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GNANAMANI COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY

NH-7, A.K. SAMUTHIRAM, PACHAL P.O., NAMAKKAL - 637018

ME 6611
CAD/CAM LABORATORY MANUAL

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

III YEAR MECHANICAL / VI SEM

Prepared By
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Gnanamani College of Technology
CAD/CAM Lab Manual

Syllabus

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CAD/CAM Lab Manual

INSTRUCTIONS TO STUDENTS
1. Students must attend the lab classes with ID cards and in the prescribed uniform.
2. Boys-shirts tucked in and wearing closed leather shoes. Girls’ students with cut shoes, overcoat,
and plait incite the coat. Girls’ students should not wear loose garments.
3. Students must check if the components, instruments and machinery are in working condition
before setting up the experiment.
4. Power supply to the experimental set up/ equipment/ machine must be switched on only after
the faculty checks and gives approval for doing the experiment. Students must start to the
experiment. Students must start doing the experiments only after getting permissions from the
faculty.
5. Any damage to any of the equipment/instrument/machine caused due to carelessness, the cost
will be fully recovered from the individual (or) group of students.
6. Students may contact the lab in charge immediately for any unexpected incidents and
emergency.
7. The apparatus used for the experiments must be cleaned and returned to the technicians, safely
without any damage.
8. Make sure, while leaving the lab after the stipulated time, that all the power connections are
switched off.

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CAD/CAM Lab Manual

INTRODUCTION TO CNC MACHINES

COMPUTER NUMERICAL CONTORL:

Numerical control is a form of programmable automation in which the processing


equipment is controlled by means of numbers, letters, and other symbols the numbers, letters, and
symbols are coded in an appropriate format to define the program of instructions for a particular
job.

Computer Numerical Control is a reprogrammable microprocessor based control system


that accepts a set of programmed instructions, processes and sends O/P control information to a
machine tool, accepts feed back information to a machine tool form a transducer and based on the
instructions and feed back it assures that proper motion, speed and operation occurs.

A CNC system may be characterized in terms of three major elements, hardware, software and
information.

HARDWARE: CNC hardware includes the microprocessors that effect control system functions
and peripheral devices for data communication, machine tool interfacing and machine tool status
monitoring in addition to, certain elements of the machine tool like transducers, actuators can be
considered part of the CNC system

SOFTWARE: CNC software includes the programs that are executed by the system
microprocessors. These programs process input and output instructions and control information
make all necessary computations for machine functions, coordinate the other levels of
manufacturing automation. The instructions that drive an CNC system are frequently generated
using special programming languages like APT based CNC programming systems.

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CAD/CAM Lab Manual

INFORMATION: CNC operation requires data such as cutter location data, machining date
information regarding the dynamic characteristics of the machine and many other information
pertaining to the process.
TYPES OF CNC MACHINES

1) Vertical Machining Centers


2) Horizontal machining Centers
3) Multi-axis machining centers
4) Milling machines
5) Drilling machines
6) Surface Grinders
7) Cylindrical grinders
8) Tool and cutter grinders
9) Fixed RAM Electro Discharge machines (EDM)
10) Wire EDM

FEATURES OF CNC TURNING MACHINES


1) High powered drives and wide speed range
2) Simultaneous 2tool operation with 4 axis machines
3) High duty drums type turrets capable of accommodating interval as well as external turning
tools.
4) Automatic tool changer facility
5) Off axis machining facility
6) Probes for work piece size monitoring, Tool condition monitoring, inspection of tools and
setting of automatic and tool offsets
7) Programmable tail stock

REQUIREMENTS OF FLEXIBILITY

1) Uses of Flexible Manufacturing systems


2) Efficiency: Can be met by
1. Adaptive control.
2. Developments in material and geometry of cutting tools.
3) Quality: Adaptive control for quality, i.e. on-line and active quality control.

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CAD/CAM Lab Manual

CNC PROGRAMMING
PART PROGRAMMING:

The part programming method includes a variety o procedures ranging form highly manual to
highly automate. The types of part program are,
1) Manual Part Programming
2) Computer assisted part programming
3) Computer – automated part programming
4) NC programming using CAD/CAM

Manual Part Programming:


In Manual Part Programming the programming instructions are documented on a form
called a part programming manuscript. The manuscript is a listing of the positions of the tool
relative to the work piece that the machine must follow in order to perform the processing. The
listing may include other commands such as speeds, feeds, tooling and so on. A punched tape is
then prepared form the manuscript.

Computer Assisted Part Programming:


In computer assisted part programming much of the tedious computational work required in
manual part programming is performed by computer. For complex work part jobs with many
processing steps, use of the computer results in significant savings time when computer assisted
part programming is used the programmer prepares the set of processing instructions in a higher
level computer language. The high level language commands are interpreted by the commuter and
the required date calculations and date processing are accomplished to prepare the NC program.

NC programming using CAD/CAM:


NC programming using CAD/CAM is an advanced form of computer assisted part programming
in which an interactive graphics system equipped with NC programming software is used to
facilitate the part programming task. In this method the programmer works on a CAD/CAM
workstation to enter the machining commands. The actions indicated by the commands are
displayed on the graphics monitor, which provides visual feedback to the programmer Also certain
portions of the programming cycle are automated by the NC programming software to reduce the
total programming time required.

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CAD/CAM Lab Manual

Computer – automated part programming


Computer – automated part programming extends the notion of automating certain portions of
the NC part programming procedure to its logical conclusion. It automates the complete part
programming task using software that is capable of making logical even quasi intelligent decisions
about how the part should be machine.

PREREQUISITES
* For writing CNC programming the required date are
* Dimension of the work pieces
* Finished dimension with tolerance of the final component
* Sequence of the operations to be performed
* Types of tools to be used
* Optimum cutting speed & feed at each stage

* Method of clamping / chucking of job

* Mounting of tools

The process of putting all these data into the proper order and translating them into a language
that the machine control system can understand is called part programming.

LATHE

This Section provides the basic programming operation, and principle machine.

The operation of CNC lathe requires that a part programming be designed,


written and entered in to memory of control. The most common way to writing part programming
is offline that is away form the CNC in facility that can save the program and send to the CNC
control.
In order to operate and program a CNC controlled machine, basic understanding of
machining practices and a working knowledge of math is necessary and also familiar with the
control console and the placement of the keys, switches, displays etc.,
Basic component of CNC lathe:

1) Head Stock
2) Turret
3) Tail Stock
4) Cross slid(X) and longitudinal slide(Z)
5) Operator panel
6) Coolant system

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CAD/CAM Lab Manual

Part Programming:
The preparation of a set of instructions to carry out the machining of a work piece is called
part programming. A part programmer carries out this work. He prepares the planning sheet and
writes the instructions in a coded form, which is acceptable to the controller of the machine tool.
There are three distinct techniques adopted for creating CNC programs:
1. Manual CNC programming.
2. Computer aided part programming.
3. Programming using CAM software. (CAD/CAM based programming systems).

Manual Programming:
Manual programming is one of the conventional methods of CNC programming. This
technique is widely used for work pieces of relatively simple geometry. The tool path of the CNC
machine is then described in machine codes, which usually takes the form.
N G XY Z A B C F S T M
Where,
N - Sequence Number of Instructions.
G – Preparatory Functions.
XYZ- Co – ordinate
F – Feed.
S- Spindle Speed.
T – Tool Code
M- Miscellaneous Functions.
The code shown above, called a block is defined in number of different formats.
The program is directly input in the the machine’s memory through the following methods.
1. Manuel date input through the keyboard of the NC console.
2. A floppy disc and disc drive.
3. DNC mode – directly from the commuter used for programming or storage of program
to the memory of CNC machine.
Date Required for Part Programming:
1. Machine tool specifications.
2. Specification of all tools.
3. Specification of work material and
4. Speed, feed tables.

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Co-ordinate systems:

The co – ordinate system for designating the axes is the conventional right hand co-ordinate
system. Once could use his right hand to get these alternative relative positions of the same right
hand co-ordinate system.

Location:
First of all Z motion shall be designated. The shall be followed by X and Y motions
respectively. Z-axis motion is either along the spindle axis or parallel to the spindle axis.

Zero Points and Reference Points:

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The Machine Datum – M:


The machine datum is the origin of the co – ordinate system. With lathes, it is on the
mounting flange of the main spindle and the turning axis. The user of the machine cannot change
it. It is fixed by the manufacturer and programmed into the computer memory. The point
generally has the co- ordinate X = 0, Z=0.

The Machine Reference Point – R:


The manufacturer determines the position of the reference point R. The value of machine
reference co – ordinates Xmr and Zmr are fixed and cannot be changed by the user. The machine
reference point serves for the calibration of the measuring system.

Work piece Zero Point – W:


During different machining processes various jaw positions of chucks are used and these
are mounted onto the main spindle. The distance of the face side of the work piece form the
machine datum differs, depending upon the jaw surface, which is used for chucking. This has to be
considered while programming.

Type of Dimensioning
There are two different types of dimensioning systems.
1. Absolute dimensional system or Baseline dimensioning.
2. Incremental dimensional system or Delta dimensioning.

 In absolute coordinate system, all the measurements are taken form a fixed origin
 (0, 0), as shown in Fig
 Incremental coordinate system is one in which all the measurements for the next position are
calculated form the point at which the slide was resting previously, as shown in Fig.

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CAD/CAM Lab Manual

 In incremental coordinate system if any positioning error occurs means all subsequent positions
are affected but in absolute mode only the particular position will be affected.
 Incremental systems are less expensive and simple in construction whereas absolute systems
are costly and require complicated circuits.
 In absolute system all the dimensions should be positive whereas in incremental system
positive (+) and negative (-) signs are used.

Word Address Format


 Word Address Format also known as Variable Block Format used in most of NC
 Machines.
 This type of format use alphabets called address for identifying the function of numerical date
followed by it. The alphabets use are N, G, X, Y, Z, S, F, T, M have standard meaning as
mentioned earlier.
 The structure of word address format is shown in Fig

 The Machine Control Unit (MUC) uses this alphabet for addressing the memory location it. To
align and give space between the NC words a TAB key code is punched between words.

Preparatory Functions
G code are used to setup the machine control unit [MCU] modes of operation required for
the machining that is to be carried out, whether movement in a straight-line/linear (or) circular. In
general they use to slide motion control.

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G CODES DESCRIPTION

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CAD/CAM Lab Manual

G00 Rapid positioning


G01 Linear interpolation
G02 Circular interpolation(CW)
G03 Circular interpolation(CCW)
G04 Dwell
G09 Exact stop
G20 Inch input
G21 Metric input
G28 Machine home position
G40 Tool nose compensation cancel
G41 Tool nose compensation left
G42 Tool nose compensation right
G50 Max spindle speed setting
G70 Finishing cycle
G71 O.D/I.D Stock removal cycle
G72 End face stock removal cycle
G73 Irregular path stock removal cycle
G74 Eng face grooving cycle
G75 O.D/I.D Stock grooving cycle
G76 Threading cycle, multiple pass
G80 Canned cycle cancel
G81 Drill canned cycle
G82 Spot drill canned cycle
G83 Normal peck drill canned cycle
G84 Tapping canned cycle
G85 Boring canned cycle
G90 O.D/I.D Turning cycle model
G92 Threading cycle
G94 End face cycle
G96 Constant surface speed command
G97 Constant RPM
G98 Feed per minute
G99 Feed per revolution

Miscellaneous Functions
M codes used to establish requirement other than those related to slide movement. For
example they are used to active spindle motion (or) to turn on a coolant supply etc.

M CODES DESCRIPTION
M00 Temporary program stop
M01 Optional stop
M02 Program end
M03 Spindle clock wise rotation
M04 Spindle counter clock wise rotation
M05 Spindle stop
M06 Automatic toll changes
M08 Coolant pump on
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M09 Coolant pump off


M10 Chuck clamp
M17 Turret rotation always forward
M18 Turret rotation always reverse
M19 Spindle orient
M20 Spindle orient release
M30 Program end and rewinding
M98 Subprogram cell
M99 Subprogram end

Functions used in CNC Program


O – Program Number
N – Sequence or operation Number
G – Program/Function code
M – Machine code
X, Y, Z – Axis travel command
A, B, C, U, V,W – Additional axis travel commands
R – Arc radius
I, J, K – Arc center coordinate
F – Feed
S – Spindle rotation speed
T – Specifying tool number
H – Tool length offset number
P (or) X – Dwell time
P – Sub program number
L – Specifying Number of repeats in sub program
P, Q, R – Parameter for Canned Cycle
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P - 0 - Rough Cutting
1 - Finish Cutting
Q - Depth of Cutting
R - Reference point of pocket in Z axis
XY - LH coordinate point of pocket
Z - Depth of pocket
I - Length of pocket in X axis
J - Length of pocket in Y axis
K - Corner radius (Always Zero
P - Percentage of cutter diameter for lateral shift
S - RPM (Rough Cut)
R - Rough cut feed in Z axis
F - Rough cut feed in XY axis
B - RPM for finish cut
J - Feed for finish cut
I - Side finish allowance
K - Base Finish Allowance
T - Tool Number
Z - Safety Position in Z axis

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CAD/CAM Lab Manual

FACING CYCLE

FACING CYCLE
ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN MM

O – User defined tool entry point


R – Rapid traverse (M/c Value)
F – User defined feed rate

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CAD/CAM Lab Manual

Ex. No :
Date :
FACING CYCLE
AIM:
To write a CNC program and to perform step facing operation on the given Aluminum work
piece.

MATERIAL REQUIRED:
Aluminium Rod
25 mm * 60 mm Length

G94 – FORMAT:
G94 X10 Z-1 F2
Z-2
Z-3
PROGRAM:
[BILLET X25 Z60
N10 G21 G40 G99;
N20 G28 U0 W0;
N30 M06 T0101;
N40 G50 S1500;
N50 G96 S150 M03;
N60 G00 X26 Z2;
N70 G94 X10 Z-1 F0.5;
N80 Z-2;
N90 Z-3;
N100 Z-4;
N110 Z-5;
N120 G28 U0 W0;
N130 M30;

RESULT:

The above program is simulated and executed on the given work piece.

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CAD/CAM Lab Manual

G90 – TURNING

ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN MM


TURNING CYCLE

O – User defined tool entry point


R – Rapid traverse (M/c Value)
F – User defined feed rate

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CAD/CAM Lab Manual

Ex. No :
Date :
TURNING CYCLE
AIM:
To write a CNC program and to perform simple turning operation on the given Aluminium
work piece.

MATERIAL REQUIRED:
Aluminium Rod
25 mm * 60 mm Length

G90 – FORMAT:
G90 X25 Z-40 F0.1
X24
X23
PROGRAM:
[BILLET X25 Z60]
N10 G21 G40 G99;
N20 G28 U0 W0;
N30 M06 T0101;
N40 G50 S1500;
N50 G96 S150 M03;
N60 G00 X26 Z2;
N70 G90 X24 Z-40 F0.1;
N80 X23;
N90 X22;
N100 X21;
N110 X20
N120 G28 U0 W0;
N130 M30;

RESULT:

The above written program is simulated and executed on the given work piece.

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CAD/CAM Lab Manual

G90 – STEP TURNING

FACING CYCLE ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN MM

O – User defined tool entry point


R – Rapid traverse (M/c Value)
F – User defined feed rate

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CAD/CAM Lab Manual

Ex. No :
Date :
STEP TURNING
AIM:
To write a CNC program and to perform Step turning operation on the given Aluminum
work piece.

MATERIAL REQUIRED:
Aluminum Rod
25 mm * 60 mm Length

G90 – FORMAT:
G90 X25 Z-40 F0.1
X20 Z-20
PROGRAM:
[BILLET X25 Z60]
N10 G21 G40 G99;
N20 G28 U0 W0;
N30 M06 T0101;
N40 G50 S1500;
N50 G96 S150 M03;
N60 G00 X26 Z2;
N70 G90 X24 Z-40 F0.1;
N80 X23;
N90 X22 Z-20;
N100 X21;
N110 X20;
N120 G28 U0 W0;
N130 M30;

RESULT:

The above written program is simulated and executed on the given work piece.

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CAD/CAM Lab Manual

G90 – TAPER TURNING CYCLE

TAPER TURNING CYCLE ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN MM

O – User defined tool entry point


R – Rapid traverse (M/c Value)
F – User defined feed rate

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CAD/CAM Lab Manual

Ex. No :
Date :
G90 – TAPER TURNING CYCLE

AIM:
To write a CNC program and to perform Taper turning operation on the given Aluminum
work piece.

MATERIAL REQUIRED:
Aluminum Rod
25 mm * 60 mm Length

G92 – BOX THREADING FORMAT:


G92 X35 Z-40 R-5 F0.1
X33
X31
PROGRAM:
[BILLET X25 Z60]
N10 G21 G40 G99;
N20 G28 U0 W0;
N30 M06 T0101;
N40 G50 S1500;
N50 G96 S150 M03;
N60 G00 X35 Z2;
N70 G71 X35 Z-40 R-5 F0.1;
N80 X33;
N90 X31;
N100 X29;
N110 X27;
N120 X25;
N130 G28 U0 W0;
N140 M30;

RESULT:

The above written program is simulated and executed on the given work piece.

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CAD/CAM Lab Manual

G71 – MULTIPLE TURNING

TURNING CYCLE ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN MM

O – User defined tool entry point


R – Rapid traverse (M/c Value)
F – User defined feed rate

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CAD/CAM Lab Manual

Ex. No :
Date :
G71 – MULTIPLE TURNING

AIM:
To write a CNC program and to perform multiple turning operation on the given Aluminum
work piece.
MATERIAL REQUIRED:
Aluminium Rod
25 mm * 60 mm Length

G71 – MULTIPLE TURNING FORMAT:


G71 U1 R0.5
G71 P10 Q20 U0.25 W0.25 F0.1
First line - Specifies a depth of cut of 1mm and the escape of 0.5mm.
Second line - P, Q specifies block numbers at the start and end of the profile.
- U & W specify the distance and direction of the finishing allowance
on X and Y-axes.
- F specifies the feed rate.

PROGRAM:

[BILLET X25 Z60]


N10 G21 G40 G99;
N20 G28 U0 W0;
N30 M06 T0101;
N40 G50 S1500;
N50 G96 S150 M03;
N60 G00 X26 Z2;
N70 G71 U0.5 R0.5;
N80 G71 P90 Q150 U0.25 W0.15 F0.1;
N90 G01 X0;
N100 Z0;
N110 G03 X10 Z-5 R5 F0.25;
N120 G01 Z-15 F0.75;
N130 X20 Z-20;

N140 Z-30
N150 G02 X25 Z-35 R5 F0.25;
N160 G70 P90 Q150 F0.01;
N170 G28 U0 W0;
N180 M30;

RESULT:

The above written program is simulated and executed on the given work piece.

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CAD/CAM Lab Manual

G72 – MULTIPLE FACING

FACING CYCLE ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN MM

O – User defined tool entry point


R – Rapid traverse (M/c Value)
F – User defined feed rate

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CAD/CAM Lab Manual

Ex. No :
Date :
G72 – MULTIPLE FACING
AIM:
To write a CNC program and to perform multiple facing operation on the given Aluminum
work piece.

MATERIAL REQUIRED:
Aluminium Rod
25 mm * 60 mm Length

G72 – MULTIPLE TURNING FORMAT:


G72 W1 R0.5
G72 P10 Q20 U0.25 W0.25 F0.1
First line - Specifies a depth of cut of 1mm and the escape of 0.5mm.
Second line - P, Q specifies block numbers at the start and end of the profile.

PROGRAM:

[BILLET X25 Z60]


N10 G21 G40 G99;
N20 G28 U0 W0;
N30 M06 T0101;
N40 G50 S1500;
N50 G96 S150 M03;
N60 G00 X26 Z2;
N70 G72 W0.5 R0.5;
N80 G72 P90 Q170 U0.25 W0.15 F0.1;
N90 G01 Z-20 F0.75;
N100 X25;
N110 X20;
N120 Z-18;
N130 X15 Z-15;
N140 Z-10
N150 GO2 X10 Z-5 R5 F0.25;
N160 G01 Z-3 F0.75;
N170 G01 X5 Z0;
N180 G70 P90 Q180 F0.01;
N190 G28 U0 W0;
N200 M30;

CONCLUSION:
The above written program is simulated and executed on the given work piece.

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CAD/CAM Lab Manual

G92 – SINGLE PASS THREADING CYCLE

MAJOR DIA = 16
CORE DIA = 13.5462
PITCH = 2.00
TH. HEIGHT = 1.2269
TIP ANGLE = 60

BOX THREADING CYCLE

ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN MM

O – User defined tool entry point


R – Rapid traverse (M/c Value)
F – User defined feed rate

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CAD/CAM Lab Manual

Ex. No :
Date :
G92 – SINGLE PASS THREADING CYCLE

AIM:
To write a CNC program and to perform Single pass threading operation on the given
Aluminium work piece.

MATERIAL REQUIRED:
Aluminium Rod
25 mm * 60 mm Length

G92 – BOX THREADING FORMAT:


G92 X25 Z-32 F2
X24.5
X24
- F Specifies pitch value in ‘mm’ and X, Z specifies the end
position of the thread.

PROGRAM:

[BILLET X25 Z60]


N10 G21 G40 G99;
N20 G28 U0 W0;
N30 M06 T0101;
N40 G50 S1500;
N50 G96 S150 M03;
N60 G00 X26 Z2;
N70 G71 U0.5 R0.5;
N80 G71 P90 Q150 U0.25 W0.15 F0.1;
N90 G01 X13;
N100 Z0;
N110 G01 X16 Z1.5 F0.5;
N120 Z-37.5;
N130 X20;
N140 Z-45;
N150 X25;
N160 G70 P90 Q150 F0.01;
N170 G28 U0 W0;
N180 M06 T0303;
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N190 G98 G97 S600 M03;


N200 G00 X17 Z-34;
N210 G01 X12 F2;
N220 X18;
N230 G28 U0 W0;
N240 M06 T0404;
N250 S600 M03;
N260 G00 X16 Z3;
N270 G92 X15.7 Z-32.5 F1;
N280 X15.4;
N290 X15.1;
N300 X14.8;
N310 X14.5;
N320 X14.2;
N330 X13.9;
N340 X13.5462;
N350 G28 U0 W0;
N360 M30;

RESULT:

The above written program is simulated and executed on the given work piece.

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CAD/CAM Lab Manual

CONTOUR MILLING

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CAD/CAM Lab Manual

Ex. No : CONTOUR MILLING


Date :
AIM:
To write a part program and perform the machining operation in the CNC XL MILL milling
machine to create the required profile.
PROCEDURE:
Move the tool to the home position.
Select the appropriate tool for machining and the spindle speed.
Feed is in mm/min.
The program follows the absolute mode of tool positioning.
The input is in metric units.
The part program is written and executed.
Then the required profile is obtained.
PROGRAM
G21 G94
G91 G28 ZO
X0 Y0
M06 T1
M03 S1200
G00 G90 XO YO Z5
G01 X-25 Y-35
Z-2
G01 X-10 Y-35
G02 X10 Y-35 R10
G01 X25 Y-35
G02 X35 Y-25 R10
G01 X35 Y-10
G01 X25 Y-5
G01 X25 Y5
G01 X35 Y10
G01 X35 Y25
G02 X25 Y35 R10
G01 X10 Y35
G02 X-10 Y35 R10
G01 X-25 Y35
G02 X-35 Y25 R10
G01 X-35 Y10
G01 X-25 Y5
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G01 X-25 Y-5


G01 X-35 Y-10
G01 X-35 Y-25
G02 X-25 Y-35 R10
G00 G90 Z5
G91 G28 Z0
X0 YO
M05
M30

RESULT:

Thus the required program is executed and the required profile is obtained.

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CAD/CAM Lab Manual

MIRRORING

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Ex. No : MIRRORING
Date :
AIM:
To write a part program and perform the machining operation in the CNC XL MILL milling
machine to create the required profile.
PROCEDURE:
Move the tool to the home position.
Select the appropriate tool for machining and the spindle speed.
Feed is in mm/min.
The program follows the absolute mode of tool positioning.
The input is in metric units.
The part program is written and executed.
Then the required profile is obtained.

PROGRAM:
G21 G94
G91 G28 Z0
X0 Y0
M06 T01
M03 S1200
G00 G90 X15 Y0 Z5
M98 P0015555
M70
M98 P0015555
M71
M98 P0015555
M80
M98 P0015555
M81
G00 G90 Z5
G91 G28 Z0
X0 Y0
M30

O5555
G00 G90 X15 Y10
Z-2
G01 X25 Y25
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G01 X35 Y10


G01 X15 Y10
G00 G90 Z5
X0 Y0
M99

RESULT:
Thus the required program is executed and the required profile is obtained.

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DRILLING

20 20

20
10

15 15

30 20

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Ex. No :
Date :
DRILLING
AIM:
To write a part program and perform the machining operation in the CNC XL MILL milling
machine to create the required profile.

PROCEDURE:
Move the tool to the home position.
Select the appropriate tool for machining and the spindle speed.
Feed is in mm/min.
The program follows the absolute mode of tool positioning.
The input is in metric units.
The part program is written and executed.
Then the required profile is obtained

PROGRAM
G21 G94
G91 G28 Z0
X0 Y0
M06 T3
M03 S1200
G00 G90 X0 Y0 Z5
G83 X-30 Y-15 Z-10 Q3 R2 F50
X-20 Y10
X30 Y20
X20 Y-15
G80
G00 G90 Z5
M30

X, Y - Coordinate values
Z - Total Depth
Q - Peck Drilling depth
R - Reference Point
F - Feed (mm/min)

RESULT:

Thus the required program is executed and the required profile is obtained.

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CAD/CAM Lab Manual

RECTANGULAR POCKETING

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CAD/CAM Lab Manual

Ex. No :
Date :
RECTANGUALR POCKETING
AIM:
To write a part program and perform the machining operation in the CNC XL MILL milling
machine to create the required profile.

PROCEDURE:

Move the tool to the home position.


Select the appropriate tool for machining and the spindle speed.
Feed is in mm/min.
The program follows the absolute mode of tool positioning.
The input is in metric units.
The part program is written and executed.
Then the required profile is obtained.

PROGRAM

G21 G94
G91 G28 ZO X0 Y0
M06 T1
M03 S1500
G00 G90 X0 Y0 Z5
G172 P0 Q-1 R0 X-35 Y-35 Z-5 I70 J70 K0
G173 P70 S1600 R40 F80 B2000 J40 K0.1 T1 Z5 I0.1
G172 P1 Q-1 R0 X-35 Y-35 Z-5 I70 J70 K0
G173 P70 S1600 R40 F80 B2000 J40 I0 K0 T1 Z5
G91 G28 ZO X0 Y0
M05
M30

FORMAT

G172 P Q R X Y Z I J K
G173 P S R F B J K T Z I
G172

RESULT:

Thus the required program is executed and the required profile is obtained.

Department of Mechanical Engineering


CAD/CAM Lab Manual

INTRODUCTION TO CREO PARAMETRIC 2.0

The feature-based parametric modeling technique enables the designer to incorporate the
original design intent into the construction of the model. The word parametric means the geometric
definitions of the design, such as dimensions, can be varied at any time in the design process.
Parametric modeling is accomplished by identifying and creating the key features of the design
with the aid of computer software. The design variables, described in the sketches and features, can
be used to quickly modify/update the design.
In Creo Parametric, the parametric part modeling process involves the following steps:
1. Set up Units and Basic Datum Geometry.
2. Determine the type of the base feature, the first solid feature, of the design. Note that
Extrude, Revolve, or Sweep operations are the most common types of base features.
3. Create a rough two-dimensional sketch of the basic shape of the base feature of the design.
4. Apply/modify constraints and dimensions to the two-dimensional sketch.
5. Transform the two-dimensional parametric sketch into a 3D feature.
6. Add additional parametric features by identifying feature relations and complete the design.
7. Perform analyses/simulations, such as finite element analysis (FEA) or cutter path
generation (CNC), on the computer model and refine the design as needed.
8. Document the design by creating the desired 2D/3D drawings.

The approach of creating three-dimensional features using two-dimensional sketches is an effective


way to construct solid models. Many designs are in fact the same shape in one direction. Computer
input and output devices we use today are largely twodimensional in nature, which makes this
modeling technique quite practical. This method also conforms to the design process that helps the
designer with conceptual design along with the capability to capture the design intent. Most
engineers and designers can relate to the experience of making rough sketches on restaurant
napkins to convey conceptual design ideas. Note that Creo Parametric provides many powerful
modeling and design tools, and there are many different approaches to accomplish modeling tasks.
The basic principle of feature-based modeling is to build models by adding simple features one at a
time. In this chapter, a very simple solid model with extruded features is used to introduce the
general feature-based parametric modeling procedure.
Starting Creo Parametric
1. Select the Creo Parametric option on the Start menu or select
the Creo Parametric icon on the desktop to start Creo
Parametric. The Creo Parametric main window will appear on
the screen.
2. Click on the New
icon, located in the
Ribbon toolbar as
shown.
3. In the New dialog
box, confirm the model’s Type is set to Part (Solid
Subtype)
4. Enter Adjuster as the part Name as shown in the
figure.
5. Turn off the Use default template option.
6. Click on the OK button to accept the settings.

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7. In the New File Options dialog box, select


EMPTY in the option list to not use any
template file.
8. Click on the OK button to accept the
settings and enter the Creo Parametric Part
Modeling mode.

Step 1: Units and Basic Datum Geometry Setups


♦ Units Setup
When starting a new model, the first thing we should do
is to choose the set of units we want to use.
1. Use the left-mouse-button and select File in the pull-
down menu area.
2. Use the left-mouse-button and select Prepare in the
pull-down list as shown.
3. Select Model Properties in the expanded list as shown
4. Select the Change option that is to the right of the
Units option in the Model Properties window.

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CAD/CAM Lab Manual

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CAD/CAM Lab Manual

5. In the Units Manager – Systems of Units form, the Creo


Parametric default setting Inch lbm Second is displayed.
The set of units is stored with the model file when you
save. Pick millimeter Newton Second (mmNs) by
clicking in the list window as shown.

6. Click on the Set button to accept the selection.

♦ Adding the First Part Features – Datum Planes


Creo Parametric provides many powerful tools for model
creation. In doing feature based parametric modeling, it is a
good practice to establish three reference planes to locate
the part in space. The reference planes can be used as
location references in feature constructions.

1. Move the cursor to the Datum


toolbar on the Ribbon toolbar
and click on the Datum Plane
tool icon as shown.

Datum Planes

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Step 2: Determine/Setup the Base Solid Feature

 For the Adjuster design, we will create an extruded solid as the base feature.
1. In the Shapes toolbar (the fourth group in the Ribbon toolbar), click on the Extrude tool icon as
shown.

• The Feature Option Dashboard, which contains applicable construction options, is displayed in
the Ribbon toolbar of the Creo Parametric main window.

2. On your own, move the cursor over the icons and read
the descriptions of the different options available. Note
that the default extrude option is set to Extrude as solid.

3. Click the Placement option and choose Define to begin


creating a new internal sketch.

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CAD/CAM Lab Manual

Defining the Sketching Plane


 The sketching plane is a reference location where two-dimensional sketches are created. The
sketching plane can be any planar part surface or datum plane. Note that Creo Parametric uses a
two-step approach in setting up the selection and alignment of the sketching plane.

 In the Section Placement window, the selection of the sketch


plane and the orientation of the sketching plane are
organized into two groups as shown in the figure. The Sketch
Plane can be set to any surfaces, including datum planes. The
Sketch Orientation is set based on the selection of the Sketch
plane.

1. Notice the Plane option box in the Sketch window is


activated, and the message “Select a plane or surface
to define sketch plane.” is displayed in the message
area.

2. In the graphic area, select DTM2 by clicking on any edge of the plane as shown.

 Notice an arrow appears on the left edge of


DTM2. The arrow direction indicates the viewing
aligned direction of the sketch plane. The
viewing direction can be reversed by clicking on
the Flip button in the Sketch Orientation section
of the popup window.

Defining the Orientation of the Sketching Plane


Although we have selected the sketching plane, Creo Parametric still needs additional information
to define the orientation of the sketch plane. Creo Parametric expects us to choose a reference
plane (any plane that is perpendicular to the selected sketch plane) and the orientation of the
reference plane is relative to the computer screen.
 To define the orientation of the sketching plane, select the facingdirection of the
reference plane with respect to the computer screen.

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1. Notice the Reference option box in


the Sketch Orientation window is
now activated. The message “Select a
reference, such as surface, plane or
edge to define view orientation.” Is
displayed in the message area.
2. In the graphic area, select DTM3 by
clicking on one of the datum plane
edges as shown in the above figure.
3. In the Orientation list, pick Bottom to
set the orientation of the reference
plane.
4. Pick Sketch to exit the Section
Placement window and proceed to
enter the Creo Parametric Sketcher
mode.
5. To orient the sketching plane parallel to the screen, click on the Sketch View icon in the
Display View toolbar as shown. Note the orientation of the sketching plane is adjusted
based on the setup on the previous page.

 Creo Parametric will now rotate the three datum planes: DTM2 aligned to the screen and
the positive side of DTM3 facing toward the bottom edge of the computer screen.

 The orientation of the sketching plane can be very confusing to new users. Read through
this section carefully again to make sure you understand the steps involved.

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CAD/CAM Lab Manual

3D PART MODELING

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CAD/CAM Lab Manual

Department of Mechanical Engineering