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Submitted by:

Swopnil Kalika
Jestha 20, 2074
2.1 Write a report on an automobile, its parts, and how it works etc.
Some lists: a) List the main parts of a vehicle and explain the functions of main parts. b) List and
describe the common types of fuel systems in vehicle. c) How is the vehicle controlled by the

An Automobile is a wheeled passenger/freight vehicle that carries its own motor. The main parts of
a vehicle and its functions are listed below:
A. Power Generation:
(a) Engine: it generates motive power for locomotion by converting chemical energy of the fuel
to mechanical energy
(b) Fuel System: it transports fuel from the fuel tank and injects it under high pressure in to the
(c) Intake System: cleans & transports atmospheric air to the engine cylinders
(d) Exhaust System: transports the burned exhaust gases from engine cylinder to the
atmosphere, towards the rear or to the right side of the vehicle
(e) Cooling System: system circulates coolant (Combination of water and a chemical) through
the engine components which absorbs the heat and transfers the heat to the atmospheric air
through a heat exchanger.

B. Drive Line: driveline modifies & transmits the power/torque to the wheels of the automobile
(a) Clutch: clutch is the crucial link between the power plant (engine) and the driveline the
purpose of the clutch is to link or delink (engage or dis-engage) the engine from the
driveline, as desired by the driver
(b) Gear Box: modifies & transmits the torque of the engine to the drive line
(c) Transfer Case (only in 4-wheeled vehicles): modifies & re-directs the torque of the engine
to both front and rear axles, as desired
(d) Differential: receives torque from the gear box, modifies and transmits it to the wheels, in a
perpendicular direction and allows each wheel to rotate at different speeds
(e) Wheels: carry the load of the vehicle & transmit the torque to the tyres

C. Running System:
(a) Suspension: absorbs road shocks and provides comfortable ride for the passengers
(b) Steering System: it changes the direction of vehicle movement, as desired by the driver
(c) Brakes: the purpose of the brakes is to slow down or stop the vehicle as desired by the driver
(d) Comfort/Convenience system: provides a comfortable climate inside the vehicle, like
Seat/Upholstery, AC, Audio player etc.

Common types of fuel systems in a vehicle are:

A. Throttle body or Single Point Injection (TBI): This is the simplest and the foremost fuel injection
system which was employed in cars as a replacement for carburetors. This employs either one
or two fuel injectors in the throttle body which delivers the apt ratio of fuel-air mixture to every
fuel intake manifold in the engine. The drawback of this system is that cylinders closest to the
fuel injectors would get a better mixture than the ones away from them. The reason why TBI
replaced carburetors was because these would easily adjust according to air density and altitude,
and were independent of the vacuum manifold.

Submitted by: Swopnil Kalika 1

B. Multi-point fuel injection or Port injection (MPFI): The multi-point fuel injector denotes one
fuel injector for every cylinder- the fuel is misted at the intake manifold. If an engine has six
cylinders then it will have six fuel injectors - one for each cylinder located at the intake port of
the manifold. Since the fuel is misted so closed to the intake manifold, it ensures the complete
amount is used for combustion, making it more efficient than TBI, hence aiding in enhanced
fuel economy as well. Multi-port fuel injectors fire fuel all at the same time, with the fuel sitting
at the intake manifold till the time it’s needed. This happens for a split second, even during
engine idling. MPFI allows for more even fuel distribution.
C. Sequential fuel injection (SFI): SFI is a type of MPFI. While in an MPFI all the injectors are
fired at the same time, in SFI they are fired according to the intake timing of the respective
cylinder i.e. just before the intake valve of that particular cylinder opens. This timing is matched
according to the camshaft and though it may seem as a minor change it has helped improve
efficiency and emissions.
D. Direct Injection (DI): DI is one of the most advanced fuel injection systems. More commonly
seen on diesel engines, this technology is now making way in petrol engines. In a direct injection
system, the fuel is injected directly in the combustion chamber i.e. the cylinder. The advantage
of this system is that there is no wastage of fuel or any carbon deposit at the intake valve. The
sensors monitor the exact amount of fuel needed by the vehicle and supply the same to the
chamber. In direct injection, fuel metering is more precise than any other system.

A driver makes use of the steering wheel, foot pedals and hand levers (for brakes and clutch) for
maneuvering and controlling a vehicle. As per PIEV theory, a driver controls a vehicle in a step-
wise manner:
 Perception: the recognition or realization that a cue or stimulus exists and requires a
 Intellection: an interpretation/identification of the stimulus
 Emotion: the determination of an appropriate response to the stimulus
 Volition: the physical response of resulting from the decision.

Submitted by: Swopnil Kalika 2

2.2 City Government (assume any) in Nepal is considering to improve situation of transportation
operation in the city by available modern intelligent transportation system technology that can be
implemented for the present context of Nepal (considering cost, possibility of application etc.) for
improving the system. Consider at any section of road or bus system or any other means of
transportation. Suggest suitable method of technology. Write down your assumptions of the
situation, give supportive reasoning to support your proposal, write down the description of the
method, benefit and possible problem regarding its application in your assumed area.

It may be too early to expect intelligent transportation systems (ITS) in Nepal’s roads when, in fact,
even traffic signals at intersections seem far-fetched to the road users. For now, effective provision
and regulation of simple and traditional traffic control devices like road markers, signs and signals
could greatly improve traffic operation in any city of Nepal. Thus, it is safe to assume that ITS
would find better application in air transportation systems since it requires greater finesse in
operation and management. Minor carelessness could result in serious damage and significant loss
of life and property in air transport as compared to other means of transportation.
Intelligent system comprising of sensors and detectors could find use in more than one area of
aerodrome and also in the aircrafts. Proximity sensors are able to detect the presence of nearby
objects without any physical contact by emitting an electromagnetic field or a beam of
electromagnetic radiation, and looking for changes in the field or return signal. The object being
sensed is often referred to as the proximity sensor's target.

Figure 1 Proximity Sensor

This system could be used to varying degree in different ways as follows:

(a) Proximity sensors could be used to warn aircraft and vehicles as they approach set locations
(overhead obstructions, blind spots and intersections).
(b) Ground crew could wear a transmitter that warns ramp vehicle operators or aircraft pilots,
if they are in close proximity to avoid injury to the airport workers.
(c) Similar sensors could also be used for detection of runway incursion. Sensors could detect
and thus help to remove debris or other collision-inducing objects in the runway. Runway,
taxiway and apron markings could be enhanced using laser projectors for low visibility
(d) Fatigue detectors could be used to detect and alert if aircraft operator is feeling tired on the
course of ground or air movement through various physical indications.
Application of this method could help ensure safety in air transportation. Moreover, this method
could help prevent operation delays by allowing the ability to detect and timely manage
aerodrome incursions. However, wide-range application of these sensors may be cost-intensive.
Also, these detectors aren’t always fail-safe. Moreover, aviation professionals may develop
risky behavioral change by overly relying on the sensors and detectors. It may also be hard to
understand and adapt to some of the modern technologies for ground workers.

Submitted by: Swopnil Kalika 3

2.3 Metropolitan in Nepal (assume any) is considering to improve situation of traffic congestion in
one of its important road (assume any section). Due to lack of fund to develop new road or new
transit system, Metropolitan office is considering transportation demand management option.
Suggest suitable method. Write down your assumptions of the situation, give supportive reasoning
to support your proposal, write down the description of the method, benefit and possible problem
regarding its application in your assumed area.

The Mitra Marga road section starting near Patan Dhoka and passing through Chakupat area would
not come across as a busy road based on road geometry and facilities. However, this section is prone
to traffic congestion during morning and evening peak hours. This is mainly because it links
Lalitpur and Kathmandu: two major Metropolitans of Nepal. It is also important to note that the
congestion pattern in this section is very recent. Formerly, the Pulchowk-Kupondole main road had
to cater to almost all the major traffic between the two cities and the section under consideration
was mainly used by pedestrians and native residents of Lalitpur only. In the last two years or so, a
noticeable portion of that travel demand has shifted to using this section for their daily commute.
This can be alluded to the users’ tendency to avoid major roads with expectable congestion at
intersections in favor of local roads (popularly called “shortcuts”). Based on the demand peak hours
(9-11 AM and 4-6 PM), it might be safe to assume that a significant portion of daily road users in
this section are travelling to either reach their workplace or place of education. This main purpose
of travel also explains single-occupant Vehicles (SOVs) dominating the modal share in the section.

Figure 2 A Satellite Image showing the Pulchowk- Kupondole main road (blue) and
the road section under consideration (red)

Submitted by: Swopnil Kalika 4

Lalitpur Metropolitan could put in use an effective transportation demand management (TDM)
system to improve the situation. Moreover, TDM is superlative to supply management in this
section since the congestion is concentrated around the peak hours and virtually absent during off-
hours. However, it is difficult to single out a demand management method that could be a sure-shot
solution. It is therefore advisable to adopt a phase-based approach, starting from “softer” method to
progressively more “aggressive” measures. This could better assure solution in case the “softer”
methods fail to work. On the contrary, if the initial method does work, the latter phases could be
postponed or even cancelled after expert-level deliberation supported by scientific evidence.


Phase I

Demand Yes


Phase II

Demand Yes


Phase III


Figure 3 Flowchart for Proposed Phase-based Travel Demand Management

Submitted by: Swopnil Kalika 5

Phase I: Flextime, Compressed work/study week and Telecommuting
Flextime allows workers to adjust their commuting time away from the peak periods. For example,
rather than all employees working 9AM to 5AM, some can work 12PM to 8PM while others can
work 7AM to 3PM, thus lowering the number of vehicles. It also allows workers residing in the
same area to match their work schedules to conduct ride sharing voluntarily. However, this would
require additional administrative responsibilities on the employer’s part.
Compressed week means reducing the week-days from 6 to 5 or less. A government-run school
could add an extra hour to every working day to compensate for an extra holiday. This may effect
productivity as students would be tired at the end of a longer studying day.
Telecommuting could help avoid actual physical travel to work, study or shop. This could also
benefit productivity by reducing fatigue but may hinder team interaction.
Phase II: Mandatory Ride sharing for large institutions
Ride sharing helps to consolidate drivers of SOVs into fewer vehicles resulting in less congestion.
Rather than relying on users conducting ride sharing voluntarily, strict ordinances should be passed
by large workplaces or education institutions. These institutions should either convince their
members to share rides or they should manage free of cost transit vehicles for them. There is a
chance that the institutions would not take this positively since this may mean financial burden to
Phase III: Vehicular restrictions and Road pricing
If the previous phases do not work as expected, Lalitpur Metropolitan would have to restrict
vehicles of users other than the residents of the adjoining area during the peak hours. The residents
of the area could be given an identification pass or a car/bike sticker and other vehicles could either
be completely restricted or could be imposed a road price for using the road section at the peak
hours. Financial disincentives could significantly discourage choice users from taking the route and
lessen the congestion. However, restrictions and pricing would not be politically popular and could
be met with public backlash.
Besides lowering traffic congestion, TDM can also help lower the city’s oil expenditure and green-
house gas emissions.

Submitted by: Swopnil Kalika 6