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Manuel S.

Enverga University Foundation


Lucena City, Philippines
Granted Autonomous Status
CHED CEB Res. 076-2009

Experiment No. 2

Calibration of Ordinary Thermometer.


Objectives:

To study the calibration of ordinary thermometer.


To be able to know difference between the calibration of freezing /

melting and boiling point of a material to be use.


To improve the uses of an apparatus to be use especially the

thermometer.

Apparatus / Materials:

2pcs Beaker
2 Pcs Thermometer
Electric stove
Stop watch
Dropper
Ice cubes
Water

Procedure:
For the Boiling point of water:
1. Pour certain amount of water in the beaker.
2. Plug the electric stove and turn on the medium range heat.
3. Place the beaker with water on the stove.
4. Measure the water temperature using a Thermometer every 60 sec. (1

minute) and record

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNICAL DEPARTMENT


Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation
University Site, Brgy. Ibabang Dupay, Lucena City, Philippines; Telephone No. (042) 710-3151
Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation
Lucena City, Philippines
Granted Autonomous Status
CHED CEB Res. 076-2009

5. Repeat step 4 until it reach the boiling point of water. Tabulate

the result.

For Melting point of ice:


1. Put ice in the beaker, with most of the water executed.
2. Place the thermometer in contact with ice, after 1 (one) minute, take the

reading.
3. Take several trials until the temperature attain ambient temperature.

Final Set-up:

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNICAL DEPARTMENT


Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation
University Site, Brgy. Ibabang Dupay, Lucena City, Philippines; Telephone No. (042) 710-3151
Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation
Lucena City, Philippines
Granted Autonomous Status
CHED CEB Res. 076-2009

Natividad, Nathaniel S.
Signiture over printed name

Final Data Sheet:

At room temperature = 32°C

Boiling Point of Water

Trials ° Celsius Time

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNICAL DEPARTMENT


Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation
University Site, Brgy. Ibabang Dupay, Lucena City, Philippines; Telephone No. (042) 710-3151
Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation
Lucena City, Philippines
Granted Autonomous Status
CHED CEB Res. 076-2009

Melting Point of Ice.


Natividad, Nathaniel S.
Signiture over printed name
Trials ° Celsius Time

Discussion:

The thermometer is a device for measuring temperature, is used in many forms basically
devided into mechanical and electrical types. The best-known mechanical type is the liquid-in-
gas thermometer. To cover the full range of temperature measurement, from near absolute zero to
thousands of degrees, other instruments are also used, such as bolometer, pyrometer,
thermocouple and thermopile.

The Liquid-In-Gas Thermometer consist of a small bulb reservoir and calibrated fine-
bore capillary tube. The liquid in the bulb rises and or falls in the tube as it expands or contract as
it response in temperature changes. The height of the column is measured against the markings
on the tube, which are commonly on the Celsius or Fahrenheit scale. Mercury is the preferred
liquid in quality thermometers; it freezes at -38.9°C (-38.02°F) and boils at 357°C (675°F). The
accuracy of the industrial mercury thermometer is 1% of the column. Other liquids used are dye-
colored alcohol, toluene and pentene, The last with freezing point of -200°C
(-328°F)

The second type of liquid-expansion thermometer consists of a liquid-filled metal bulb


and capillary tube attached to either a spiral tube or a bellows. As the temperature of the bulb
changes, the pressure or the volume of the liquid change, moving an indicator across a scale.

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNICAL DEPARTMENT


Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation
University Site, Brgy. Ibabang Dupay, Lucena City, Philippines; Telephone No. (042) 710-3151
Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation
Lucena City, Philippines
Granted Autonomous Status
CHED CEB Res. 076-2009

A typical gas or vapor thermometer similarly consist of a bulb and a capillary tube
connected to a pressure-measuring device. The gas thermometer is a simple, rugged and accurate
and has a wide response. Vapor-Pressure thermometers responds to the pressure exerted by the
saturated vapor in equilibrium with the volatile liquid. It is similar to the gas thermometer in
construction. The principal advantages of the vapor pressure type is the large change in pressure
obtained for a small temperature changes, resulting in high sensitivity.

Electrical resistance thermometers operate on the principle that the resistivity of most
metals increases with increased temperature. This principle was discovered in 1821 by Sir
Humpry Davy, but this phenomenon was not used until the construction of platinum resistance
thermometer in 1861 by the German Engineer Ernerst W. Von Seimens. In 1886 the British
physicist Hugh L. Callendor proposed this Thermometer as a new standard of accuracy n
temperature measurement. Today the U.S. National Bureau of Standard uses high-precision
platinum resistance thermometers, accurate to 0.001°C. To define the key points on the
international Practical Temperature scale, established in 1968. Both copper wire and nickel wire
resistance thermometers are much lower in cost than platinum and have a precision of 0.05°C. In
the range of 10°C to 2°C above absolute zero, impurity-doped germanium resistance
thermometers are used, calibrated against the temperature of liquid helium.

Groiler Family Encyclopedia (Sue-Ung)


Thermometer (Page 225)
Groiler Inco. Danbury. Connecticut
Thermometer

Most home brewers probably have a variety of thermometers. We may have bimetal
thermometers from our mash tuns and hot liquor tanks, glass digital thermometers are for taking
spot measurements and “Temperature Strips” stuck to the side of our buckets or carboys. Many
home brewers, however, many be unaware of how inaccurate thermometers can be. Cheap
thermometers can be off by as much as 20°F (11°C) even more expensive thermometers can be
off enough to make a difference in brewing. As such, every home brewer should know how to
check and calibrate their thermometers.

Every serious home brewer should get 1(one) good thermometer – a laboratory grade
mercury thermometer or good digital thermometer and use this to check and adjust their working
thermometers. However, even the most expensive thermometers should be checked for accuracy.

To check a thermometer, you should take the temperature of two (2) solutions that you
know the temperature of. The catch-22 here is that, without a calibrated thermometer, how do
you know the temperature of solution? The answer is you rely on the physical properties of water
to supply you with two set points.

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNICAL DEPARTMENT


Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation
University Site, Brgy. Ibabang Dupay, Lucena City, Philippines; Telephone No. (042) 710-3151
Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation
Lucena City, Philippines
Granted Autonomous Status
CHED CEB Res. 076-2009

The best place to start is at the freezing point of the water. Pure water freezes at
32°F (0°C) If you can make a solution of ice and water right at that point, you can check if your
thermometer reads right at freezing to make a 32°F (0°C) solution, do the following.

Take a clean Styrofoam cup and fill it with crushed ice, heaped on the top (Technically
the ice should be made from distilled water, but using tap water won’t affect your result by
enough to make the brewing) Don’t add any water to the ice. Put the cup in your refrigerator and
wait until enough ice to melts to submerge your thermometer to a depth that is adequate to take a
reading (Glass Laboratory Thermometer will have an immersion line showing how far the
thermometer tip should be submerged) It will take a few hours for the ice to melt to this point, so
plan ahead you want to take the temperature of a solution with a lot if ice and just enough water
to take a reading.

Note that you can’t just take a (warm) cup, add (warm) tap water, plunk down a few ice
cubes and expect the temperature to be 32°F (0°C) Waiting for ice to melt ensures the resulting
ice and water mixture is right at a freezing point as long the amount of ice is much greater than
the amount of water in the mix.

Once the ice water is prepared, take the temperature of the solution, remember that your
thermometer is warmer than the ice water and will warm the local area it is inserted into, so swirl
the tip of the thermometer a bit as you take the reading. Keep the thermometer in the slush until
it gives a steady reading.

The second point to measure is the boiling point. Water boils at 212°F (100°C) at sea
level, at standard barometric pressure [29.29 inches of mercury (in.Hg)] but what if you’re not at
sea level and standard barometric pressure?
Now all you need to do is to boil some water, preferably distilled water, and take its
temperature. Don’t try to kill 2 (two) birds with one stone and check your thermometer next time
you boil some wort. Because of the dissolve solid in wort – Sugars, protein and etc. it boils at
higher temperature (around 215°F/101°C for an average strength wort at sea level)

• Ice point method.


1. Fill a glass with crushed ice. Add cold clean tap water until the glass is full and stir.
2. Put the thermometer in the ice water mixture so that the entire sensing area is submerged.
Do not let the stem or the probe touch the bottom or side of the glass. Wait until the
indicator stops moving.
3. With the stem of the thermometer still in the water, use a wrench to turn the adjusting nut
until the thermometer read 32°F.

• Boiling point method.


1. Bring clean tap water to a boil in a deep pan.
2. Put the thermometer stem or probe into the boiling water so that sensing area is
completely submerged. Don’t let the stem or the probe touch the bottom or sides of the
pan. Wait until the indicator stops moving.
3. With the thermometer stem or probe still on the water, use a wrench to turn the adjusting
nut until the thermometer reads 212°F

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNICAL DEPARTMENT


Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation
University Site, Brgy. Ibabang Dupay, Lucena City, Philippines; Telephone No. (042) 710-3151
Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation
Lucena City, Philippines
Granted Autonomous Status
CHED CEB Res. 076-2009

How to calibrate the thermometer?

Whenever you purchased a new thermometer and about to use it for the 1st time you need
to calibrate it. Thermometer will also need to be calibrated whenever they’re dropped or
when going from one extreme temperature to another. Thermometers are critical measuring
equipment s fore temperature to ensure the safety and quality of many food products. Also
remember to sanitize thermometer before using and between using, you could clean and
sanitize the thermometer by washing it in hot, soapy water, rinse and wash dry or you could
see a sanitizing solution. Suitable for food contact surfaces. Allow the thermometer to sit in a
sanitizing solutions for about two minutes. Then use hot water to rinse the thermometer.

Two methods can be used to calibrate thermometer – Ice point method and boiling point
method.

If you use thermometer to measure both hot and cold temperature, you must check the
thermometer accuracy in both Ice water and Boiling water. When you begin:
Check the thermometer to reading in ice and boiling water. Ice water should be 32°F and the
boiling water should be 212°F. If the thermometer displays the correct values, you do not
need to calibrate it. If the thermometer is OFF, but not by the same number of degrees for the
ice and boiling water. You should discard the thermometer and get a new one if the
thermometer is OFF. The same number of degrees, you can calibrate the thermometer with
the following steps. Keep the thermometer in ice while you calibrate the thermometer. Pack a
large cup full of ice cubes and add cold water. The ice should not float in water. Put the
thermometer in the ice water. Make sure the sensing dimple is surrounded by ice. After 2 to 3
minutes, read the dial. If the dial reads 32°F, the thermometer is accurate and does not need
read 32°F, Calibrate the thermometer. Keep the thermometer steam is fully immersed in the
ice water while you move the thermometer needle. To move the needle, need to, firmly hold
the hex nut (to keep it from moving) with a wrench or other tool and turn the silver ring on
top of thermometer. Turn the dial until the needle points to 32°F. Your thermometer is now
calibrated,

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNICAL DEPARTMENT


Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation
University Site, Brgy. Ibabang Dupay, Lucena City, Philippines; Telephone No. (042) 710-3151
Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation
Lucena City, Philippines
Granted Autonomous Status
CHED CEB Res. 076-2009

Ice Point Method.

Boiling Point Method.

The Calibration Curve

Once you have your freezing and boiling temperature measurements, You are ready to
make a calibration curve for your thermometer. The easiest way to do this is to make a graph.
Take a piece of graph paper and label the X and Y axis from 30 to 200 or (0 to 100, if youre
using Celsius unit) Now, make 2 points on the graph corresponding to your 2 measurements. The
1st coordinate gives what the reading should have been and the second coordinate gives what
your thermometer read. For example, if your freezing measurement read 34°F (1°C), put a point
at (32,34) In other word go to 32 on the X axis and trace a perpendicular line to 34 and place a
dot there. If your boiling reading was 206°F (97°C) place a point at (212,206) (or maybe you live
in a elevation, where water should be boil at 209, then you’d make a point at 209 and 206). Now
draw a straight line between this 2 points. This line will be your Calibration curve.

There are 2 ways you can use this curve. The 1st is to find out what is the actual
temperature is given your thermometer reading. To do this take your thermometer reading and
find that value on Y-Axis. Trace a horizontal line at this Y value until it interacts the calibration
curve. Then trace a vertical line straight to the X axis. The line will intersect the X axis at actual
temperature.

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNICAL DEPARTMENT


Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation
University Site, Brgy. Ibabang Dupay, Lucena City, Philippines; Telephone No. (042) 710-3151