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Lesson 3: SYNTHESIZING INFORMATION FROM RELEVANT LITERATURE

What is a Synthesis?

A synthesis is a discussion that draws on one or more sources. Your ability to infer relationships among sources such as essays,
articles, fiction and also non ~ written sources such as lectures, interviews and observations will be helpful in synthesizing
information taken from your review of literature.

Types of Syntheses

Explanatory Synthesis
It helps the readers to understand a topic. Its primary aim is to present the facts in a reasonably objective manner.
Explanations given may entail descriptions, sequence of events or state of affairs

Argument Synthesis
Its purpose is for you to present your own point of view with the support of relevant facts drawn from services and
presented in a logical manner. What is presented may be debatable.
Categories of Sources

Documents
These include written or printed materials that have been produced in some form or another such as annual reports,
books, artwork, cartoons, circulars, records, diaries, notebooks, etc. They may be published or unpublished; intended
for private or public consumption; they may be original works or copies.

Numerical Records
They may be considered as a separate type of source in and of themselves or as a subcategory of documents. Several
records include any type of numerical data in printed form: test scores, attendance figures, census reports, school
budgets and the like.

Oral Statements
These may include stories, myths, tales, legends, chants, songs and other forms of oral expressions. These materials
leave a record for future generations.

Relics
These are formal types of historical sources. A relic is any object where physical or visual characteristics can provide
some information about the past. Examples: furniture artwork, clothing, buildings or equipment.

How to Write a Synthesis?

1. Consider your purpose in writing.


2. Select and read carefully your sources, according to your purpose.
3. Formulate a thesis. It is the main ideas that you want present in your synthesis.
4. Decide how you will use your source material and take down notes.
5. Develop an organizational plan according to your thesis.
6. Write the first draft of your synthesis, following your organizational plan.
7. Revise your synthesis

Techniques for Writing a Synthesis

Summary
It is the simplest way of organizing a synthesis. Here, you write one after the other the most relevant information and
sources you gathered.

Example or Illustration
It is a reference to a particular illuminating example or illustration that you have included in your review. You need to
credit your source/s.

Two (or More) Reasons


This approach can be an effective method by simply stating your thesis, then give reasons why it is true, your reasons
need to be supported by evidence from your data and sources.

Comparison and Contrast


These techniques will lead to examining two subjects or data in terms or one another. Comparison considers similarities
while contrast, highlights differences.

Synthesis Matrix

The synthesis matrix is a chart that will allow you to sort and categorize the different opinions and arguments
given on an issue in relation to your study. Across the top of the chart are the spaces to record sources and along the side
of the chart are the spaces to record the main points on the topic being undertaken.

Topic: ___________________

Label: Author’s last name and/or few keywords from the title of the work.

Label: Main ideas that your source discussed about your topic.

Main Idea A Source 1 Source 2 Source3 Source #4

Main Idea B
LESSON 4: WRITING COHERENT REVIEW OF LITERATURE

 Coherence refers to how well a manuscript holds together as a unified document.

 Index cards are among the handiest research tool ever invented. Here’s how of recording your sources’
bibliographic information.

Sections of a Literature Review

 Introduction

 Body

 Conclusion

LESSON 5:
ETHICAL STANDARDS IN WRITING RELATED LITERATURE

The term ETHICS refers to questions of right and wrong. When researches think about ethics, the question: Is it right to
conduct a particular study or carry out certain procedure must be considered.

Fraenkel and Wallen (2010) give a few examples of unethical practice related to research, to unit:

Require a group of high school sophomores to sign a form in which they agree to participate in a research study.

Ask first-graders sensitive questions without obtaining the consent of their parents to question them.

Delete data he/she collects that do not support his hypothesis.

ETHICS AND RESEARCH

It refers to norms for conduct that distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable behavior.

It also refers to rules in making a distinction between right and wrong such as the Golden Rule; a code of professional
conduct like the Hippocrates’ Oath; a religious creed like the Ten Commandments or wise aphorisms like the sayings of
Confucius in The Analects.

Ethical Principles

At the core, these ethical principles stress the need to:

• a) do good (known as beneficiaries)

• b) do no harm (known as malfeasance)

In practice, these ethical principles means that as a researcher you need to:

• a) obtain informed consent from potential research participants

• b) minimize the risk of harm to participants

• c) protect their confidentiality

• d) avoid using deceptive practices and give participants the right to withdraw from your research.

Why is there a need for ethics?


Some of the reasons forwarded are:

1. Norms promote the aims of research such as knowledge, truth and avoidance of error.

2. Norms promote the values that are essential to collaborate work such as trust, accountability, mutual respect and
fairness. They also protect intellectual property interests and encourage confidentiality even in collaboration.

3. Norms ensure can researches can be held accountable to the public. To a certain extent, they draw parameters within
which what ideas to write and how they should be written.

4. Norms promote a variety of other important moral and social values. Ethical lapses in research can significantly harm
human and animal subjects, students and the public.

5. Norms help to build public support for research. This happens when individuals and organizations believe in the
integrity and credibility of the researcher/s, they offer funding for the projects.