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Designing and disseminating information. Information is gathered and used in an effort to

promite policies, advance political interest, enhance images, or engage publics to achieve the
goals of an individual political sponsor

1. The Messaging Strategies

The emphasis is placed on selecting, estructuring, and presenting the information to

achieve a desired effect

2. Control
Control over the message is particularly important for information initiatives. The

political sponsor can unilaterally decide on the goal, message, time frame, channels, and

target audience. The sponsor can also control the planning, implementation, and

evaluation of the initiative. Once the message is carefully crafted, the sponsor seeks to

control the integrity and consistency of the message over various communication

3. The Restricted or Limited Interaction
In information initiatives, the public is construed as the target audience. The audience is

separate from the initiative sponsor and plays a passive or limited role. A passive

audience plays no role in the planning or implementation of the initiative or the content

of the information in a one-way flow of information. Alternatively, the audience may

provide feedback, but the sponsor decides whether to incorporate that feedback.

4. The Variety of Communication Channels

Most information initiatives use a variety of communication channels to disseminate the

information, including interpersonal (designated speakers) such as print (brochures, fact

sheets, magazines), audio/visual (films, videos), print and broadcast mass media

(newspapers, television, radio), and electronic media (websites, emails, RSS feeds,

podcasts). Several recent broadcasts ventures, such as the U.S. Arabic-language television
“Al-Hurra,” Russia’s English station “Russia Today,” or Iran’s proposed English-

language “Press TV,” were developed so that the country could retain control over the

information presented to publics.

5. Designed to Achieve Spesific Objectives
To measure the impact of the information output, public opinion polls assess changes in

the audience’s knowledge (i.e., more aware of policy rationale), attitude (i.e., more

favorable national image), or behavior (more likely to support policies)

Major types of initiatives within the information framework :

1. Propaganda
 Political propaganda represents the most extreme form of control over information

design and dissemination in an attempt to cross over from public advocacy to

 When access to alternative or diverse information sources is limited, the audience is

less able to determine the validity of the information.

 Several of the techniques such as name calling, stereotyping, or scapegoating, add an

emotional pressure to reduce the appeal of viable options and heighten compliance.

Deception, information control, and manipulation are strategic attributes of effective

 Research on cyber warfare suggests cyberspace may well be propaganda's new

2. Nation Branding
 A “core concept” or idea is crafted that collects elements of a country’s attributes and

assets that position the country for internal and external publics.
 Multiple communication channels and modes (advertising, public relations, and direct

marketing) are used to deliver a simple, coherent, and compelling message

3. Media Relations
 Press offices have long been a stable of diplomatic missions. The “main task of press

attachés and information departments . . . is dissemination of information and

coordination of public relations with the press.” These departments play an important

role in being the “point of contact” for international media seeking official

information, be it policy statements, quotes, or statistical data.

 Today, many non-state actors have their press and media relations spokesperson and

contact representatives.
4. Informational Broadcasts
5. Information Campaigns
Ex: The deliverable was a brochure, “The Network of Terror,” which was produced in

English, translated into a variety of languages, and distributed to publics throughout the

Islamic world. The final stage, evaluation, measures the campaign’s effectiveness in

reaching its stated objectives with the target audience.


 Relationships are the pivotal feature in the relational framework, and public

diplomacy initiatives focus on identifying and building relationships.

 What relationships are important? And, how can those relationships be

established or strengthened? .
 Most relational initiatives tend toward coordination rather than control
 The public is viewed as active participants, stakeholders, or even constituencies
 Relational initiatives tend to focus on establishing interactive communication

channels, and then enhancing or expanding those channels

 Another dominant feature of relational initiative is their focus on continuity and


1. 1st Tier Relationship-Buliding Initiatives : Exchange Programs and Visits

 The major limitation of the first tier is that relationship building is focused at the

individual level and as such, an initiative’s success is often tied to the personality of

the individual participants, consists of:

 Cultural and Educational Exchange Programs
 Leadership Visits

2. 2nd Tier Relationship-Building Initiatives

 Cultural and Languange Institutes
Joseph Nye viewed culture as an important soft power resource that a nation can use

to enhance its appeal. Culture represents a third dimension of German foreign policy

and among the goals of the Goethe-Institut is to “enhance the standing of the Federal

Republic of Germany.” However, these institutes also constitute important

relationship-building structures. They accord channels for direct interaction with

publics, allow for coordination between respective counterparts, represent

relationship access and commitment, and provide a platform for relationship-building

and networking beyond the individual level.

 Development Aid Projects
Relationship-building can also be conducted through development projects. In such

initiatives, relationship-building operates on two dimensions: One is the symbolic

dimension that the aid or project represents an expression of the ties between two

entities. Another dimension is the actual relationship that develops between the

personnel of the sponsor and their counterparts as they work together on the project
 “Twinning” Arrangement
Another relationship-building strategy that is not new but which may be gaining

currency are twinning arrangements between towns, cities, or provinces of one

country and another country. These arrangements, found world-wide and under

various labels such as “partner town,” “sister cities,” or “brother cities,” can be

concluded officially by governments or as a form of citizen diplomacy

 Relationship-Building Campaign
The primary goal is to build relationships with publics, rather than disseminate

information to publics. This would include the campaign sponsor developing in-

country partnerships and actively coordinating on the campaign design and

implementation. Finally, campaign effectiveness is more aptly gauged by relationship

strength and expansion, rather than opinion surveys.

 Non-political Networking Schemes
Networks have gained increasing prominence for their efficient information-sharing

organizational structures. However, networks are fundamentally relationship

structures. Non-political networking schemes build relationships between like-minded

individuals or institutions working on a variety of areas such as science, health,

environment, or literacy promotion.

3. 3rd Tier Relationship-Building Initiatives : Policy Networking Strategy and Coalition

A third tier of relationship-building in public diplomacy involves policy networking

strategies that incorporate coalition building with other countries and non-state actors to

achieve policy objectives. Brian Hocking spoke about the growing symbiosis between

state and non-state activities as “catalytic diplomacy,” in which political entities act in

coalitions rather than relying on their individual resources. Ex: the Canadian foreign

minister Lloyd Axworthy teamed with Jodi Williams of the International Campaign to

Ban Landmines (ICBL) to lead the “Ottawa Process”.