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Republic of the Philippines

Sorsogon State College

Sorsogon City

Engineering-Architecture Department



A Research presented to:

In partial fulfillment of the

Requirement for the Degree of

Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering

Ian Kenneth Ergina

Jhonalyn F. Desuasido

Lorenz Abenion

Mark Real Jubilo

January 23, 2019


Buildings and houses, nowadays; are one of those basic main trends of the civil
engineering profession. It is somehow that civil engineers are just performing some innovations
and improvements by analyzing and inventing some experiments by the use of the technology,
for the sustainable developments and needs of every people of the country, of every nation.
Innovations that leads us to the good life of every people, for good environment that no one
should be abused, and good fortune of the next generation. And it is what the purpose of our
research, innovation that not only focused on improving better society and infrastructure, but
also for the environment.

Environment today is now facing a severe crisis in every parts of the world. Data from
the 2015 study "Plastic waste inputs from land into the ocean" shows that the Philippines wastes
6,237,653 kg (6875.84 tons) of plastic per day, of which 81% is mismanaged. Greenhouse gases,
Global warming, abundance of carbon-footprints and wastes, and many more cases, which
putting our beloved Mother earth in great danger. As the world’s population continues to grow,
so does the amount of garbage that people produce. On-the-go lifestyles require easily
disposable products, such as soda cans or bottles of water, but the accumulation of these
products has led to increasing amounts of plastic pollution around the world. As plastic is
composed of major toxic pollutants, it has the potential to cause great harm to the
environment in the form of air, water and land pollution. It affects not only us, humans; but also
all the living and non-living things here in this world. So that engineers and architects are now
focuses in planning and designing not just for mankind but also for our nature.

Wastes are the most common problems that our society facing off. These are the things that
dirty up and destroy our environment. Engineers are now designing and solving some test and
experiments on how to minimize the waste produced of the nation every day. One of the main
things in waste are those which the decay is on more many years, just like plastics. Plastic, one
of the most significant innovations, is a ubiquitous material. A substantial growth in the
consumption of plastic is observed all over the world in recent years, which also increase the
production of plastic-related waste. The plastic waste is now a serious environmental threat to
modern civilization. Plastic is composed of several toxic chemicals, and therefore plastic pollutes
soil, air and water. Plasticity is the general property of all materials which can deform irreversibly
without breaking but, in the class of moldable polymers, this occurs to such a degree that their
actual name derives from this specific ability. Plastics are typically organic polymers of
high molecular mass and often contain other substances. They are usually synthetic, most
commonly derived from petrochemicals, however, an array of variants are made from renewable
materials such as polylactic acid from corn or cellulosics from cotton linters.
Since plastic is a non-biodegradable material, land-filling using plastic would mean preserving the
harmful material forever. So that, we are now researching for some things in civil engineering
construction. It is about shredded plastic bottle as an aggregate of the concrete. We are
expecting that in our research, it gives a satisfaction that plastic bottle is a useful aggregate that
can be used in the future civil engineering and can be a way to the healthy environment that
every people live a life better and give good fortunes in the future.

Statement of the problem:

Many questions are profitable to this research study. But in the other way, we only
focused on these main questions that would be beneficial not only us but also for the other
researchers or engineers.

1. Would this type of aggregate become a good one for the construction materials just
like other aggregates?
2. What are the advantage and disadvantage of shredded plastic bottles as an aggregate
for the construction materials?
3. Would it be more economical than others and what type of construction would it be

Assumptions of the Study:

1. We assumed that shredded plastic bottles can be a good alternative for aggregates.
Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-
synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid
2. It can save lots of money and so many benefits. . It can help minimize waste and also
conserve our mother nature.
3. We assumed that these research would be beneficial not only in infrastructure but
also on us. Because it would help to decrease the abundance of plastic production of
our society and environment. It also gives an idea of the civil engineer to use the
plastic bottles as an alternative aggregate for their civil engineering construction. They
can also be used as a way to see other further innovations that would give significance
in infrastructure and industry.
Hypothesis of the Study:

Plastics, just like plastic bottles, are the one of the wastes that is much to be aware
because of its long decomposition process. Disposal of the large quantity of it causes a pollution
in land, in water and in air. So that, we researchers, are making innovations that waste like this
would be also give a benefits to our society. We hypothesize that plastics has have a same quality
just like other aggregates because of some of his properties like abrasion and impact resistance
can be improved than other type of aggregates. We also hypothesize that plastics are much more
economically object because of its abundant supply. We can recycle plastic bottle wastes that
can be found in our surroundings. When it comes to recycling, plastic is one of those materials
that are really vital. This is due to various reasons, the main being the environmental pollution
caused by this non-biodegradable material. Studies show that natural degradation of plastic takes
around 100 to 1000 years.

Significance of the study:

This study is significant to the people, construction, society, and environment. People
become more aware about importance of plastic which make them be more discipline in
segregating plastic materials, especially plastic bottle. Construction because it would give
another age of innovation that can be useful on today and for the next generation. Society also
receives a good effect because the promoting good commerce and proper way of using plastic,
which give a happy and healthy society. And, environment because the production and disposal
of plastic waste would be minimized or would be avoided, gives us a healthy and less-prone
Mother Earth in land, in water and even in air.
Definition of Terms:

Global warming - a gradual increase in the overall temperature of the earth's atmosphere
generally attributed to the greenhouse effect caused by increased levels of carbon dioxide,
chlorofluorocarbons, and other pollutants.

. Greenhouse gases - a gas that contributes to the greenhouse effect by absorbing infrared
radiation, e.g., carbon dioxide and chlorofluorocarbons.

carbon-footprints - the amount of carbon dioxide and other carbon compounds emitted due to
the consumption of fossil fuels by a particular person, group, etc

Ubiquitous - present, appearing, or found everywhere

Polymers - a substance that has a molecular structure consisting chiefly or entirely of a large
number of similar units bonded together, e.g., many synthetic organic materials used as plastics
and resins

Synthetic - made by chemical synthesis, especially to imitate a natural product. "synthetic


Petrochemicals - a chemical obtained from petroleum and natural gas

Polylactic acid - is a biodegradable and bioactive thermoplastic aliphatic polyester derived
from renewable resources, such as corn starch (in the United States and Canada), cassava roots,
chips or starch (mostly in Asia), or sugarcane (in the rest of the world). In 2010, PLA had the
second highest consumption volume of any bio plastic of the world.
Cellulosics - composed of glucose monomers and is the main constituent of the cell walls of
plants. It is used in the manufacture of numerous products, including paper, textiles,
pharmaceuticals, and insulation
Linter - a machine for removing the short fibers from cotton seeds after ginning
End notes