Energy Conversion and Management 51 (2010) 1891–1897
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Energy Conversion and Management
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Coal ﬂotation optimization using modiﬁed ﬂotation parameters and combustible recovery in a Jameson cell
Hüseyin Vapur ^{a} , Oktay Bayat ^{a} , Metin Uçurum ^{b}^{,} *
^{a} Çukurova University, Mining Engineering Department, Balcali, 01330 Adana, Turkey Nig˘ de University, Mining Engineering Department, 51100 Nig˘ de, Turkey
^{b}
a r t
i
c l e
i n f o
Article history:
Received 13 November 2008 Received in revised form 7 July 2009 Accepted 18 February 2010 Available online 20 March 2010
Keywords:
Coal ﬂotation
Flotation kinetics
Combustible recovery
Optimization
a b s t r a c t
This study discusses a new coal ﬂotation optimization approach. It is conducted using modiﬁed ﬂotation parameters and combustible recovery. The experimental work was evaluated in two stages. In the ﬁrst stage, recoveries (1, 2, 3, 5 and 8 min of ﬂotation times) of Jameson ﬂotation operating parameters were ﬁtted to ﬁrstorder kinetic model, R = R _{1} [1 exp ( kt )] where R was recovery at t time, R _{1} was ultimate recovery and k was the ﬁrstorder rate constant to draw the time recovery curves in the experimental study. Two parameters, the ultimate recovery ( R _{1} ) and ﬁrstorder rate constant ( k ), were then obtained from the model to ﬁt an experimental time recovery curve. A modiﬁed ﬂotation rate constant ( K _{m} ) deﬁned as product of R _{1} and k , i.e., K _{m} = R _{1} k , and selectivity index ( SI) deﬁned as the ratio of the mod iﬁed rate constant of coal to the modiﬁed rate constant of ash ( SI )= K _{m} of Coal/ K _{m} of Ash), which could be collectively called ‘‘modiﬁed ﬂotation parameters”. It was used to determine of the sub and upper values of operation variables. In the second one, combustible recovery (%) and ash content (%) were used to opti mization of the Jameson ﬂotation variables and it was found that d _{8}_{0} = 0.250 mm particle size, 1/1 veg etable oil acids/kerosene ratio, 20% solids pulp density, 0.600 L/min wash water rate and 40 cm downcomer immersion dept could be used to separate efﬁciently coal from ash. Final concentrate was obtained with 94.83% combustible recovery and 17.86% ash content at optimum conditions after 8 min ﬂotation time.
2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction
Flotation is one of the most complex mineral processing opera tions as it is affected by a very large number of variables. Many of these are beyond the control of the minerals engineer, and some cannot be even measured quantitatively with the available instru ments. The relations between measured and controlled variables are intricately related. Sometimes, simultaneously changing vari ous component settings will reinforce a particular attribute. In addition, various component settings can cancel or counteract each other if changes are not chosen wisely. For coal ﬁnes (<0.5 mm), froth ﬂotation is the most effective method of separating ash form ing mineral matter from the carbonaceous material [1] . The Jameson cell is a cocurrent ﬂotation device, in which a feed slurryfrother mixture is pumped through a ﬁxed diameter oriﬁce. Feed injection through the oriﬁce under pressure draws in air due to a venture effect. Ultra ﬁne bubbles are produced in the down comer because of the high shearing provided by the jet action of the feed slurry [2] . It has major advantages over conventional ﬂo
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +90 388 225 23 50; fax: +90 388 225 01 12. Email address: cevher@nigde.edu.tr (M. Uçurum).
01968904/$  see front matter 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi: 10.1016/j.enconman.2010.02.019
tation technologies, including a more compact design and lower capital cost, a minimum amount of maintenance and the ability to operate at elevated temperatures [3] . Flotation kinetics brings together the inﬂuence of all the factors that take place during a ﬂotation process [4] , some of the most important factors required to achieve a good separation are ore characteristics, machines and equipment involved, hydrodynam ics, particle size, pulp density and chemical reagents. Kinetic mod els can be used to analyze batch ﬂotation results. Two parameters which are R _{1} (ultimate recovery) and k (ﬁrstorder rate constant) are obtained from the model ﬁt to an experimental recoverytime curve. They can be effectively used to evaluate variables affecting ﬂotation process [5] . Among the many ﬂotation models, the classi cal ﬁrstorder ﬂotation model (Eq. (1)) is widely used and can be utilized to optimize the design of ﬂotation circuits [5–7] .
R ¼ R _{1} ½ 1 expð kt Þ
ð 1Þ
where R is the recovery of component at time t, R _{1} is the ultimate recovery of component and k is the ﬁrstorder rate constant for the component. Optimization of ﬂotation parameters using rate models is not a new concept. The kinetic model based on time recovery data,
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which uses the extra dimension of rate, has been in vogue since time immemorial for scaling up of laboratory data. Often, interpre tation on the performance of a ﬂotation circuit, based only on R _{1} (the ultimate recovery) and k (the ﬁrstorder rate constant of the
component) may lead to wrong conclusions. In such cases, a mod iﬁed ﬂotation rate constant K _{m} deﬁned as the product of R _{1} and k , i.e., K _{m} = R _{1} k and selectivity index ( SI ), deﬁned as the ratio of the modiﬁed rate constant of valuables to the modiﬁed rate constant of gangue, can be used [8] . Sripriya et al. [8] has been made an attempt to optimize the batch laboratory froth ﬂotation parameters of ﬁne coal using the above two concepts, i.e., K _{m} and SI and statistical techniques. A ﬂo tation bank containing four Outukumpu cells was optimized using the results obtained from the laboratory study. The airﬂow number and the froth number were used as a basis for scale up. To gauge the performance of the froth ﬂotation circuit, an efﬁciency param eter called the coefﬁcient of separation (CS) was used. The yield from the ﬂotation circuit improved, the froth ash reduced and the rejects ash went up. Xu [5] and Uçurum and Bayat [9] remarks modiﬁed ﬂotation rate constant and selectivity index are useful parameters in the ﬂotation studies.
In the optimization of ﬂotation, the statistical design of experi
ments [10,11] has several advantages over the classical method of treating one variable at a time. The full factorial experiment is method of design of experiments in which a statistical analysis is
performed to evaluate the signiﬁcance of the main and interaction effects as evaluated from the experimental results. In particular, they are used when several factors have to be studied in order to determine their main effects and interaction. The experiments can be conducted in an organized manner and can be analyzed sys tematically to obtain much needed information. The information can be utilized for optimization purpose. A valid optimization strategy would permit the adjustment of those manipulable vari ables, which inﬂuence the objective. The statistical techniques have been used to study the ﬂotation of minerals [12–14] and coal
[15,16].
A review of coal processing literature indicates a lack of statis
tically based studies on application and/or interaction of reagents with coals [17] . Naik et al. [18] carried out a 2 ^{5} factorial design to study the effect of diesel oil, pH, MIBC, particle size and sodium silicate on ﬂotation of a lowrank noncoking coal. They found that the inﬂuence of particle size was relatively more signiﬁcant than those of various reagents among which the collector had the high est inﬂuence. Under optimum conditions, the combustible recov ery was 88% at 25.4% ash. They also carried out 2 ^{3} factorial design experiments [19] on the inﬂuence of sodium meta silicate, kerosene and MIBC with a higher rank coal. They obtained a prod uct with 91.11% combustible grade with 95.58% combustible recovery. In this study, optimization of coal ﬂotation was made in two stages. In the ﬁrst stage, classical ﬁrstorder ﬂotation model was used in order to investigate the modiﬁed ﬂotation parameters ( K _{m} , SI ) of ﬁve important Jameson ﬂotation variables, in the second stage, combustible recovery (%) and ash content (%) were utilized. This experimental design is a new methodology in the ﬁeld and this work can potentially produce a signiﬁcant contribution to the literature of the subject.
2. Materials and method
2.1. Coal washing plant intermediate sample
The sample of coal washing plant intermediate product used in the experiments was collected from Ömerler coal washing plant in Kütahya, Turkey. The chemical analysis of the sample was given
Table 1 . The XRD study of the sample showed that it contained the following minerals: quartz, serpentine–kaolin group minerals, illite, smectite group clay minerals and amorphous matter. The cal oriﬁc value of the sample was 3935 kcal/kg. The volatile matter of sample was determined as 29.30%. Besides, the ash content and the moisture content of sample were determined as 33.41% and 8.70%, respectively.
2.2. Slurry preparation
For a standard ﬂotation test, a subsample (0.5 kg) was ground in a stainless steel mill under dry medium. The ball mill had the dimensions, 200 200 mm, and was charged with 10 kg of stain less steel balls. The grinding times were 10, 15 and 20 min, giving particle size distributions of d _{8}_{0} = 0.355, 0.250 and 0.106 mm, respectively. The size analyses of the feed and three individual fractions are shown in Fig. 1 . Kerosene oil (0.8 gr/cm ^{3} ) and vegeta ble oil acids (0.9 gr/cm ^{3} ) supplied by MarSAAdana, Turkey were used as reagents. At different weight ratios of vegetable oil acids and kerosene were mixed with tap water to obtain stable emul sions in condition tank of the Jameson ﬂotation cell for 5 min. Veg etable oil acids + kerosene dosage was 10% of the dry solids by weight. For the preparation of slurry feed for the Jameson cell, ground ﬁne coal was added in solution and conditioned for 5 min. All ﬂotation experiments were conducted at normal pH (7.0–7.5) where no ﬂocculation of gangue on the sample was thought to be observed due to high surface of both at this pH. The pulp was then ﬂoated for 1, 2, 3, 5 and 8 min adding wash water.
2.3. Jameson ﬂotation cell set up and its operating characteristics
Laboratory batch ﬂotation tests were made in a Jameson ﬂota tion cell which was constructed in stainless steel. The Jameson ﬂo tation cell can be divided into two main zones. These are downcomer (2.0 cm in diameter and 100 cm in length) and separa tion tank (10 cm in diameter and 75 cm in length). Pulp is condi tioned in the 30 L tank and pumped into the downcomer, which is the primary contacting zone of particles swarmed with bubbles. There is a nozzle at a relatively high level of the downcomer to pro vide a high pressure jetting action. When the slurry passes the noz zle, atmospheric air is sucked into the downcomer due to the venturi effect. The jetting impact of slurry pool in the downcomer and the air sucked plunge into the separation tank (plunging jet). In the mixing zone, i.e., top part of the slurry pool in the downcom er, the hydrophobic particles have opportunity to collide with and adhere to ﬁne air bubbles (e.g., 400–700 l m) generated within the water jet shearing action [20] . The Jameson cell is an effective de vice for gas–liquid contacting. Small bubbles are formed in a high shear region surrounding the plunging jet, leading to high interfa cial area per unit volume of gas [21] . Flotation recovery of Jameson cells is an important issue and can be variable depending on oper
Table 1 Chemical compositions and physical properties of the sample (as received) used in the study.
Property 

C 
(%) 
42.56 
H 
(%) 
3.13 
N 
(%) 
1.65 
O 
(%) 
8.13 
S 
(%) 
2.42 
Moisture (%) Ash (%) Volatile matter (%) Caloriﬁc values (Kcal/kg) 
8.70 

33.41 

29.30 

3935 
H. Vapur et al. / Energy Conversion and Management 51 (2010) 1891–1897
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Size Distribution (mm)
Fig. 1. Particle size distribution of sample after three different grinding times.
ating parameters and particle size. To assess the ﬂotation recovery in the Jameson cell, the operation within the downcomer and oper ation within the separation tank should be evaluated separately. The recovery that occurs within the downcomer is an area that is still under active investigation [22] . Experimental details of the ﬂo tation tests are summarized in Table 2 .
2.4. Analysis
The hydrophobic particles and tailings were collected, ﬁltered and dried in an oven at 90 ± 5 C to constant weight and assayed. Their ash levels were determined at 875 C. General guidelines out lined in the ASTM standards were followed. In this study, the frac tional recoveries after 1, 2, 3, 5 and 8 min of ﬂotation time were ﬁtted to the models. A proprietary curveﬁtting program (Curve Expert 1.3, a shareware from http://www.ebicom.net/~dhyams/ cvxpt.htm [23] ) was used to determine k , R _{1} and R ^{2} . In the second stage the study, the results of the ﬂotation test re sults were evaluated by percentage of combustible recovery. The combustible recovery was calculated using Eq. (2)
Combustible recovery ð %Þ ¼
M _{c} ð 100
A _{c} Þ
M _{f} ð 100 A _{f} Þ
100
ð 2Þ
where A _{c} ash content of clean coal, A _{f} ash content of feed, M _{c} mass of clean coal, M _{f} mass of feed.
3. Results and discussion
Although the effect of particle size on ﬂotation performance has been widely studied to date and many important physicochemical
Table 2 Jameson ﬂotation column design and operating speciﬁcations.
Column variable 

Diameter (mm) Height (mm) Downcomer diameter (mm) Downcomer height (mm) Froth height (mm) d _{8}_{0} (mm) pH Vegetable oil acids/kerosene ratios Pulp density (%) Wash water rate (L/min) Downcomer immersion depth (cm) Conditions time (min) Flotation time (min) 
100 
750 

20 

1000 

Variable 0.355, 0.250, 0.106 

7.07.5 

2/3, 1/1, 3/2 5, 10, 20 0, 0.600, 1.0 30, 40, 50, 60 

10 

1, 2, 3, 5, 8 
factors related to particle size have been identiﬁed, the net effect of these factors is very difﬁcult to predict. For instance, in particle– bubble interaction, particle size is known to play a critical role in the probability of particles colliding with bubbles, attachment of particles to bubbles after collision, as well as remaining attached in the pulp phase [24] . This study examined the effects of particle size distribution (i.e., d _{8}_{0} = 0.250 and d _{8}_{0} = 0.106 mm) on the ﬂota tion behavior of coal in the Jameson cell. Table 3 gives ultimative recovery ( R _{1} ) , ﬁrstorder rate constant ( k ), modiﬁed rate constant ( K _{m} ), selectivity index ( SI ) and coefﬁcient ( R ^{2} ) for studied particle
sizes. d _{8}_{0} = 0.250 mm gives better results for k and K _{m} for coal. Fur
thermore, d _{8}_{0} = 0.250 mm had higher SI (3.63) than d _{8}_{0} = 0.106 mm
(2.77). Kinetics analysis of experimental data indicated that the best feed size for the coal should be d _{8}_{0} = 0.250 mm. In the labora tory tests, the size particles were also observed to form smaller and more stable bubbles, resulting in more efﬁcient ﬂotation. In addi tion, the ﬁrstorder kinetic model gave the best ﬁt for particle sizes experimental data ( Fig. 2 ). Solids concentration is expected to inﬂuence solids suspension due to its effects on hindered settling, turbulence dampening, and (possibly) viscosity effects [25] . Using different solids concen trations, the effect of solids concentration on the modiﬁed ﬂotation parameters was determined for the coal. In order to examine the effect of pulp density on the ﬂotation, 5% and 20% by weight of pulp densities were used. Table 4 presents ultimate recovery ( R _{1} ), ﬁrstorder rate constant ( k ) and coefﬁcient ( R ^{2} ) obtained from ﬁtting, including the modiﬁed rate constant ( K _{m} ) and selectivity in dex ( SI ). Five percent by weight of pulp density gives higher results for k and K _{m} for the coal. Furthermore, 20% solids is strongly lower than 5% solids in terms of rate constant ( k = 0.0676) and modiﬁed rate constant ( K _{m} = 0.0730) for ash. The selectivity in ﬂotation be tween coal and ash wasn’t observed when the pulp density is en hanced from 5% to 20% by weight and the selectivity index of the pulp densities are almost the same with 3.63 and 3.85. The ﬁrstor der ﬂotation model ﬁts the pulp densities experimental data very well ( Fig. 3 ) for coal and ash. Waterinsoluble hydrocarbons are widely used as collectors to increase the afﬁnity of coal particles towards the air bubbles. These collectors are basically nonpolar oils such as kerosene, crude petroleum, fueloil and certain coaltar distillates [26] . Kerosene, the zpc of most of the coals are below 5.5 and bears negative charge in neutral pH [27] . The kerosene droplets also bear negative charge at neutral pH. Therefore, the interaction of coal and kerosene is possibly due to hydrophobic interaction [28] . The ﬂoatability of coal increases with the adsorption of kerosene and there is increase in recovery. Klimpel and Hansen [29] reported the similar results but they also observed decrease in ﬂotation rate constant at high collector dosage. With the increase in hydrophobicity of coal parti cles, interparticle attraction will increase and agglomeration is likely to take place. The decrease in grade is due to ﬂotation of pro gressively higher mineral matter particles with the increase in recovery. The increase in collector dosage also causes high recov ery of ﬁner coal particles with very poor selectivity of coal over other mineral matter in the ﬁner particle range. The use of oil im proves ﬂotation rate of particles of all sizes and speciﬁc gravities but the effect is more for the locked or mineral particles [30]. Veg etable oil are also light compounds (0.9 g/cm ^{3} ), less expensive than hydrocarbons and even more important, unlike mineral oils, they are renewable and nonpolluting energy resources [31] . It is well known that the collector dosage of coal ﬂotation is an important variable. The aim of this work is to obtain high caloriﬁc value prod ucts from coal ﬁnes cleaning wastes by ﬂotation with kerosene and vegetable oil acids mixing. The effect of vegetable oil acids/kero sene ratio on modiﬁed ﬂotation parameters was investigated using 2/3 and 3/2. Table 5 gives ultimative recovery ( R _{1} ), ﬁrstorder rate constant ( k ), modiﬁed rate constant ( K _{m} ), selectivity index ( SI ) and
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Table 3 Parameters obtained from model (R = R _{1} [1 exp ( kt )]) ﬁt to data set for coal and ash.
Size distribution, d _{8}_{0} (mm) 
Coal 
Ash 
SI 

R _{1} 
k 
K _{m} 
R ^{2} 
R _{1} 
k 
K _{m} 
R ^{2} 

0.250 
0.9322 
1.0484 
0.9700 
0.9994 
0.6040 
0.4430 
0.2675 
0.9992 
3.63 
0.106 
0.9328 
0.7280 
0.6790 
0.9996 
0.7909 
0.3099 
0.2451 
0.9981 
2.77 
Flotation Time (min.)
Fig. 2. Fitted to data set for size distribution on coal and ash recovery.
coefﬁcient ( R ^{2} ). Modiﬁed ﬂotation rate ( K _{m} ) of 3/2 vegetable oil acids/kerosene ratio was higher (0.6892) than lower vegetable oil acids/kerosene ratio (0.4452) for coal. In the mean time, K _{m} values of ash have the same characteristic trend with coal. As for selectiv ity index ( SI ), 2/3 and 3/2 vegetable oil acids/kerosene ratio gave almost the same results with 1.98 and 2.07, respectively. The mod el could present the time recovery curves of ﬂotation tests for both collector dosages quite well for coal and ash ( Fig. 4 ). The froth phase of the ﬂotation system, to a great extent, deter mines the separation performance, as the grade (ratio of desired to total solids recovered) of the product (concentrate) depends pri marily on its structure and stability. The froth also contributes to the recovery (fraction of valuable solids recovered from the pulp to the concentrate) achieved, since the amount of desired material dropback from the froth, together with the kinetics of the pulp phase, determines the recovery. Wash water is traditionally added to column ﬂotation cells, but it has found some, though more lim ited, use in the operation of more conventional ﬂotation cells. The froth phase is extremely important in the operation of a ﬂotation cell, seeing that, it is critical in determining the amount of un wanted gangue collected to the concentrate and thus the purity of product. The role of the wash water is to prevent pulp entrain ment into the concentrate. In this sense, the minimum wash water should just supply the water the concentrate. However, an excess of wash water increases froth mixing and short circuiting, thus decreasing froth cleaning, particularly for shallow froth depths. It is also important to verify the circuit water balance, because an ex cess of water will cause problems downstream [32] . Fig. 5 shows
Table 4 Parameters obtained from model (R = R _{1} [1 exp ( kt )]) ﬁt to data set for coal and ash.
Flotation Time (min.)
Fig. 3. Fitted to data set for pulp densities on coal and ash recovery.
the recovery of coal and ash as a function of ﬂotation time and model ﬁts which shows the model ﬁts the experimental data quite well for coal and ash at the two different wash water rates. Table 6 presents ultimative recovery ( R _{1} ), ﬁrstorder rate constant ( k ), modiﬁed rate constant ( K _{m} ), selectivity index ( SI ) and coefﬁcient ( R ^{2} ) from the ﬁttings for coal and ash. In the laboratory Jameson ﬂotation tests with the studied wash water rates, 0 L/min gave bet ter result for k and K _{m} as 0.9510 and 0.8090, respectively. When in creased wash water rate from 0 L/min to 1.0 L/min, k and K _{m} values of ash decreased from 0.6310 to 0.1185 and from 0.3800 to 0.1134, respectively. By way of addition, increasing wash water rate from 0 L/min to 1.0 L/min did not increased coal/ash selectivity (2.13 for 0 L/min, 2.45 for 1.0 L/min). Compared to mechanical cells, the functions of producing bubbles and particle–bubble collision/ attachment in a Jameson cell are done separately inside the down comer. The following steps occur within the downcomer: (1) the jet created by the slurry passing through the oriﬁce and promotes the inducement of air into the downcomer; (2) the shearing action of the jet generates ﬁne bubbles and transports them through the mixing zone; (3) the particles and the bubbles collide and attach to each other and subsequently travel down the downcomer; through the pipe ﬂow zone; (4) bubbles are removed by hydrostatic pres sure from the downcomer creating a vacuum for further air entrainment [33] . The immersion depth of the downcomer is also an important parameter, which determines froth depth and froth residence time [34] . In this study, 30 cm downcomer immersion depth was compared with 50 cm downcomer immersion depth
Pulp Density (wt.%) 
Coal 
Ash 
SI 

R _{1} 
k 
K _{m} 
R ^{2} 
R _{1} 
k 
K _{m} 
R ^{2} 

5 
0.9322 
1.0484 
0.9700 
0.9989 
0.6040 
0.4430 
0.2675 
0.9959 
3.63 
20 
1.1005 
0.2554 
0.2811 
0.9888 
1.0840 
0.0676 
0.0730 
0.9896 
3.85 
H. Vapur et al. / Energy Conversion and Management 51 (2010) 1891–1897
Table 5 Parameters obtained from model (R = R _{1} [1 exp ( kt )]) ﬁt to data set for coal and ash.
1895
Vegetable oil acids/kerosene ratios 
Coal 
Ash 
SI 

R _{1} 
k 
K _{m} 
R ^{2} 
R _{1} 
k 
K _{m} 
R ^{2} 

2/3 
0.8777 
0.5072 
0.4452 
0.9994 
0.6300 
0.3563 
0.2245 
0.9994 
1.98 
3/2 
0.8900 
0.7743 
0.6892 
0.9998 
0.6165 
0.5384 
0.3322 
0.9978 
2.07 
Flotation Time (min.)
Fig. 4. Fitted to data set for vegetable oil acids acids/kerosene ratio on coal and ash recovery.
Flotation Time (min.)
Fig. 5. Fitted to data set for wash water rate on coal and ash recovery.
on the separation of coal from ash using modiﬁed ﬂotation param eters. Table 7 presents ( R _{1} ), ﬁrstorder rate constant ( k ), modiﬁed
Table 6 Parameters obtained from model (R = R _{1} [1 exp ( kt )]) ﬁt to data set for coal and ash.
rate constant ( K _{m} ), selectivity index ( SI ) and coefﬁcient ( R ^{2} ). 30 cm appear to have a higher modiﬁed rate constant (0.3799) while 50 cm has lowered a value (0.2811) for coal. In the mean time, K _{m} of 30 cm was higher (0.1620) than 50 cm (0.0730) for ash. In terms of coal/ash selectivity index, 50 cm immersion depth gave a much better result than 30 cm with a value of 3.85. Results in Fig. 6 conﬁrm that the model ﬁts the experimental data very well for both collectors.
3.1. Optimization
According to kinetics results, 0.250 mm was determined as the best particle size fraction. In the second study of optimization, 0.355 mm, uppersize of 0.250 mm, and 0.106 mm, subsize of 0.250 mm, were used. The experimental conditions were kept constant between tests and the best results were obtained with 0.250 mm particle size in terms of combustible recovery and ash content for 8 min ﬂotation time. As it can be seen from the re sults, illustrated Fig. 7 , which combustible recovery (%) and ash content (%) were 94.97%, 24.55%, respectively. For determination of optimum solids ratio of pulp, three ratios, 5 wt.%, 10 wt.% and 20 wt.%, used in the tests. The selectivity index ( SI ) values of 5 wt.% and 20 wt.% were very close (3.65 and 3.85). Thus, 10 wt.% was tested as a middle value of solid ratios. The cal culated results of combustible recovery and ash content (%) for the three solid ratios were given in Fig. 8 . The combustible recovery
and ash content were 94.97% and 24.55% respectively for 5 wt.%.
For 10 wt.% as a middle value, the combustible recovery was
85.00% and ash content was 20.94%. The best results was obtained
at 20% pulp density with 15.30% ash content and 92.01% combus
tible recovery. Hence, 20 wt.% was selected as an optimum solid ratio. In order to establish the individual effect of vegetable oil acids/ kerosene ratio, 2/3, 1/1 and 3/2 vegetable oil acids/kerosene ratios were used. 2/3 and 3/2 vegetable oil acids/kerosene ratios had close selectivity index ( SI ) values (1.98 and 2.04). Because of this, 1/1 was tested as a middle value of vegetable oil acids/kerosene ra tio. In the second phase of experimental studies ﬂotation tests were carried out to obtain optimum vegetable oil acids/kerosene ratio and the results were given in Fig. 9 . As seen in Fig. 9 , the best
Wash water rate (L/min) 
Coal 
Ash 
SI 

R _{1} 
k 
K _{m} 
R ^{2} 
R _{1} 
k 
K _{m} 
R ^{2} 

0 
0.8504 
0.9510 
0.8090 
0.9967 
0.6030 
0.6310 
0.3800 
0.9972 
2.13 

1.0 
0.8752 
0.3176 
0.2780 
0.9918 
0.9565 
0.1185 
0.1134 
0.9893 
2.45 

Table 7 Parameters obtained from model (R = R _{1} [1 exp ( kt )]) ﬁt to data set for coal and ash. 

Downcomer immersion depth (cm) 
Coal 
Ash 
SI 

R _{1} 
k 
K _{m} 
R ^{2} 
R _{1} 
k 
K _{m} 
R ^{2} 

30 
0.9764 
0.3890 
0.3799 
0.9989 
0.8617 
0.1890 
0.1620 
0.9959 
2.34 

50 
1.1005 
0.2554 
0.2811 
0.9888 
1.0840 
0.0676 
0.0730 
0.9896 
3.85 
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Flotation Time (min.)
Fig. 6. Fitted to data set for downcomer immersion depth on coal and ash recovery.
Particle size (mm)
Fig. 7. The effect of particle size on recovery, ash rejection and efﬁciency index (froth height: variable; pH 7–7.5; pulp density: 5%; vegetable oil acids/kerosene ratio: 1/1; wash water rate: 0.600 L/min; downcomer immersion depth: 50 cm; ﬂotation time: 8 min).
Pulp density (%)
Fig. 8. The effect of pulp density on recovery, ash rejection and efﬁciency index (froth height: variable; pH 7–7.5; particle size: 0.250 mm; vegetable oil acids/ kerosene ratio: 1/1; wash water rate: 0.600 L/min; downcomer immersion depth:
50 cm; ﬂotation time: 8 min).
vegetable oil acids/kerosene ratio was 1/1 with 93.60% as combus tible recovery and 14.06% ash content for 8 min ﬂotation time. For determination of optimum wash water rate ﬁrstly, kinetic studies were carried out. The water rates of 0 L/min and 1.0 L/
min had almost the same selectivity index ( SI ) values (2.12 and 2.45) and, selected as the limit values. 0.6 L/min was used as a mid dle wash water rate. The test results of combustible recovery and ash content for the three water rates of froth washing were given in Fig. 10 . The best results obtained at 0.600 L/min wash water rate. As it can be seen from the results, illustrated in the ﬁgure, which ash content was decreasing from 33.41% to 13.68% giving a 90.17% combustible recovery.
The last study for optimization of coal ﬂotation was conducted
on determination of optimum downcomer immersion depth. The
former results of kinetic studies showed that the best value of
depth was 50 cm. The middle value of depth, therefore, was se
lected 50 cm. The depth values of 40 cm and 60 cm were deter mined to be used as the limit values of the downcomer depth. The test results of combustible recovery and ash content for the four downcomer depths (30, 40, 50 and 60 cm) of the Jameson col umn were given in Fig. 11 . It was showed that 40 cm as optimum downcomer depth with 17.86% ash content and 94.83% combusti ble recovery was obtained at 8 min ﬂotation time.
Vegetable oil acids/kerosene ratio
Fig. 9. The effect of vegetable oil acids/kerosene ratio on recovery, ash rejection and efﬁciency index (froth height: variable; pH 7–7.5; particle size: 0.250 mm; pulp density: 20%; wash water rate: 0.600 L/min; downcomer immersion depth: 50 cm; ﬂotation time: 8 min).
Wash water rate (L/min.)
Fig. 10. The effect of wash water ratio on recovery, ash rejection and efﬁciency index (froth height: variable; pH 7–7.5; particle size: 0.250 mm; pulp density:
20%; vegetable oil acids/kerosene ratio: 1/1; downcomer immersion depth: 50 cm; ﬂotation time: 8 min).
H. Vapur et al. / Energy Conversion and Management 51 (2010) 1891–1897
1897
Downcomer immersion depth (cm)
Fig. 11. The effect of downcomer immersion depth on recovery, ash rejection and efﬁciency index (froth height: variable; pH 7–7.5; particle size: 0.250 mm; pulp density: 20%; vegetable oil acids/kerosene ratio: 1/1; wash water rate: 0.600 L/min; ﬂotation time: 8 min).
4. Conclusion
The results of this study are as follows:
The results of the kinetic studies are in good agreement with the ﬁrstorder rate equation of the form R = R _{1} [1 exp ( kt )] for coal and ash. The use of kinetic analysis for the evaluation of the effect of variables on ﬂotation separation has been demon strated. Firstly, modiﬁed rate constant and selectivity index were all used to study coal ﬂotation optimization in the Jameson cell. Then the combustible recovery (%) and ash content (%) were successfully utilized in developing new approach coal ﬂotation optimization. A product with 17.86% ash content and 94.83% combustible recovery could be obtained after 8 min concentration time from this type of coal ﬂotation study at d _{8}_{0} = 0.250 mm particle size, 1/1 vegetable oil acids/kerosene ratio, 20% solids pulp density, 0.6 L/min wash water rate and 40 cm downcomer immersion depts. It is expected that the coal ﬂotation optimization work will pro vide a signiﬁcant contribution to the ﬁeld, i.e., that the work either will provide something new to the ﬁeld or will improve some existing knowledge or methodology in the ﬁeld.
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