP
• Kanban boards can have WIP limits
• WIP limits keeps the team from taking on too much work
• WIP limits reveal bottlenecks

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Little’s Law
• The duration of a queue is proportional to its size
• By limiting the work-in-progress teams complete work faster
• Lead time of a process is equal to the amount of work in
progress divided by the average time it takes to complete each
piece of work

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Request for Proposal

A request for proposal is from the buyer to the seller

If the seller is to use a agile practices it must be defined in the request for
proposal

The buyer may need to educate the vendor about agile practices

Agile project welcome change so this may be hard to do with contracts

Agile Constraints And Contracts


• Agile is flexible
• Contracts are not flexible
• Contracts are a form of a constraint
• Contracts are constrained by an offer and a consideration
• Collaboration over contracts

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Agile Constraints And Contracts


• Agile projects constrain time and cost
• Agile project allow the scope to change
• Contracts typically constrain and balance time cost and scope

Considerations For Contracts


• Scope changes
• Priorities
• Time and cost

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Exam Tip
• Customer collaboration over
contract negotiation
• Customers are more involved
than traditional projects

Introducing DSDM Contracting


• Dynamic Systems Development Method
• Grew out of RAD – Rapid Application Development in 90s
• Waterfall was too big, too slow
• RAD was not focused on quality
• DSDM wanted a balance

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DSDM Strategy
• RAD benefits
• Communication
• Stakeholder engagement
• Transparency
• Waterfall
• Control
• Quality

DSDM Contracting
• Follows DSDM approach
• Creates a fixed schedule, cost, and quality
• Follows agile framework

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Graduated Fixed-Price Contract


• Both parties share some of the risk and reward
• If a vendor delivers on-time they get paid for their work at the
hourly rate
• If the vendor delivers early they get paid for their work but at a
higher hourly rate
• If the vendor delivers late they get paid for their work but at a
lower hourly rate

Graduated Fixed-Price Benefits


• No sandbagging
• Celebrate success for working smart
• Initiative to work effectively
• Focus on results, not hourly rate

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The price of the work remains


constant

Fixed-Price Individual work packages are


Work estimated for cost
Packages
Changes to the scope reflect a
new estimate for those work
packages

Customize Contracts
• The buyer and the seller can make any agreement they want
• Procurement is always tricky with agile projects

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Gulf of
Evaluation
• The difference
between what is
said and what is
understood
• Intangible projects
often experience
this gulf
• What does DONE
looks like?

Frequent
Verification and
Validation
• Testing checkpoints
and reviews
• Frequent verification
and validation happen
throughout project
• Build consensus
between the project
team and the project
stakeholders

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Examples Of Verification and Validation


In XP
Pair programming

Unit testing

Customer collaboration

Stand up meetings

Acceptance testing

Iteration demonstrations

Product release

Unit Testing
• Unit – smallest testable portion of application code
• Entire module
• Function
• Procedure
• Basically, code fragments
• Automated process for testing
• Isolated testing for validity

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Acceptance Testing
• Test to determine acceptability of results:
• Specific requirement
• Specification
• Contract requirements

Exploratory
Testing

• The tester aims to


discover issues and
unexpected
behavior
• The tester explores
the software
• This is in addition to
scripted testing

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Exploratory Testing Examples


• Tests created on the fly
• Investigation of system/application
• Improvement of test design – not automated
• Spontaneous test experiments
• Tester is in charge – not the script

Usability Testing
• How will a user respond to the system under realistic
conditions?
• How easy is it to use the system?
• What improvements need to be made for usability?

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User-Centered Interaction Design


• How users use the software
• Usability testing examples
• Software
• Food
• Electronics
• Hallway testing – random people try the product
• Expert review – experts test the product

Continuous Integration in Agile Projects


• Incorporate new and changed code into the code repository
• Small code commits
• Frequent integration
• Relies on automated tools to integrate code when new code is
checked in

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Continuous Integration System

Source code control system – version control

Build tools – build tools compile the code

Test tools – unit test to ensure functionality operates as expected

Scheduler or trigger – builds are launched on a schedule or based on conditions

Notifications – an email or instant message reporting on the results of a build

Why Continuous Integration?


• Early warning a broken
conflicting or incompatible
code
• Problems are fixed as they
occur
• Immediate feedback
• Frequent unit testing define
issues quickly
• Easy to reverse the code
back to the last known good

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Disadvantages Of Continuous Integration


• Set up time is lengthy
• Often called Iteration 0
• Cost of a dedicated server
• Time required to build a suite of automatic tests

Exploring Test-Driven Development


• Also called test first development
• Test are written before the code is written
• Nunit
• Junit
• Code is developed and edited until the code passes all tests
• Refactoring is the final step to clean up the code

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Test-Driven Development
• Red – green – re-factor
• Red – green – clean
• Focus on the test first
• Early testing helps catch defects early in development
• Beware of developers writing their own test

Red-Green-Clean

• Create a unit tests that fails


• Create code that passes test
• Clean up the code

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PMI-ACP
Coach

Acceptance Test Driven Development


• Testing focus is on business requirements
• Test represent the functionality the software is to have
• It’s all about the desired behavior
• FIT – framework for integrated testing
• Also called FitNessee
• http://www.fitnesse.org/

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Acceptance Test-Driven Development


Cycle
• Discuss the requirements – developers as the product owner
questions that are designed to gather acceptance criteria
• Distill test in a framework friendly format – gets the test ready to
be entered into the acceptance test tool
• Developed the code and run the test – test initially fail because
the code hasn’t been written completely
• Demo – with automated acceptance testing scrips and
demonstrations of the software

Learning
Game

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Practice
Exam

Overview of Domain III: Stakeholder


Engagement
• Leading Stakeholder Stewardship • Introducing Wireframes
• Defining Stakeholder Values • Meeting Personas
• Managing Stakeholder Engagement • Collaborating with Stakeholders
• Building Stakeholder Synergy • Creating Green and Red Zones
• Leading Stakeholder Conversations • Hosting a Workshop
• Creating the Project Charter • Playing Collaboration Games
• Defining Done in Agile Projects • Defining Soft Skills for Agile Projects
• Modeling an Agile Project • Negotiating with Stakeholders
• Use Case Diagrams • Resolving Conflicts
• Leveraging Data Models • Making Good Project Decisions
• Considering Screen Designs • Empowering the Project Team
• Making Decisions as a Group

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Stakeholder Engagement in the PMI-ACP


Exam
• 17 percent of the exam
• 20 exam questions

Stakeholder Engagement Objectives


• Working with the project stakeholders
• Establishing a shared vision
• Creating collaboration
• Communicating with project stakeholders
• Using interpersonal skills

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Stakeholder Engagement Tasks


• Engage and empower business stakeholders
• Share information frequently with all stakeholders
• Form working agreements for participation
• Assess organizational changes to maintain a stakeholder
engagement
• Used collaborative decision-making and conflict resolution

Stakeholder Engagement Tasks


• Establish a shared vision for project stakeholders
• Maintain a shared understanding of project success
• Provide transparency for better decisions
• Balance certainty and adaptability for better planning

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Who are Project Stakeholders?


• People and groups impacted by the project
• Can impact the project
• Customers
• Project sponsor
• Project leaders
• Development team
• Vendors
• End users

• Agile project
manager works
with stakeholders
• Not command and
control
• Consider servant
leadership
• Identify project
stakeholders as
Keeping Stakeholders early as possible
Engaged

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• People new to
agile projects need
some basic
education
• Address concerns
directly with
project
stakeholders
• Explain the
approach that will
Educating Stakeholders be used
for Agile Projects

Managing Stakeholder Engagement


• Short iterations keep stakeholders involved
• Reviews and demos show the results of the work
• Agile places value of work that is done
• Agile is naturally visible for project stakeholders

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Incorporating Stakeholder Values


• Work is based on what the stakeholders value
• Engage the product owner to prioritize the backlog
• Work is executed by priorities
• The development team creates the highest priority items
• The development team delivers early value to the business
• Stakeholders are invited to planning meetings and retrospective

Principles of Stakeholder Engagement


• Get the right stakeholders
• Ensure a stakeholder participation
• Manage stakeholder interest
• Frequently discussed what done looks like
• Show progress to project stakeholders
• Openly discuss project estimates and projections

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Defining Community Values


• Linked to Agile Manifesto
• Individuals and interaction
• Team and stakeholders are a sense of community
• What’s important to these individuals and the group?
• Respect for one another
• Respect for time
• Respect for end user
• Respect for code and the process
• Rules and team charter

Individuals and Interactions


• Respect for the worth of every person
• Truth in every communication
• Transparency of all data, actions, and decisions
• Trust that each person will support the team
• Commitment to the team and to the team’s goals

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Managing Stakeholder Engagement


• Stakeholder engagement is
about keeping involved
• PMBOK Guide knowledge
area
• Stakeholder
engagement plan
• Identify stakeholders
• Understand their
needs/wants/concerns
• Document
expectations

Conflict and Conflict isn’t always bad – positive conflict


creates solutions
Stakeholder
Engagement List of impediments or problems and plan
to tackle each

Innovation occurs only with the free


interchange of conflicting ideas

Resolution of conflicting agendas by


aligning around common goals

People must agree on common goals and


then work to become an effective team

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Identifying Project Stakeholders


• PMBOK Guide, 13.1 – Identify Stakeholders
• Regular process – not a one-and-done process
• Analyze and document:
• Stakeholders
• Interests
• Involvement
• Interdependencies
• Influence
• Project impact

Identify Stakeholder Tools and


Techniques
• Expert judgment
• Data gathering
• Questionnaires and surveys
• Brainstorming
• Data analysis
• Stakeholder analysis
• Documentation analysis
• Data representation
• Stakeholder mapping
• Meetings

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Building Stakeholder
Synergy
• Stakeholder engagement
• Keeping stakeholders excited and
involved
• Communication – truth in
communication
• Agile involvement in process/project
• PMBOK Guide, 13.2

Tools and Techniques


• Expert judgment • Data representation
• Data gathering • Mind mapping
• Benchmarking • Stakeholder engagement
assessment matrix
• Data analysis
• Meetings
• Assumptions and constraints
• Root cause analysis
• Decision making
• Prioritization/ranking

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Keeping
Stakeholders
Involved
• Framework of adaptive
approach
• Daily standups
• Working with project
team
• Regular communication
• Following rules of project

Daily Stand-Up
Meeting Rules

1. Stand up
2. Three-question agenda
3. Have PM tools handy
4. Collaborative effort – speak to group
5. Develop a routine

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Creating A Project Tweet


• Project customers in the project team can work together to
create a project tweet
• Describe the goal of the project in 140 characters or less
• This exercise defines a high-level description of the project
• Elevator statement

Leading Stakeholder Conversations


• Communication is paramount
• Push communication
• Pull communication
• Scheduled interactive communication
• Transparency

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Good News, Bad News, and


All News
• Transparency is paramount for exam
• Don’t hide bad news – go to the problem
• Confront issues
• Stakeholders are partners in the project

Stakeholder are Involved


• Design documents
• Software and prototype demonstrations
• Retrospectives and capturing lessons learned
• Providing information for unclear requirements
• Test scenarios and test cases for UAT
• Performing UAT
• Defining transition requirements
• Preparing the organization for change

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Create the Project Vision


• Develop the project vision based on
• Key goals
• Customer needs, wants, and expectations
• Competition or similar products (differentiate solution)
• Create the Vision Statement
• Write in present tense (act as if it exists already)

Create the Project Vision


• Validate and revise
• Compelling for stakeholders
• Organization’s goals and strategy
• Consider roles in project
• Stakeholders: accomplishes goal
• Team: understand the end results
• Project manager: remove impediments
• Final Version
• Visible to all in project
• Reference throughout project

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Failing Fast
• Failing fast means failing early and cheaply
• Good way to discover misunderstandings
• Ensures the project team understands what stakeholders want

Creating an Agile Charter


• Agile charters authorize the project and the project manager
• Agile charters are from the project sponsor
• Could be lightweight or very detailed
• Acknowledge change is likely in the actual project

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Agile Project Charters are Different


• Traditional charters are very specific
• Agile charters are broad and high level
• Agile charters define:
• Who will be engaged
• What is the project about
• Where will the project take place
• When will the project start and end
• Why this project being chartered
• How the goals of the project be achieved

Agile Charter
Elements
• Vision Statement
• Team rules
(constitution)
• Code of Conduct
• Communication rules
• Definition of
Done/Success factors

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Assignment: Creating a Charter

An Agile Project Charter


For an agile project, the team needs the project vision or purpose and a clear
set of working agreements.

An agile project charter answers these questions:


• Why are we doing this project?
• Who benefits and how?
• What does done mean for the project?
• How are we going to work together?

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Agile Charter and the PMI-ACP


• Value is creation (not a template)
• Single page (no value in documentation)
• Whole team approves the charter (consensus)
• Define success criteria (outcome)

An Agile Team Charter


• Some teams benefit from a team chartering process.
• Here are some chartering ideas for team members to use as a
basis for their social contract:
• Team values
• Working agreements – what does ready and done mean?
• Ground rules – one person talking
• Group norms – meeting times/duration
• The servant leader together with the team
• may decide to address other behaviors.

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What Does Done Mean


• Defining done is important for everyone
• An example of a shared vision
• User stories – done will mean developed documented and
tested
• Releases – done means there are no large defects or remaining
change requests
• Final project deliverables – priority features are implemented
three months of trouble-free operation and satisfactory scores

Definition of
Done
• Potentially shippable
product
• Finished feature
• Coding
• Testing
• Product owner
approval
• DoD created by team

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Working With Agile Modeling


• Modeling techniques for agile projects
• The value is in discussion and creation of the model
• Often treated on whiteboards and photographs for a record
• Lightweight and barely sufficient

Agile Model Development

Analysis

Design Review

Implementation

Testing Retire?
Iterate?

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Agile Modeling Considerations


• Supplement to agile frameworks
• XP
• Scrum
• Adequate level of document (light, just enough)
• Difficult to do with large teams, non-collocated
• Face-to-face communication preferred

XP: Agile Modeling Values


• Communication – among team and project stakeholders
• Simplicity – easier to explore an idea by drawing a diagram
instead of writing lines of code
• Feedback – communicating ideas through diagrams to quickly
gain feedback
• Courage – make decisions and changes by discarding or
refactoring
• Humility – humility to recognize that we don't know everything

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Use Case Diagram Purpose


• Model the functionality of a system using actors and use cases
• Use cases are a set of actions, services, and functions
• Actors are people or entities operating within the system

Use Case Diagram Components


• System – a rectangle that contains use cases; actors are
outside the boundaries
• Use Case – ovals; label with verbs that represent the functions
• Actors - the users of a system. One system could be an actor of
another system
• Relationships – line; the relationships between an actor and a
use case

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Use Case
Diagram
How will the user use the
solution?

Defining Data Models


• Determines the structure of data
• Sometimes called a data structure
• Car
• Engine
• Exhaust
• Tires
• Windows
• Interior
• Front
• Back
• Trunk

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Sample Data
Model
How data flows through the
system

Considering Screen Designs


• User interaction
• User stories are product focused
• Promote cooperation between team and product owner
• Avoid creep, design black holes

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Screen Designs
What does the user interface look like?

Introducing Wireframes
• Show don’t tell
• Simple, quick diagrams showing solution
• Element in UI
• Element organization
• Interface operation
• User interaction with solution

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Wireframes
• A quick mock-up of a product
• Could be screens and data flows between screens
• Ensures that everyone has the same understanding of the
product
• A form of low fidelity prototyping
• Quick way to get feedback

Wireframe
Sample

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User Personas
• Biographical sketches of key stakeholders
• Description of product users
• Somewhat grounded in reality
• Goal oriented
• Show tangible and actionable outcomes
• Focus on the users and who the users will be

Creating Personas
• Know the users and goals
• Precise is better than long (non-value add)
• Define a primary persona
• Focus on main usage
• Personas and user stories
• As <persona> ,
• I want <what?>
• so that <why?>.

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Plan Communications Management


• Communication requirements analysis
• Communication technology
• Communication model
• Communication methods
• Meeting
• Create the communications management plan
• Update project documents

Manage Communications
• Communication technology
• Communication models
• Communication methods
• Information management systems
• Performance reporting
• Communicate with stakeholders
• Update the project management plan project document
organizational process assets

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Control Communications
• Information management systems
• Expert judgment
• Meetings
• Work performance information
• Change request
• Update the project management plan project documents and
organizational process a set

Communication Model – Sender


Receiver
• Sender
• Encoder
Sender Receiver

• Medium Medium
FAX FAX
• Decoder Encoder Noise Decoder

• Receiver
• Barrier
• Noise

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Face-to-face Communication
• Face-to-face communication is preferred
• Highest bandwidth of all communication types
• Most effective communication

Face-to-face
Communication Effectiveness

Videoconferencing

Telephone
Effectiveness Of
Different 2-way radio
Communication
Channels
Written docs Letters, reports, email

Unaddressed docs Spam, bulk mail

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Two-way Communication
• Dispatching model – top down communication
• Collaborative model – interactive communication between
sender and receiver

Knowledge Sharing
• Knowledge sharing is critical for agile projects
• Share information with everyone
• Collective code ownership means any developer can edit any
code at any time
• Agile practices promote knowledge sharing:
• Kanban boards
• Information radiators
• Personas
• Wireframes

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Communicating and Agile Projects


• Low-tech high-touch tools
• Stand up meetings
• Osmotic communications
• Tacit knowledge

What is an
Information Radiator?
• Highly visible displays of
information
• Large graphs or charts that
summarize project data
• Out in the open and easily
accessible
• Also known as visual controls

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What’s on an Information Radiator?


• Features delivered versus features remaining
• Who is working on what
• Current iteration features to be created
• Velocity and defect measurements
• Retrospective outcomes
• Threats and issues for the project
• Burn up and burndown chart
• Story maps

Social Media and Agile Projects


• Remote workers staying in touch
• Facebook
• Twitter
• Private groups
• Web collaboration tools
• Non collocated teams
• Consider the sensitivity of the project information

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Collaboration Tools Consideration


• IP telephone
• Skype
• GoToMeeting
• Adobe Connect
• Google Hangout
• Messenger

Collaboration is Key in Agile Projects


• Customer collaboration over contract negotiation
• Business people and developers must work together daily
throughout the project

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Benefits of Collaboration
• Generates wiser decisions
• Promotes problem solving
• Promotes action
• Build social capital
• Ownership of collective problems

Engaging People in Agile Projects


• Engagement creates better ideas and put some conversations
• Active problem solving instead of command and control
• Taking action rather than being passive
• Collective ownership of ideas
• Motivates and engages the project team
• Shifts the power downward

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Green Zone versus Red Zone


• Takes responsibility • Thinks both short-term and
• Responds non-defensively long-term
• Not easily threatened • Considers other points of views
• Build mutual success • Welcomes feedback
• Seeks solutions • Considers conflict to be natural
• Uses persuasion • Speak calmly and directly about
difficult issues
• Firm, but not rigid
• Accept responsibility
• Seeks excellence

Green Zone Versus Red Zone


• Blames others • Feel victimized
• Responds defensively • Doesn’t seek feedback
• Feels threatened or wrong • Must win at any cost
• Triggers defensiveness • Is rigid and reactive
• Holds grudges • Creates a climate of
• Shame, blame, and antagonism
accusations • Disapproval and content
• Binary thinking • Sees others as the enemy
• Short-term advantage • Does not listen effectively

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Hosting Workshops
• Meetings for participants to get work done
• Clear goals and a schedule
• Retrospectives
• Planning meetings
• Estimating sessions

Tips for a Great Workshop


• Have a diverse group of people
• Facilitated for involvement
• Get people involved early

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User Story Workshops


• Preferred approach for candidate user stories
• Also known as story writing workshops
• Optimize the workflow by understanding user needs
• Engage stakeholders in the design process

Brainstorming
• Collaborative technique too rapidly generate lots of ideas
• Maximize number of suggestions
• No stupid ideas
• Will sort through the ideas later

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Brainstorming Methods
• Quiet writing
• Round robin
• Free for all

Collaboration Games
• Also known as innovation games
• Remember the future
• Prune the product tree
• Speed boat
• Buy a feature
• Bang for the buck

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Remember the Future


• Collaboration game
• Stakeholders look back at the project
• 20 minutes to write a future report about how the project went
• Includes what was created; written on sticky notes
• Notes are moved into associated clusters and duplicates
removed
• This game define success

Prune The Product Tree


• Drawing of a big tree
• The trunk is what we already
know or have built
• The branches are new
functionality and what needs
to be designed
• Participants add features on
sticky notes to the tree
• Closer to the trunk represents
higher priority

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Speed Boat Games – Sailboat


• Imagine it’s a boat
• What winds are pushing the
sailboat
• What anchors are holding the
sailboat back
• What direction is the sailboat
going
• What rocks are in the way

Interpersonal Skills for Agile Projects


• Emotional intelligence
• Active listening
• Facilitation techniques
• Negotiation
• Conflict resolution
• Participatory decision making

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What is Emotional
Intelligence?
• Emotional
intelligence affects
every aspect of your
life
• Understanding the
root causes of
emotions
• Identify who you are
• Better interact with
others

Emotional Intelligence
• The ability to identify and influence our emotions and the
emotions of others

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Quadrants Of Emotional Intelligence


• Self-management • Social skills
• Self control • Influence
• Conscientiousness • Inspirational leadership
• Adaptability • Developing others
• Drive and motivation • Teamwork and collaboration
• Self-awareness • Social awareness
• Self confidence • Empathy
• Emotional self-awareness • Organizational awareness
• Accurate self-assessment • Understanding the environment

Quadrants of Emotional Intelligence


Self Others

Self- Social
Awareness

Awareness Awareness
Management

Self- Relationship
Management Management

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Active Listening
• Hearing what someone is really trying to say
• Level 1 – internal listening
• Level 2 – focus listening
• Level 3 – global listening

Level 1 – Internal Listening


• Words are heard, but we’re not very attentive
• We interpret the meaning – how is this going to affect me

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Level 2 – Focused Listening


• The speaker’s perspective
• We empathize with the speaker
• We look for emotional indicators such as voice and tone
• Facial expressions and words

Level 3 - Global Listening


• We build on level 2
• A higher level of awareness
• Subtle clues about meeting such as the speaker’s posture and
energy
• Helps us to develop a fuller context of the message

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Facilitation
• Running effective meetings and workshops
• Goals – ensuring that meetings are not a waste of time by
promoting participation
• Rules – establishing ground rules and holding people
accountable to these rules
• Timing – the duration of the meeting is established ahead of
time
• Assisting – making the meeting effective and assuring that
everyone may contribute

4 Scrum Meetings to Know


• Daily scrum – 15 minute meeting about status updates
• Sprint planning meeting – product owner priorities
• Sprint retrospective – discuss improvement for next sprint
• Sprint review – discussion on actual work results from sprint

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Negotiation
• Negotiations happen throughout the project
• Consider the priorities of user stories
• Avoid a zero-sum games where only one person wins
• Healthy negotiations allow for give and take

Customer Collaboration
• Accept (do nothing)
• Avoid (create a work-around)
• Ameliorate (reduce the impact)
• Cover (make it invisible to the user)
• Resolve (eliminate it once for all)

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Story Negotiation
• Separate people and problems
• Focus on shared interests
• Create options
• Use objective criteria

Conflict Resolution Methods


• Withdraw/Avoid
• Smooth/Accommodate
• Compromise/Reconcile
• Force/Direct
• Collaborate/Problem Solve

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Participatory Decision Making


• Engaging stakeholders for decision making
• Communication and decision-making are critical to keep
everyone informed then engaged
• Involves stakeholders when making decisions
• Stakeholder involvement increases as they commit to the
project

Authoritarian versus Participatory

Authoritarian Participatory
• Dominates project • Team involvement
• Self-centered • Smaller team
• Control and command • Collaborative approach
• No questions • Influence over authority

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Empowering the Project Team


• Self-organizing teams
• Team needs direction for empowerment
• Clarity
• Ability
• Authority (agency)
• Safety
• Belief (confidence)
• Interest

Convergent And Shared Collaboration


• Convergent – participating decision making models in for
conversions for collective agreements
• Shared collaboration they share the decision-making process
fairly

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Simple Voting
• Participatory decision approach
• The team votes for or against an idea by a show of hands

Thumbs Up, Down, or Sideways


• Thumbs up and individual is for the decision
• Thumbs down and individual is against the decision
• Thumb sideways the individual is neutral or undecided

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Fist of Five Voting


• The number of fingers shown indicates degree of support

Highsmith Decision Spectrum


• Participants place a checkmark on a spectrum
• In favor
• Okay but with reservations
• Mixed feelings
• Not in favor but will commit
• Veto

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Learning
Game

PMI-ACP
Coach

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Section Summary
• Leading Stakeholder Stewardship • Introducing Wireframes
• Defining Stakeholder Values • Meeting Personas
• Managing Stakeholder Engagement • Collaborating with Stakeholders
• Building Stakeholder Synergy • Creating Green and Red Zones
• Leading Stakeholder Conversations • Hosting a Workshop
• Creating the Project Charter • Playing Collaboration Games
• Defining Done in Agile Projects • Defining Soft Skills for Agile Projects
• Modeling an Agile Project • Negotiating with Stakeholders
• Use Case Diagrams • Resolving Conflicts
• Leveraging Data Models • Making Good Project Decisions
• Considering Screen Designs • Empowering the Project Team
• Making Decisions as a Group

Practice
Exam

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Overview of Domain IV: Team


Performance
• Valuing People Over Processes
• Defining the Delivery Team
• Identifying the Product Owner
• Responsibility of the Team Leader
• Recognizing the Project Sponsor
• Forming the Agile Project Team
• Developing the Project Team
• Leading the Project Team
• Coaching Team Members
• Building a Collaborative Team Space
• Working with collocated Teams
• Defining the Project Team Space
• Identifying Osmotic Communications
• Building Burn Charts

Team Performance Overview


• 16 percent of the PMI-ACP exam
• 19 exam questions
• Building high-performing teams

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Team Performance Tasks


• Develop team rules and processes to foster buy in
• Help grow team interpersonal and technical skills
• Use generalizing specialist
• Empower and encourage emergent leadership
• Learn team motivators and demotivators

Team Performance Tasks


• Encourage communication via collocation in collaboration tools
• Shield team from distractions
• Align team by sharing project vision
• Anchor team to measure velocity for capacity and forecast

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Develop and
Support Self-
organizing Teams
• Self-organizing
• Self-empowered
• The project team
are stakeholders
• Team leaders
• Scrum masters
• Coaches

• Product owner
• Customer
• Proxy customer
• Value
management team

Business
Representatives

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Defining the Delivery Team


• People building the product
• Incremental delivery team
• Self-organized and self-directed
• Share information with one another freely

Delivery Team
Responsibilities
• Daily standup meetings
• Write acceptance tests
• Test and revise
increments
• Product demonstrations
• Participate in
retrospectives

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Business Representatives
• Product owner
• Customer
• Proxy customer
• Value management team

Business Representatives
• Prioritize product features
• Manages the product backlog
• Ensures a shared understanding
• Provides the acceptance criteria
• Makes change request

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Business Representatives
• May change the product features and priorities
• Facilitate engagement of external project stakeholders
• Provides due date for the project
• Attends planning meetings reviews and retrospectives

• Coach or team
leader
• Servant leader
• Helps the delivery
team self-govern
and self organize
• Facilitator and
communicator
• Coach and mentor
to the delivery
ScrumMaster team

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ScrumMaster
• Guides agile processes
• Helps the product owner manage the product backlog
• Helps the product owner communicate
• Facilitates meetings
• Follows up on issues

Project Sponsor

• The main advocate for the


project
• Provides direction to the
product owner
• Determines value on time and
on budget
• May attend iteration review
meetings
• Authorizes the project

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Agile Team Characteristics


• 12 or fewer members
• Team members have complementary skills
• Team members are generalizing specialists
• Team members are committed to a common purpose
• Team members hold themselves mutually accountable
• Team members have shared ownership for the project outcome

Agile Team Goals


• Technical excellence
• Team swarming – multiple people work on one item at a time to
finish (crashing)
• Allows everyone to work together, towards a solution
• Participates as a team, not individuals

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Defining Generalizing
Specialist

• Team members can serve


in multiple roles
• Team members can easily
switch between rules
• Helps to resolve
bottlenecks

Generalizing Specialist Attributes


• One or more technical specialties
• At least general knowledge of software development
• At least a general knowledge of the business domain
• Seeks to gain skills in existing specialties and other areas

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Characteristics of High-performing Teams


• Create a shared vision for the project team
• Set realistic goals
• Limit team size to 12 or fewer people
• Build a sense of team identity
• Provide strong leadership

Self-organizing
Empowered
Eight Believe they can solve any problem
Characteristics
Committed to team success
of
High- Owns its decisions and commitments
Performance Motivated by trust
Teams
Consensus driven
Participate in constructive disagreement

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Self-organizing
Teams
• Not command and
control
• Can use their own
knowledge to
organize work
• Structure that work
based on iteration
goals
• Responsibility
delegated to the team

Self-directing Teams
• Empowered to work collectively
• Make local decisions
• Estimate and decide the project work
• Make mistakes and learn from mistakes

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Exam Tip
• Self-organizing and self-
directing teams are goals of
agile projects
• Teams usually do not to start
as self-organized and self-
directed

Defining Emergent
Leadership
• Different people lead different initiatives
• High-performing teams allow multiple leaders
• No power struggle with leaders change roles
• Leaders are self-selected not assigned

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Adaptive Leadership
• Directing – happens during team
forming
• Team members may have low
competence but high commitment
• Leaders hi directive and low supportive
behavior
• Coaching – happens during storming
• Team members have some competence
and low commitment
• Leaders high directive and high
supportive behavior

Adaptive Leadership Continued


• Supporting – happens during norming
• Team members have moderate to high
competent and variable commitment
• Leaders offer low directive and high
supportive behavior
• Delegating – happens during team
performing
• Team members have high competence
and high commitment
• Leaders offer low directive and low
supportive behavior

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Experimenting and
Failing Safely
• The team should experiment and try
new approaches
• It’s okay to fail
• Learn from failure and move forward
• An engagement culture rewards
people for problem solving
collaboration and sharing ideas

Tuckman Model Of Team Formation And


Development
• Forming – the team comes together and learns about each
other
• Also known as a working group
• Storming – conflict and struggle for the approach and
leadership
• Also known as a pseudo team
• Norming – the team works with each other and conflict has
settled
• Also known as a potential team
• Performing – the team hits their stride
• Also known as a real team and becoming a high-performing team

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Herzberg’s Theory Of Motivation


High Promote
Motivating Agents: performance
Opportunity
Responsibility
Level of performance

Appreciation
Recognition
Education

Expected Hygiene Agents:


Job security
Paycheck Must
Acceptable working conditions exist first
Relationships
Low

Training Coaching And Mentoring


• Training is teaching a skill or
knowledge through practice and
instruction.
• Coaching is a facilitated process to
help individuals develop and improve
performance
• Mentoring is a professional
relationship more free flowing. The
mentor offers advice

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Dreyfus Model Of Adult Skill Acquisition


• Novice follow the rules they’ve been given and make analytical
decisions
• Advanced beginner still following the rules but based on
experience better understand the context of the rules
• Competent determining which rules are best for each situation
• Proficient actively choosing the best strategy rather than
simply relying on the rules
• Expert decision-making becomes intuitive

Shu-ha-ri Model Of Skill Mastery


• Shu – start by following the rules
• Ha – once the team has mastered the
guidelines they can move away from
them and work intuitively
• Ri – the team reaches full mastery
and can transcend the rules

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Guidelines for One-on-one Coaching


• Meet them a half a step ahead
• Guarantee safety
• Partner with managers
• Create positive regard

Encourage
Constructive
Disagreement

• Debate and conflict is natural and


healthy
• Constructive conflict leads to
better decisions and buy-in
• Divergence means the team will
argue and debate
• Convergence means the team will
agree on the best solution

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Five Dysfunctions Of A Team


• Absence of trust
• Fear of conflict
• Lack of commitment
• Avoidance of accountability
• Inattention to results

Building a Collaborative Team Space


• Open floor plan
• Out of confined offices
• Two or more people over single offices
• Caves and commons
• Caves – private areas for alone time, thinking
• Common – open areas for collaboration

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Experimenting and Failing Safely


• The team should experiment and try new approaches
• It’s okay to fail
• Learn from failure and move forward
• An engagement culture rewards people for problem solving
collaboration and sharing ideas

• All the team works in


one location
• Ideally with in 33 feet
or ten meters of each
other
• No physical barriers
like walls or doorways
• Distributive teams use
collaborative software
Collocated Teams are
Preferred

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Working with Collocated Teams


• Skype, Google Hangout, Video
Conferencing
• Online KanBan
• Asana.com
• Virtual teams create
communication challenges

Creating a Team
Space
• Location for team members
in the same space
• Also known as the war room
• Visible information radiators
for project metrics
• Lots of white boards and
task boards

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Caves and Commons


• Caves are private spaces for phone
calls or one-on-one conversations
• Commons are the primary work area

Tacit Knowledge
• The unwritten information collectively known by the group
• How to restart a server
• How to turn on the lights
• Larger groups have more difficulty with tacit knowledge

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Osmotic Communication
• Learning by
overhearing each
other’s conversation
• Benefit of a
collocated team

Factors of Osmotic Communications


• Physical proximity – pair programming
• Absorbing information – even wrong information – from what’s
around you:
• Behavior of other groups
• Lack of focus
• Rumors

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Managing Team Diversity


• Consider culture of team members
• Respect one another and belief systems
• Understand work ethics and culture

• Time zones
• Communication
preferences
• Cultural characteristics
• Language

Team Diversity Attributes

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Managing Virtual Teams


• Consider different time zones
• Consider different cultures
• Different communication styles
• Different native languages

Managing Distributed Teams


• Distributed teams are virtual teams
• Short iterations help collaboration in coordination
• Distributed teams is not the same as outsourcing
• Distributed teams face more of a challenge in storming and
norming
• The project manager may need to introduce controversial or
difficulties of the work early in the project
• A face-to-face kickoff is often needed

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Exam tip
• Use frequent communication
• Intensified facilitation
• Use best practices for conference calls
• Keep on track
• Keep on time
• Keep track of who is on the call
• Keep the answers coming
• Keep it fair
• Keep it documented

Digital Tools For Distributed Teams


• Video conferencing
• Interactive whiteboard
• Instant messaging
• Presence-based application
• Electronic task for storyboards
• Web-based meeting facilitators
• Virtual card wall
• Wiki site

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Measurements in Agile Projects


Transitioning to agile means using different measurements.
Agile projects deliver finished work on a regular basis. Project teams
can use such data for improved forecasts and decision making.

Agile Teams Measure Results


• Agile measures what the team
delivers, not what the team predicts it
will deliver.
• Agile teams limit their estimation to
the next few weeks at the most. There
is evidence that the smaller the chunk
of work, the more likely people are to
deliver.

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Visual Display of Progress


• Teams may use either burndown or burnup charts to see what
has been completed as the iteration progresses. This allows the
product owner along with the team to replan for the next
iteration.

Work
completed

150 points Team velocity

Work remaining
Work remaining
10 points

10 points

10 points

10 points
10 points

10 points

10 points

10 points

10 points

10 points

10 points

Done!

Current

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Burnup Chart
This is the same data presented in a different way. Teams should
choose how to see their data.

Source: TOGETHER FOR THE FIRST TIME


PMBOK ® GUIDE – Sixth Edition + Agile Practice Guide, Page 63

Product Backlog Burnup Chart


The team can show completed value with
a product backlog burnup chart

Source: TOGETHER FOR THE FIRST TIME


PMBOK ® GUIDE – Sixth Edition + Agile Practice Guide, Page 68

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Understanding Team Velocity


• Velocity is the measure of a team’s capacity for work per
iteration
• Measured in the same unit that the team estimates the work
• Velocity very early and then stabilizes
• Velocity tends to plateau

Velocity
Velocity the measure of a team’s capacity for work per iteration
Predict how much work can be done in future iterations

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Work
completed

150 points Team velocity

Work remaining
Work remaining
10 points

10 points

10 points

10 points
10 points

10 points

10 points

10 points

10 points

10 points

10 points
Done!

Current

Calculating Completion Time


• The team’s velocity has been 20 story points per iteration
• There are 200 story points left
• Each iteration is two weeks
• 200 divided by 20 is 10
• 10 times 2 is 20
• There are 20 weeks left in the project

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Learning
Game

Section Summary
• Valuing People Over Processes • Developing the Project Team
• Defining the Delivery Team • Leading the Project Team
• Identifying the Product Owner • Coaching Team Members
• Responsibility of the Team • Building a Collaborative Team
Leader Space
• Recognizing the Project • Working with Collocated Teams
Sponsor • Defining the Project Team
• Forming the Agile Project Team Space
• Identifying Osmotic
Communications
• Building Burn Charts

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Practice
Exam

Overview of Domain V: Adaptive Planning


• Agile Planning Concepts • Grooming the Backlog
• Agile Discovery • Utilizing Affinity Estimating
• Value-Based Analysis • Creating a Product Roadmap
• Timeboxing Meetings and • Planning with Poker
Events • Creating Release and
• Creating Estimate Ranges Iteration Plans
• User Stories • Using Spikes
• Assignment: Writing User • Visioning the Releases
Stories • Completing Daily Stand-Ups

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Adaptive Planning Exam Domain


• 12 percent of the PMI-ACP exam
• 14 exam questions
• Sizing estimating planning

Key Tasks for Adaptive Planning


• Progressive elaboration and rolling wave planning
• Transparent planning and key stakeholders
• Managing expectations by refining plans
• Adjusting planning cadence based on project factors and results
• Inspect and adapt the plans to changing events

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Key Tasks for Adaptive Planning


• Size items first independently of team velocity
• Adjust capacity for maintenance and operations demands to
update estimates
• Start planning with high-level scope, schedule, and cost range
estimates
• Refine ranges as the project progresses
• Use actuals to refine the estimate to complete

Define Adaptive Planning


• Planning is an ongoing activity
• Agile planning is different than predictive planning
• Plan for early delivery business value risk reduction invisibility

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Interactive Planning Examples


• Daily standup
• Backlog prioritization
• Sprint retrospective
• Iteration planning

Product Vision Statement


• Elevator pitch to communicate the
project’s end goal
• Differentiation
• Competition
• Supports the organization's overall
strategy
• Provides the outermost boundary of what
is considered part of the project

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Product Roadmap

• Holistic view of the high-level


functionality required to
achieve the product vision
• Big picture view teams need
to stay focused
• The initial cut at the product
backlog

Release Plan
• Outlines the next set of functionality from the product roadmap
• Product owner deems valuable to release
• Release goal establishes the mid-term boundary around
specific functionality that will be released to customers

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Sprint/Iteration Backlog
• List of the tasks for a team to create
potentially shippable functionality
• Sprint burndown chart for daily
visibility to the project team
• Sprint goal supports release goal
• Creates a boundary

Increment
• Fully developed, working, potentially-
shippable
• Product owner doesn't have to
release every increment to the
customer
• Each increment is ready to release
once there is enough aggregated
value

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Beginning with Adaptive Planning


• Agile projects are value-driven
• Minimize non-value-added work
• Plan to replan
• Early plans are necessary, but they’re
likely flawed
• Uncertainty requires replanning

Agile Versus
Non-agile
Planning
• Trial and
demonstration
uncover true
requirements
• Less up front and
more iterative
planning
• Mid-course
adjustments are
normal

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Trial and Demonstration


• Prototypes help initial planning
• Helps to avoid the gulf of evaluation
• Communicate agile planning practices

• Planning effort is distributed


throughout the project life cycle
• Agile projects are risky
Iterative
• Consider planning efforts over the
Planning project life cycle
• Agile projects typically do more
planning

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Exam Tip
• Changes to plans are normal
• Knowledge work doesn’t follow a
predictive plan

Principles of Agile Planning


• Plan at multiple levels
• Engage the team and customer in planning
• Demonstrate progress in velocity
• Tailor processes for the project
• Priorities will cause the plan to be updated
• Utilize estimate ranges
• Base projections on completion rate
• Factor in diversions and outside work

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Moving through an iteration


AGILE PROCESS
SPRINT BACKLOG
▪ Features selected
▪ Approximated by team 24 h
▪ Team responsibility

SPRINT
TIME-BOX

PRODUCT BACKLOG WORKING CODE


BACKLOG TASKS READY
FOR DISTRIBUTION

SPRINT PLANNING MEETING DAILY SCRUM MEETINGS SPRINT REVIEW MEETINGS


▪ Reassess Product Backlog ▪ Finished since last meeting ▪ Trial features
▪ Evaluate Sprint Backlog ▪ Today’s schedule ▪ Retrospective on Sprint alterations
▪ Carry out ▪ Accelerators / roadblocks

Plan for imminent work


AGILE OVERVIEW SPRINT PLANNING
MEETING
Sprint work planned at the Sprint
SPRINT
PLANNING DAILY Planning Meeting.
MEETING SCRUM/
DAILY WORK Collaborative work of the entire
Scrum team leads into a working
UPDATE
PRODUCT plan.
BACKLOG
SCRUM What can be delivered in the
PROCESS PRODUCT
INCREMENT
Increment resulting from the
upcoming Sprint?
How will the work required to
SPRINT- deliver the Increment be
RETROSPECTIVE achieved?
SPRINT
REVIEW

Source: ©Scrum.Org and ScrumInc., Ken Schwaber and Jeff Sutherland: Scrum Guide

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Get things “done”


AGILE OVERVIEW Standup Meeting &
DAILY WORK
15-minute meeting for the
SPRINT DAILY
PLANNING STANDUP/ Development Team to synchronize
MEETING DAILY WORK activities and create a plan for the
next 24 hours. Team members
UPDATE
explain:
PRODUCT • What did I do yesterday?
BACKLOG
AGILE • What will I do today?
PROCESS PRODUCT
INCREMENT
• Any stumbling blocks that
prevent me or the team
from meeting the sprint
goal?
SPRINT
RETROSPECTIVE
SPRINT
REVIEW

Source: ©Scrum.Org and ScrumInc., Ken Schwaber and Jeff Sutherland: Scrum Guide

Iterations and Increments


AGILE OVERVIEW PRODUCT
INCREMENT /
FINISHED WORK
SPRINT DAILY
PLANNING SCRUM/
MEETING DAILY WORK The Increment is the sum of all the
Product Backlog items completed
during a Sprint, including the value
UPDATE of the Increments of all previous
PRODUCT
BACKLOG Sprints. At the end of a Sprint, the
SCRUM new Increment must be “Done”.
PROCESS PRODUCT
INCREMENT
The product must be in a useable
condition regardless of whether
SPRINT
the Product Owner decides to
RETROSPECTIVE actually release it.
SPRINT
REVIEW

Source: ©Scrum.Org and ScrumInc., Ken Schwaber and Jeff Sutherland: Scrum Guide

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Performing a Sprint Review


AGILE OVERVIEW
SPRINT REVIEW
Held at the end of a Sprint to
SPRINT DAILY
PLANNING SCRUM/ inspect the Increment and adapt the
MEETING DAILY WORK Product Backlog.
Scrum team and stakeholders
UPDATE collaborate about what was done in
PRODUCT the Sprint.
BACKLOG
AGILE
PROCESS PRODUCT
INCREMENT
The Sprint Review is an informal
meeting, not a status meeting.

SPRINT
RETROSPECTIVE
SPRINT
REVIEW

Source: ©Scrum.Org and ScrumInc., Ken Schwaber and Jeff Sutherland: Scrum Guide

Retrospective – looking back to go forward


AGILE OVERVIEW SPRINT
RETROSPECTIVE
Opportunity for the Scrum team
SPRINT DAILY
PLANNING SCRUM/ to inspect and create a plan for
MEETING DAILY WORK improvement for the next Sprint.
Sprint Retrospective occurs after
UPDATE the Sprint Review and prior to the
PRODUCT next Sprint Planning.
BACKLOG
AGILE Purpose: Inspect how the last
PROCESS PRODUCT Sprint went with regard to
INCREMENT people, relationships, process
and tools.

SPRINT
RETROSPECTIVE
SPRINT
REVIEW

Source: ©Scrum.Org and ScrumInc., Ken Schwaber and Jeff Sutherland: Scrum Guide

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Groom the backlog


AGILE OVERVIEW UPDATE PRODUCT
BACKLOG
Everything that might be necessary
SPRINT DAILY
PLANNING SCRUM/ in the product
MEETING DAILY WORK
Single source of requirements
The Product Backlog is dynamic,
UPDATE it is never complete. It constantly
PRODUCT
BACKLOG changes to identify what the
AGILE product needs to be appropriate,
PROCESS PRODUCT competitive and useful.
INCREMENT

SPRINT
RETROSPECTIVE
SPRINT
REVIEW

Source: ©Scrum.Org and ScrumInc., Ken Schwaber and Jeff Sutherland: Scrum Guide

Agile Discovery
• Emergent plans and designs versus predictive plans and
designs
• Pre-planning activities for consensus
• Backlog refinement – grooming
• Estimating uncertain work versus certain work
• New product development vs. repeatable project
• Goal: Narrow the cone of uncertainty

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Grooming the Backlog


• Work with the Product Owner in your group to
prioritize the backlog
• How long is your iteration?
• How long will your project take the complete?
• Determine the number of story points your first
iteration can complete
• Create an iteration backlog

Progressive Elaboration
• As more information becomes available more planning can
happen
• Continuing steadily in small increments
• Progressive elaboration examples
• Plans
• Estimates
• Risk assessments
• Requirements definition
• Software design
• Test scenarios

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Progressive Elaboration and Rolling


Wave Planning
• Planning at multiple points
• Plan and execute iteration
• Progressive elaboration is
incorporating new information
into the plans
• Progressive elaboration is the
implementation of rolling wave
planning

Value-based Analysis
• Assessing and prioritizing the business value of work items
• Business benefit - cost
• Business benefit equals $8,000
• Cost equals $5,500
• Value is $2,500

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More Value-based Analysis


• Will the item generate
business value every week or
month?
• A high business value item
may be dependent on a low
business value item

Value-based Decomposition
• Requirements elicitation
• Grouping of like features
• Breaking down of features
• Ranking of requirements
• Prioritize requirements into development

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Creating A
Product Box
• Imagine a product box or
software
• Top three features
• Major functional
elements
• Prioritization of features
• This is a visualization
exercise

Coarse Grained Requirements


• Keeps the overall design balanced
• Delays decision on implementation details until the last
responsible moment

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Timeboxing an Agile Project


• Fix duration period of time
• Define set of activities
• Daily scrum or stand up
• Daily standup meetings - 15 minutes
• Retrospective – 2 hours
• Iterations and sprints – 1 to 4 weeks

Timeboxed Sprints
• 12 work items
• Team completes eight
• Remaining four items returned to the backlog

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Parkinson’s
Law
• Work expands to fill
the time allotted to it
• Student syndrome –
students wait to the
last possible minute
to start working

Providing Estimate Ranges


• Not as precise as predictive planning
• More uncertainty and agile projects
• Include a range of variance
• Between $500,000 and $550,000
• Plus or minus 10%

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Estimate Convergence Graph


Basically, initial
estimates are
flawed
As more
information
becomes available,
the range of
variances converge
into a useable
estimate.

Why is an
estimate • To create a schedule and budget
needed?

When does
• The last responsible moment and
estimating throughout the project
happen?
Creating Who does the
Agile
• Team members estimate their own
estimating? work

Estimates How are


• Stages of sizing and planning; roll out
estimates an estimate cost may also be included
created?

How are • Always include a degree of


estimates stated? uncertainty

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Factoring
Ideal Time
• Estimate as if there
would be no
interruptions
• Ideal time assumes
all time in the
estimate is for
project work

Assumptions for Sizing and Estimating


• Details emerge as the project moves forward
• Plans are adjusted based on feedback
• Precision happens throughout the project

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Decomposing Project Requirements


• Breakdown of the project work
• Epics – large user stories that span one or more iterations
• Feature – attributes of the product
• User story – decomposition of a feature
• Task – smallest element of the decomposition

What is a User Story?


• Small chunk of business functionality within a feature that
involves roughly 1-3 days work
• Also defined as for 40 hours of work
• User stories are written on index cards or sticky notes
• User stories are the items in the product backlog

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Creating A User Story


• Potential stories are called candidate stories
• Perspective of the user or customer
• Often written in the following format
• As a roll I want functionality so that business benefit
• Answers two questions:
• Who was asking for this?
• Why are we doing this?

User Stories
• Software feature from end-user perspective
• Simplified description of a requirement
• As a <role>, I want <feature> so that <reason/value>.
• As a user, I want mobile access to my accounts so I don’t have to carry
frequent shopper cards.
• As a photographer, I want to build a library of photos for quick access
and sharing.
• As a salesperson, I want my client info accessible everywhere so I can
make more sales.

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User Story Formats


• Given – the scenario for the story
• When – the action that takes place
• Then – the result of the action

Three C’s Of User Stories


• Card – just enough text to identify the story
• Conversation – details are communicated via a conversation
between the customer and the development team
• Confirmation – customer confirmed the story has been
implemented correctly

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INVESTing in User Stories

Independent Negotiable Valuable

Estimable Small Testable

INVEST In User Stories


• Characteristics of effective user stories follow INVEST:
• Independent – stories can be prioritized in any order
• Negotiable – the team can discuss the user story with the product
owner and make trade-offs based on the cost and function
• Valuable – the user story must have obvious value
• Estimate – the user story can be estimated for effort
• Small – small user stories are easier to create and test that large user
stories; 4 to 40 hours work
• Testable – the story results must be testable

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Epics
• Big chunk of work with one common objective
• Often too large to complete in one iteration
• Epics are really placeholders of related user stories
• Five or more related user stories should be an epic
• Epics can span projects

Epic Example
• Epic: Provide access and security to customer information.
• As a customer, I want my personal data secure so I don’t have to worry
about fraud.
• As a sales person, I want to access customer information so I can
make more sales.
• As a manager, I want to pull sales reports so I can make informed
decisions.
• As a database administrator, I want to track database activity so I can
maintain the servers.
• As a security manager, I want to control who can access the data so I
can ensure privacy for customers and sales people.
• As a business owner, I want to see sales reports, customers reports,
and trends, so I can do cashflow forecasting.

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Assignment: Writing User Stories

Defining the User Story Backlog


• Also known as the product backlog
• User stories are listed and sorted
• User stories are prioritized in the backlog
• There is only one backlog

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Grooming the Backlog


• The backlog needs to be kept continuously updated
• Prioritizing or refining the backlog is called grooming

Changes to the Backlog


• New stories can be added
• Existing stories maybe reprioritized or removed
• Stories can be decomposed into smaller chunks

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Changes to the Backlog


• Customer or value management team can add new story or
reprioritize existing stories
• Decomposing stories – also called slicing – is typically done by
the development team

Relative Sizing for Story Points


• It’s difficult to make absolute estimate
• Story points are points assigned to stories size
• Relative sizing assigns points to stories on a relative scale
• The team then decides how many points can be done in an
iteration

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Story Points
• Unit of measure to estimate
overall effort
• Relative values of stories
• 3 is three times larger than 1
• Analogous estimating

The Fibonacci Sequence


• Starting with zero the two
numbers in the sequence
are added together to get
the next number
• 0 plus 1 equals one
• One plus one equals two
• 2 plus 1 equals 3
• 1, 2,3,5,8,13,or 21 points
• Only these numbers are
assigned to user stories

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Guidelines for Story Points


• The team owns the definition of their story points
• Story point estimate should be all inclusive
• Point sizes should be relative
• When disaggregating estimates the totals don’t need to match
• Complexity work effort and risk are all included in the estimate

Where is your product owner? Release


Do you have a prioritized backlog? Planning
How will you size your items?

Who is coming?

Plan for logistics?

What about multiple/virtual teams?

Do you need help?

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Release Planning Inputs


• Results of previous iterations and releases
• Feedback from stakeholders on the product, market situation, and
deadlines
• Action plans and SMART goals from prior release and retrospective
• Items and defects to consider
• Development and architecture information
• Velocity from previous iterations or estimated
• Organizational and personal calendars
• Input from other teams and subject matter experts to manage
dependencies

Release • Welcome, review purpose and agenda


Planning • Product vision and roadmap
Techniques • Remind the team of the larger picture.
• Development status, state of architecture, results
of previous iterations
• Discuss any new information
• Release name and theme
• Velocity in previous releases and iterations, or
your estimated velocity
• Present the velocity to be used for release
• Release schedule and number of iterations

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Release • Review key milestones and collaborative decision


on timeboxes
Planning
• Issues and concerns
Techniques
• Review and update the Definition of Done
• Make any appropriate updates based on
technology, skill, or changes in team membership
since the last release.
• Stories and items from the backlog
• Present proposed backlog items to be considered
for scheduling into this release
• Determine sizing values

Release • Agree upon sizing values


Planning • Coarse sizing of stories
Techniques • Delivery team determines the size of items and
splits items too large for iterations in the release
• Product owner and subject matter experts
answer clarifying questions and elaborate
acceptance criteria
• Map stories to iterations in the release
• New issues and concerns
• Dependencies and assumptions

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Release • Commit!
Planning • Fist of five voting
Techniques • Communication and logistics plan
• Parking lot
• Process the parking lot—all items resolved or
turned into action items
• Action items and action plan
• Distribute action items to owners
• Retrospect the meeting
• Close

Product Backlog
• Product backlog is an ordered to-
do list of all requirements
• Business value and risk
• Provides more detail than the
product roadmap
• Defines the scope of the project
• Items near the top are higher
priority than those at the bottom

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Groom the backlog


AGILE OVERVIEW UPDATE PRODUCT
BACKLOG
Ordered list of everything that might
SPRINT DAILY
PLANNING SCRUM/ be necessary in the product.
MEETING DAILY WORK
Single source of requirements of
any changes to be made to the
UPDATE product.
PRODUCT
BACKLOG
AGILE The Product Backlog is dynamic,
PROCESS PRODUCT
INCREMENT
it is never complete. It constantly
changes to identify what the
product needs to be appropriate,
competitive and useful.
SPRINT
RETROSPECTIVE
SPRINT
REVIEW

Source: ©Scrum.Org and ScrumInc., Ken Schwaber and Jeff Sutherland: Scrum Guide

Affinity Estimating
• Grouping items into similar categories or collections
• Group items based on story points
• Affinity estimating is like triangulation
• Allows the team to see the collection of user stories by points
assigned

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Utilizing Affinity Estimating


• Product owner
• Delivery team
• ScrumMaster

How to Do Affinity Estimating


• Stories on sticky notes
• Compare to proven reference stories
• Match stories comparable reference stories (affinity)

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Sizing T-Shirts

• Small, medium, large,


XL?
• Sizes are relative to
one another
• Define the
relationship between
small and medium
• Slightly larger?
• Twice as large?

T-shirt Sizing
• User stories are assigned to t-shirt sizes

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Creating Product Roadmap


• Visual depiction of product releases
• Primary items that will be included in each release
• Helps to check risk and viability

Product Roadmap

• Holistic view of the high-level


functionality required to
achieve the product vision
• Big picture view teams need
to stay focused
• The initial cut at the product
backlog

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Wideband Delphi

• Rounds of anonymous estimates


• Helps to build consensus
• Bandwagon effect – gathering
around common viewpoint
• Highest-paid person’s opinion
– HIPPO
• Groupthink – making decisions
to maintain group harmony

• Cards with the


Fibonacci
sequence
• User stories
review
• Participants show
their cards at the
same time to score
the user story
Planning Poker

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Planning Poker Info


• Usually after product backlog creation
• Web-based software for distributed teams
• Based on size, not hours

Defining Releases and Iterations


• Iterations are short, timeboxed periods of development
• Usually last two to four weeks
• Releases are the publishing of the software

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Iteration Zero
• Sets the stage for development
• Typically no deliverables for the customer
• Prepares to do the work

Iteration H
• Hardening sprint
• Wrap up sprint
• Used to stabilize the code
• Document the product
• Compile final assembly
• Final testing

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Architectural
Spikes
• Proof of concept
• Timeboxed effort to
test the approach

Risk-based Spike
• Short effort to investigate risk
• Reduce or eliminate through mitigation
• Good for new technology and early in the project

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High-level Planning – Visioning


• Prior to planning the first release
• Mapping out the overall effort of the project
• Product owner and sponsor
• Key team members
• Other major stakeholders

Outputs Of High-level Planning


• Updated prioritized backlog
• Coarse-grained relative estimates for each user story
• Goals of the release
• Release date

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Hosting A Release Planning Meeting


• All stakeholders represented
• Happens before each release
• The goal is to find which stories will be done in which iterations
for the release
• Also defines future iterations for future releases

Hosting A Release Planning Meeting


• Assess the prioritized backlog
• Review story sizing
• Sort the stories by release
• Define the initial outline or road map for the release
• Slice the stories as needed for the plan release

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More about Slicing Stories


• Compound stories – includes other independent stories within
• Epics – one large complicated story; usually can’t fit in one
iteration

Iteration
Planning
• Meeting for and
facilitated by the
delivery team
• Confirms goal for
the current iteration
• Discuss the user
stories in the
backlog
• Select the user
stories for the
iteration

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Iteration Planning,
continued

• Define the
acceptance
criteria and write
the acceptance
test for the
stories
• Breakdown the
user stories into
tasks
• Estimate the task

Velocity for Finding Estimates


• Base of the team’s velocity more accurate estimates can be
created
• Burn up charts
• Burndown chart

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Team velocity Work


completed

150 points

Work remaining
Work remaining
10 points

10 points

12 points
8 points

10 points

10 points
7 points

5 points

10 points

10 points
10 points
Done!

Current

Finding Velocity

Add up the
Consider:
completed
Velocity will
Step estimates for Step vary initially
user stories in

01 an iteration
03
Normalcy
will predict
Step That’s the Step project
velocity! duration
02 04

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Only a measurement made after the fact

Aggregate velocity of the team only matters

Velocity No meaningful comparison of velocity


Traps and between teams
Pitfalls All user stories must be estimated in a
consistent manner
• Estimate the entire set of user stories before the
project starts
• Use relative estimation to ensure that estimates made
later are consistent

One-third of available time

X resources times Y days

Initial
9 programmers times 10 days
Velocity
Expectations 90 days of effort = 30 days of iteration work

• Project overhead
• Learning the ropes
• Ideal days are unicorns

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Rules for the Daily Standup


• People with tasks must attend
• Only people who have tasks can talk
• Address the entire team not the scrum master
• No side conversations
• Add new task to sticky notes if they are started
• Discuss issues after the stand up
• Solve problems offline

Learning
Game

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PMI-ACP
Coach

Section Summary
• Agile Planning Concepts • Utilizing Affinity Estimating
• Agile Discovery • Creating a Product Roadmap
• Value-Based Analysis • Planning Poker
• Timeboxing Meetings and • Creating Release and Iteration
Events Plans
• Creating Estimate Ranges • Using Spikes
• User Stories • Visioning the Releases
• Assignment: Writing User • Completing Daily Stand-Ups
Stories
• Grooming the Backlog

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Practice
Exam

Overview of Domain VI: Problem


Detection and Resolution
• Controlling Project Problems • Assignment: Case Study - Cycle
• Cost of Change Time and Lead Time
• Reviewing Technical Debt • Completing Variance Analysis
• Failure and Success Modes in a • Identifying Trends in a Project
Project • Setting Control Limits
• Detecting Problems and Defects • Creating a Risk-Adjusted
• Understanding Lead Time and Backlog
Cycle Time • Creating Risk Burndown Charts
• Solving Problems in Agile
Projects

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Domain 6 Summary – Problem Detection


and Resolution
• 10 percent of the PMI-ACP exam
• 12 questions
• Practices for prevention identification and resolution of threats
and issues

Problem Detection and Resolution Tasks


• Create a safe an open environment to surface problems
• Engage team in resolving threats and issues
• Resolve issues or reset expectations
• Maintain a visible list of threats and issues
• Maintain a threat list and add threat remediation efforts to the
backlog

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Four Themes In
Problem Detection and
Resolution

• Understanding problems
• Detecting problems
• Managing threats and issues
• Solving problems

Risk Management
• Risk are uncertain events or conditions
• An agile projects risk are always negative
• Probability and impact
• Risk identification and tracking

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Issues and Risk are uncertain


Risk
events; they’ve not
yet happened
Issues are risk
events that have
occurred

Understand Problems For Resolution


• Problems can mushroom
• Problems can have ripple effects
• One area of the project affects all other areas of the project

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Financial Impacts Of Problems


• The longer a defect is left
unaddressed, the more
expensive it will be to fix
• It is like going to the dentist
• The longer you wait, the more
expensive it will be

Where Issues are Discovered


Costs

Issue discovery

Timeline

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• Backlog of work caused by lack


of regular clean-up maintenance
and standardization
• Refactoring solves technical debt
Reviewing
• Red-green-refactor
Technical
• Refactoring cleans up and
Debt standardizes code to make it
easier to support
• Refactoring should be included in
estimates

Reviewing Technical Debt


• Not unlike borrowed money
• Accumulates interest to be repaid later on
• Takes time to correct the debt
• Can be caused by many factors:
• Poor upfront definition
• Pressure for value delivery
• Lack of documentation
• Parallel development

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Creating a Safe Environment


• PMI-ACP calls for safe and open
environment
• People should feel comfortable
experimenting for solutions
• When people get stuck they should
share the problem with teammates
• Safe environments are coaching
opportunities

Create a Safe and


Open Environment

• Brainstorming and
retrospectives
• Software development
requires creativity
• Culture of organization
affects safety concept

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Understanding Failure Modes

We make mistakes – mistakes happen.


We prefer to fail conservatively.
We prefer to invent rather than research.
We are creatures of habit.
We are inconsistent.

Understanding Success Modes

We are good at looking around.


We are able to learn.
We are malleable.
We take pride in our work.

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• Balance disciplined with


Creating tolerance
Success • Start with something concrete
Strategies and tangible
• Copy and alter
• Watch and listen
• Support both concentration and
communication

• Match work
assignments with
a person
• Retain the best
talent
• Use rewards that
preserve joy
• Combine rewards
• Get feedback
Creating Success
Strategies – Continued

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Detecting Problems and Defects

Fix defects upon Regression testing


Escaped defects discovery in each on all functionality
iteration – periodically

Goal: Discover and


Demonstrating UAT and end-to-
fix defects before
user story solution end testing
release

• Are there any


problems or
impediments to the
team members?
• This is the first step to
detecting problems

Start With the Daily


Standup

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Reviewing Lead
Time and Cycle Time

• Lead time is how long something takes to


go through the entire process
• Concept to shipping
• Cycle time is a subset of lead time
• Cycle time is how long something takes
to go through a part of the process
• Coding to testing

Cycle Time – Clue to Problems


• Amount of time it takes to start and complete a unit of work
• Complete a task
• In Progress to Done status
• Changes to unit of work (customer-driven)
Request
In Queue Done
Start
Cycle time

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Strategies for Cycle and Lead Time


Issues
• Improve the efficiency of the system
• Increase the capacity (crashing)
• Stop taking requirements – not always feasible
Request
In Queue Done
Start
Lead time

Strategies for Cycle and Lead Time: WIP


• Work in Progress
• Track Velocity
• Unrealistic story point sizing
• First-time/First-use penalty

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Lead Time and Cycle Time on a Kanban


Board

Project Cycle Time


• The project duration is the cycle time for the entire project
• Average amount of work the team can get done at a time.
• Productivity is the rate of efficiency at which the work is done
• Productivity could be the amount of work done per team
member

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Looking at Defect Cycle Time


• Defect cycle time is the amount of time between when the
defect was discovered and when the defect was fixed
• The longer the defect cycle time typically the more expensive
the defect

Defect Rates
• Defects that slip by the testing
team are called escaped defects
• Escaped defects are the most
expensive to fix
• The defect rate measures the
frequency of defects found
• An increase in escaped defects
signals a problem with a process

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Assignment: Case Study - Cycle Time


and Lead Time

Variance Analysis
• The difference between what
was planned and what was
experienced
• Cost variance
• Schedule variance
• Other tracking items

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Causes Of Variance
• Average day-to-day differences
• Good days and bad days
• Ups and downs
• Special causes of variance
• Something unusual that causes a problem
• Power went out for two days
• Three team members caught the flu

• Time series data


• Comparing same
data in each time
period
• Identify
relationships
• Predict future
performance

Defining Trend Analysis

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Relying on Trend Analysis


• Measurements of past experiences
are called lagging metrics
• Leading metrics provide a view into
the future
• Trend analysis aims to predict
performance or problems

Control Limits
• Upper and lower control limits
• Set boundaries and expectations for performance
• WIP and Kanban are a form of control limits

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Control Charts
Rule of Seven
Non-random

Mean
Specs Control Limits

Out of control
Assignable Cause

Working • Risk is considered anti-value


With the • Goal is to attack high-risk items
Risk- early in the project
• Items with the greatest value in
Adjusted greatest risk move to the top of
Backlog the backlog

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Backlog Grooming for Risk


• Stories are ranked based on
business value and risk level
• The ranking is subjective often
based on gut feeling or preference
• The return on investment for the
project can be broken down per
item
• The business representatives
assign the ROI to each item in the
backlog

Finding the Expected


Monetary Value

• Expected monetary value is


the worth of a risk event
• EMV = risk probability x risk
impact
• EMV = $45,000 x 30%
• EMV = $13,500
• This is done for each risk in a
probability-impact matrix

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Probability-Impact Matrix
Risk event Probability Impact Ex$V

A .60 -10,000 -6,000


B .20 -75,000 -15,000
C .10 25,000 2,500
D .40 -85,000 -34,000
Contingency reserve = $52,500

Risk Severity
• Instead of risk probability and dollar amounts
• Probability and impact uses a simple scale
• For example low/medium/high
• Risk severity = risk probability x risk impact
• Risk severity = 3 x 1

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Probability-Impact Matrix
• Cardinal scale
• Risk exposure
• Sum of contingency reserve
• “Hedging bets”

Probability-Impact Matrix

Risk event Probability Impact Ex$V

A .60 -10,000 -6,000


B .20 -75,000 -15,000
C .10 25,000 2,500
D .40 -85,000 -34,000

Contingency reserve = $52,500

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• Stacked area graphs


of cumulative project
risk severity
• Visual communication
of risk events
• Severity for each risk
are plotted on top of
one another to show
the cumulative
severity of the project
• Risk should diminish
so the chart
Risk Burndown Chart diminishes as well

What’s the Problem?


Problems and agile projects

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Issues and Risk


• Risk are uncertain events they’ve not yet happened
• Issues are risk events that have occurred

Truly Understand Problems For


Resolution
• Problems can mushroom
• Problems can have ripple effects
• What happens in one area of the project affect all other areas of
the project

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Financial Impacts Of Problems


• The longer a defect is left unaddressed, the more expensive it
will be to fix
• It is like going to the dentist
• The longer you wait the more expensive it will be

Where Issues Are Discovered

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Reviewing Technical Debt


• Backlog of work caused by lack of regular clean-up
maintenance and standardization
• Refactoring solves technical debt
• Red green refactor
• Refactoring cleans up and standardize is code to make it easier
to support
• Refactoring should be included in estimates

Creating a Safe Environment


• PMI-ACP calls for safe and open environment
• People should feel comfortable experimenting for solutions
• When people get stuck they should share the problem with her
teammates
• Safe environments are coaching opportunities

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Understanding Failure Modes


• We make mistakes – mistakes happen
• We prefer to fail conservatively
• We prefer to invent rather than research
• We are creatures of habit
• We are inconsistent

Understanding Success Modes


• We are good at looking around
• We are able to learn
• We are malleable
• We take pride in our work

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Creating Success Strategies


• Balance discipline with tolerance
• Start with something concrete and tangible
• Copy and alter
• Watch and listen
• Support both concentration and communication

Creating Success Strategies – Continued


• Match work assignments with a person
• Retain the best talent
• Use rewards that preserve joy
• Combine rewards
• Get feedback

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Problem Solving is Continuous


Improvement
• Problem solving games to fix the problem before it happens
• https://www.wrike.com/blog/top-15-problem-solving-activities-team-master/
• Daily standup
• Iteration reviews and retrospectives
• Sprint planning sessions

Considerations for Team Engagement


• Involve the team where it can be most helpful
• Solve real problems only
• Team cohesion is necessary
• Check in after project changes
• Be sure to follow-through

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Some Problems
Can’t be Solved

• Even with team engagement


some problems won’t find a
solution
• Work around these problems
• Track and monitor the
problems

Negative Risk
Response
• Mitigation
• Transference
• Avoidance
• Acceptance

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PMI-ACP
Coach

Learning
Game

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Section Summary
• Controlling Project Problems • Completing Variance Analysis
• Cost of Change • Identifying Trends in a Project
• Reviewing Technical Debt • Setting Control Limits
• Failure and Success Modes in a • Creating a Risk-Adjusted
Project Backlog
• Detecting Problems and Defects • Creating Risk Burndown Charts
• Understanding Lead Time and • Solving Problems in Agile
Cycle Time Projects
• Assignment: Case Study - Cycle
Time and Lead Time

Practice
Exam

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Overview of Domain VII Review:


Continuous Improvement
• Leading Continuous • Leading Product Review
Improvement as a Process Sessions
• Tailoring Processes • Examining a Product Feedback
• Completing Systems Thinking Loop
• Participating in Process Analysis • Reviewing the Feedback
Methods
• Creating Value Stream Maps • Understanding Approved
• Hosting a Project Pre-Mortem Iterations
• Leading a Retrospective
• Assignment: Preparing for a
Retrospective
• Completing Team Assessments

Continuous Improvement
Exam Domain 7
• 9 percent of the PMI-ACP exam
• 11 exam questions
• People, processes, and product

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Continuous Improvement Tasks


• Periodically review and tailor the process
• Improve team processes through retrospectives
• Seek product feedback via frequent demonstrations
• Create an environment for continued learning
• Used values dream analysis to improve processes
• Spread improvements to other groups in the organization

Continuous Improvement and Quality


• Quality assurance is prevention driven
• Quality assurance is planning for quality
• Quality control is inspection driven
• You cannot inspect quality into a product

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Leading Continuous
Improvement as a Process
• Ongoing effort to improve processes
• Effectiveness and/or efficiency to meet
objectives
• WIP and Velocity
• Realistic goals

Lessons
Learned
• Lessons learned are
captured in each
iteration
• Allows lessons to be
applied in next
iterations
• Lessons are repeated
until they are learned

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Kaizen
• Japanese word meaning change for the better
• Small incremental steps for improvement
• Plan-Do-Check-Act: PDCA Cycle
• Plan, develop, evaluate learn

Process Tailoring in
Agile Projects
• Adapting agile for your environment
• There is some risk with tailoring
• Better to create processes for each project
as needed
• Consider risk and reward

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Risk and Reward of Process Tailoring


• First, embrace traditional agile processes before tailoring
• Second, examine the motivation for changing processes

Using a Hybrid Model


• You can use elements from different agile models
• Combinations to best fit your environment
• There’s no right or wrong hybrid

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Methodology Success Patterns


• Interactive face-to-face communication is the cheapest and
fastest channel for exchanging information
• Excess methodology weight is costly
• Larger teams often need heavier methodologies
• Projects with greater criticality require greater ceremony

Methodology • Feedback and


Success communication reduce the
need for intermediate

Patterns deliverables
• Discipline, skills, and
understanding counter
process formality and
documentation
• Efficiency is expendable on
bottleneck activities

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Participating in
Process Analysis
• Breakdown of the process flow
• Identify inputs, tools and
techniques, outputs
• Understand how the process
works
• Identify opportunities for
improvement

• Flowcharts – illustrate
flow of process
• Failure Mode Effects
Analysis (FMEA) –
identify and address all
failures starting with
largest
• Mistake-proofing
process – balance of
defect free and
efficiency
Tools for Process Analysis

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Failure Modes and Effects Analysis


(FMEA)
• Steps in the process
• Failure modes (What could go wrong?)
• Failure causes (Why would the failure happen?)
• Failure effects (What would be the consequences of each
failure?)

Value Stream Mapping


• Lean manufacturing technique adopted by agile
• A visual map of a process flow to identify delays, waste,
and constraints

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How To Create a Visual Stream Mapping


• Identify the product or service to be analyzed
• Map current processes steps, queues, delays, and information
flows
• Review the map for delays waste and constraints
• Create a new value-stream map of the desired future state for
the process
• Develop a road map for creating the optimized state
• Plan to revisit the process in the future to continually refine and
optimize

Value Stream Mapping Example

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Project Pre-mortem
• Aims to find failure points before they happen
• Imagine the failure
• Generate the reason for failure
• Consolidate the list
• Revisit the plan

Hosting the Pre-mortem


• Discuss what might go wrong
• Typically after plan created
• People create a prioritized list
of possible wrong outcome
• In turn, each person gives one
reason until all reasons
addressed

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Product Reviews
• Product feedback
• Retrospective and demos

PDCA Cycle

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Product Feedback Loops and


Learning Cycles
• Does it meet the customers’ needs and expectations?
• Does it work and all conditions?
• Did we break anything while building this?
• How can we improve efficiency?
• How can quality be improved?
• How can we share lessons learned?

Approved Iterations
• Iterations and sprint reviews
• Held at the end of a sprint
• Demonstrates the new incremental build
• Business partner approved work
• Next sprint may begin

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Incremental Delivery for Value


• Reduces risk
• Delivers value fast and first
• Retrospectives for process improvements

Approved Iteration Considerations


• Defined iteration, then review
• Product increment compared to backlog
• Approved iterations can be linked to payments

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Retrospective for People Improvement


• What is going well?
• What areas could use improvement?
• What should we be doing differently?

Why You Need Retrospectives


• Improve productivity
• Improved capabilities
• Quality improvement
• Capacity improvement

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Setting the Stage for a Retrospective


• Encourage participation
• Set the ground rules
• Define what people want from the retrospective
• Have people checking in with one or two words
• Ask the team to commit to focus
• Working agreements for the retrospective
• Explorer/shopper/vacationer/prisoner

Explorer/Shopper/Vacationer/Prisoner
• Each participant reports anonymously their attitude toward the
retrospective as an Explorer, Shopper, Vacationer or Prisoner.
• Explorers – They want to learn everything they can about the
iteration/release/project.
• Shoppers – Will look over all the available information, and will be happy to
go home with one useful new idea.
• Vacationers – Aren’t interested in the work of the retrospective, but are happy
to be away from the daily grind.
• Prisoners – Feel that they’ve been forced to attend and would rather be doing
something else.
• 2. Create a histogram to show the data.
• 3. Guide a discussion about what the results mean

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Gather Data in the Retrospective


• Use techniques to extract data
• Get people involved in contributing
• Facilitate the meeting for contributions

Methods For Gathering Data in the


Retrospective
• The team creates a timeline
• Triple nickels – groups spending five minutes on 5 ideas 5 times
• Color-coded dots – used color-coded dots to track your energy
was high and low throughout the duration
• Mad, sad, or glad – track emotions throughout the timeline

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Methods For Gathering Data During the


Duration
• Satisfaction histogram – a bar chart showing satisfaction about
particular areas or issues
• Team radar – an assessment of performance improvement
• Locates strengths - what went well, or not well, in the iteration
• Like to like – compares reactions to different iteration events

Generating Insights
• Evaluate the data
• Create insights based on the data
• Done with the project team

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Brainstorming
• Quiet writing
• Round robin
• Free for all

• Cause and effect


exercise
• Small groups
• Ask why five times
• The goal is to find
root cause

Five Whys

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Fishbone Analysis
• Also known as a cause and effect diagram
• Also known as an Ishikawa diagram

Decide What To Do
• Create an action plan
• Short subjects – keep, drop, add
• Smart goals – specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, timely
• Circle of questions – each person ask a question on how to
improve one of the issues; the next person of the circle answers
the question
• Retrospective planning game – how to reach process
improvement goals

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Close the Retrospective


• Plus / delta – what to do more of and what to do less of
• Help, hindered, hypotheses – feedback on the retrospective
• Return on time invested – the team discuss the benefits of the
retrospective and gives a great
• Appreciation – the team gives appreciation to other team
members based on efforts from the last iteration

Assignment: Preparing for a


Retrospective

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Completing Team Assessments


• Use velocity to measure individual performance
• Use a task matrix for individuals
• Create goals for each individual
• Compare goals achieved per iteration

Team Self Assessments


• Team self assessment scoring model
• Thinking
• Collaborating
• Releasing
• Planning
• Developing

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Section Summary
• Leading Continuous Improvement as a Process
• Tailoring Processes
• Completing Systems Thinking
• Participating in Process Analysis
• Creating Value Stream Maps
• Hosting a Project Pre-Mortem
• Leading Product Review Sessions
• Examining a Product Feedback Loop
• Reviewing the Feedback Methods
• Understanding Approved Iterations
• Leading a Retrospective
• Assignment: Preparing for a Retrospective
• Completing Team Assessments

Learning
Game

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Practice
Exam

PMI-ACP
Coach

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Final Exams

How to Claim PDUs and


the Certificate of
Completion

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