Sie sind auf Seite 1von 36
Slope, Embankment, and Excavation Stability 1
Slope,
Embankment, and
Excavation
Stability
1
2
2
berms Heave at toe Landslide in man made Cut Slope at km 365 west of
berms
Heave at toe
Landslide in man made Cut Slope at km
365 west of Sao Paolo - August 2002
berms Steep scar to rotational failure
berms
Steep scar to
rotational failure
Man’s Influence (Agriculture /Development) Drainage Pumping Construction Cut / Fill Slopes Hydrology (rainfall)
Man’s Influence (Agriculture /Development)
Drainage
Pumping
Construction
Cut / Fill Slopes
Hydrology (rainfall)
Earthquakes
GIS
Geology
Ground
Ground Loading
Erosion/Deposition
Water
(Consolidation)
Glaciation
Surface
Weathering
Material Properties
Water
Geochemistry
(Shear Strength)
Stability Assessment
Slope Profile
Landslide
Preventive
Slope Management
Measures
Design
Landslide Warning
LANDSLIDE
Cost
Build
No Danger
Temporarily Safe
Consequence
Remedial
Remove
Safe at the moment
Measures
Consequence
Introduction – SLOPES
Introduction – SLOPES


Natural and/or man-made

Slope, embankment and excavation stability

• Cut and fill slopes (highways, railways, buildings etc.)

• Retaining walls

• Shallow and deep foundations on slopes

• Landslides (why failure?, properties through back-analysis, improving stability)

• Instability caused by liquefaction

Finite Slopes – Circular Failure Surfaces 7
Finite Slopes – Circular Failure Surfaces
7
Factor of Safety, FS = F S
Factor of Safety, FS = F S
Factor of Safety, FS = F S 8
Factor of Safety, FS = F S 8
Factor of Safety, FS = F S Typical minimum acceptable values of factor of safety:
Factor of Safety, FS = F S
Typical minimum acceptable values of factor of
safety:

1.3

for end of construction and multistage loading

1.5

for normal long-term loading conditions

1.1 to 1.3

for infrequent rapid drawdown

higher for frequent drawdown

Factor of Safety, FS = F S
Factor of Safety, FS = F S
Infinite Slopes without Seepage
Infinite Slopes without Seepage
Infinite Slopes without Seepage 11
Infinite Slopes without Seepage
Infinite Slopes without Seepage
Infinite Slopes without Seepage 12
Infinite Slopes without Seepage 12
12
12
Infinite Slopes without Seepage 13 in equilibrium
Infinite Slopes without Seepage
13
in equilibrium
Infinite Slopes without Seepage
Infinite Slopes without Seepage
Infinite Slopes without Seepage 14 If c ' = 0

14

Infinite Slopes without Seepage 14 If c ' = 0
Infinite Slopes without Seepage 14 If c ' = 0

If c' = 0

Infinite Slopes with Seepage If c' = 0 15
Infinite Slopes with Seepage
If c' = 0
15
Finite Slopes – Failure Surfaces
Finite Slopes – Failure Surfaces
Finite Slopes – Failure Surfaces Assume a failure surface where the critical/lowest factor of safety occurs

Assume a failure surface where the critical/lowest factor of safety occurs

Planar – Cullmann’s method

Circular

Finite Slopes – Planar Failure Surfaces (Cullmann’s Method)
Finite Slopes – Planar Failure Surfaces
(Cullmann’s Method)
Finite Slopes – Planar Failure Surfaces (Cullmann’s Method) Trial plane 17

Trial

plane

17

Finite Slopes – Planar Failure Surfaces (Cullmann’s Method) Trial plane 17
Finite Slopes – Planar Failure Surfaces (Cullmann’s Method) Trial plane 17
Finite Slopes – Planar Failure Surfaces (Cullmann’s Method)
Finite Slopes – Planar Failure Surfaces
(Cullmann’s Method)
Finite Slopes – Planar Failure Surfaces (Cullmann’s Method) 18

18

Finite Slopes – Planar Failure Surfaces (Cullmann’s Method) 18
Finite Slopes – Planar Failure Surfaces (Cullmann’s Method) 18
Finite Slopes – Circular Failure Surfaces
Finite Slopes – Circular Failure Surfaces
Finite Slopes – Circular Failure Surfaces
Finite Slopes – Circular Failure Surfaces

20

Finite Slopes – Circular Failure Surfaces 20
Finite Slopes – Circular Failure Surfaces Stability Analyses
Finite Slopes – Circular Failure Surfaces
Stability Analyses
Finite Slopes – Circular Failure Surfaces Stability Analyses Limit equilibrium 21

Limit equilibrium

Finite Slopes – Circular Failure Surfaces Mass Procedure (Homogeneous Clay)
Finite Slopes – Circular Failure Surfaces
Mass Procedure (Homogeneous Clay)

W = W 1 + W 2

Finite Slopes – Circular Failure Surfaces Mass Procedure (Homogeneous Clay) W = W 1 + W
Finite Slopes – Circular Failure Surfaces Mass Procedure (Homogeneous Clay) W = W 1 + W
Finite Slopes – Circular Failure Surfaces Mass Procedure (Homogeneous Clay) W = W 1 + W
Finite Slopes – Circular Failure Surfaces Mass Procedure (Homogeneous Clay) W = W 1 + W
Finite Slopes – Circular Failure Surfaces Mass Procedure (Homogeneous Clay) W = W 1 + W
Finite Slopes – Circular Failure Surfaces Mass Procedure (Homogeneous Clay) W = W 1 + W
Finite Slopes – Circular Failure Surfaces Mass Procedure (Homogeneous Clay) W = W 1 + W

22

Finite Slopes – Circular Failure Surfaces Mass Procedure (Homogeneous Clay) W = W 1 + W
Finite Slopes – Circular Failure Surfaces Mass Procedure (Homogeneous Clay) W = W 1 + W
Finite Slopes – Circular Failure Surfaces Mass Procedure (Homogeneous Clay) W = W 1 + W

m=stability number

Finite Slopes – Circular Failure Surfaces Mass Procedure (Homogeneous Clay)
Finite Slopes – Circular Failure Surfaces
Mass Procedure (Homogeneous Clay)
Finite Slopes – Circular Failure Surfaces Mass Procedure (Homogeneous Clay) 23
Finite Slopes – Circular Failure Surfaces Mass Procedure (Homogeneous Clay)
Finite Slopes – Circular Failure Surfaces
Mass Procedure (Homogeneous Clay)
Finite Slopes – Circular Failure Surfaces Mass Procedure (Homogeneous Clay) 24

24

Finite Slopes – Circular Failure Surfaces Mass Procedure (Homogeneous Clay) 24
Finite Slopes – Circular Failure Surfaces Mass Procedure (c'-f' Soil)
Finite Slopes – Circular Failure Surfaces
Mass Procedure (c'-f' Soil)
Finite Slopes – Circular Failure Surfaces Mass Procedure (c'-f' Soil) 26
Finite Slopes – Circular Failure Surfaces
Mass Procedure (c'-f' Soil)
26
Finite Slopes – Circular Failure Surfaces Method of Slices (MOS/Ordinary MS)
Finite Slopes – Circular Failure Surfaces
Method of Slices (MOS/Ordinary MS)
NO PWP!
NO PWP!
Finite Slopes – Circular Failure Surfaces Method of Slices (MOS/Ordinary MS) NO PWP! Trial failure surface
Finite Slopes – Circular Failure Surfaces Method of Slices (MOS/Ordinary MS) NO PWP! Trial failure surface

Trial failure surface

b n

Finite Slopes – Circular Failure Surfaces Method of Slices (MOS/Ordinary MS) NO PWP! Trial failure surface
Finite Slopes – Circular Failure Surfaces Method of Slices (MOS/Ordinary MS) NO PWP! Trial failure surface
Finite Slopes – Circular Failure Surfaces Method of Slices (MOS/Ordinary MS) NO PWP! Trial failure surface
Finite Slopes – Circular Failure Surfaces Method of Slices (MOS/Ordinary MS) b n DL n
Finite Slopes – Circular Failure Surfaces
Method of Slices (MOS/Ordinary MS)
b n
DL n = b n /cosa n

28

Finite Slopes – Circular Failure Surfaces Method of Slices (MOS/Ordinary MS) b n DL n =
Finite Slopes – Circular Failure Surfaces Method of Slices (MOS/Ordinary MS)
Finite Slopes – Circular Failure Surfaces
Method of Slices (MOS/Ordinary MS)
Effective stresses Total stresses
Effective
stresses
Total
stresses

29

Finite Slopes – Circular Failure Surfaces Method of Slices (MOS/Ordinary MS) STEADY-STATE SEEPAGE!
Finite Slopes – Circular Failure Surfaces
Method of Slices (MOS/Ordinary MS)
STEADY-STATE
SEEPAGE!

Effective

stresses

30

Slopes – Circular Failure Surfaces Method of Slices (MOS/Ordinary MS) STEADY-STATE SEEPAGE! Effective stresses 30
Finite Slopes – Circular Failure Surfaces Method of Slices (Others)
Finite Slopes – Circular Failure Surfaces
Method of Slices (Others)

Bishop

Spencer

Janbu

Morgenstern-Price

Forces for Slices
Forces for Slices
Assumptions in LE Analyses
Assumptions in LE Analyses
Characteristics of LE Methods
Characteristics of LE Methods