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WRITING ECPE

INTRODUCTION

1. PARAPHRASING THE TOPIC

Nowadays Or In this day and age Or In these days


It is taken into
It is taken into account Or Or It is considered
consideration
Implement measures Or Take steps Or Take action

Ban Or Prohibit Or Forbid


Have destructive consequences Have disastrous effect Have detrimental
Or Or
for on impact on
Find it difficult (+full It is difficult for sbd
Have difficulty (+gerund) Or Or
infinitive) (+full infinitive)
More and more teenagers Or An increasing number of teenagers (+plural verb)
The majority of teenagers
Or Most teenagers
(+plural verb)
There is a tendency towards
Or There is a trend for people (+full infinitive)
(+gerund)
It cannot be denied that Or There is no doubt that

… have a number of benefits Or Have considerable advantages

(sth) is very beneficial Or (sth) has benefited society in many ways

Pass new laws Or Introduce new legislation

Suggest some measures Or Propose some steps

Put a ban on Or Impose (a) prohibition on

Have a negative influence on Or Influence sbd/sth negatively

Affect sth/sbd negatively Or Have a negative effect on

Prevent sbd from (+gerund) Or Discourage sb from (+gerund)

Enable sbd (+full infinitive) Or Allow sbd (+full infinitive)


Provide sbd with the
Or Offer sbd the chance (+full infinitive)
opportunity (+full infinitive)
Lead to Or Result in

There is lack of Or There is a storage of

Be lacking in sth Or Be short of sth

2. STARTING THE INTRODUCTION

It is common knowledge that… Or It has often been said that…

Nowadays it is widely accepted Or Nowadays it is generally believed that

Nowadays, we are all becoming aware of (the fact that…)

… has recently been a matter of debate between … and …

Recently, there has been a great deal of controversy about

In recent years, the number of … is on the increase

Recently, there has been a tendency towards (+gerund)

The trend of … is gaining (in) popularity among …

However, it has been claimed that…

It is well – known fact that … it is also true, though, that …

More and more people today … nevertheless, opponents of this view, maintain that …

It is undeniable, …

3. EXPRESSING INTENION IN THE INTRODUCTION

… has both benefits and drawbacks which should be taken into consideration

… has advantages and disadvantages, both of which should be taken into account
… provides numerous benefits, but also has several drawbacks, some of which should be
carefully considered
… has both advantages and disadvantages, neither of which should be ignored
4. PERSONAL OPINION

In my opinion / view

To my mind

I am convinced that

It seems to me that

I am inclined to believe that


MAIN BODY

LIST POINTS IN A SPECIFIC SEQUENCE

Beginning : First, Firstly, To start / begin with, First of all

Continuing : Secondly, After this / that, Afterwards, Then

Concluding : Finally, Lastly, Last but not least

INTRODUCING ADVANTAGES INTRODUCING DISADVANTAGES

The main advantage / benefit in … On the negative side / on the downside…

Despite its benefits, … also exhibits


The most important positive aspect of …
several limitations
On the other hand, there are considerable
One point in favor of …
disadvantages to…

Despite these advantages, … has some


drawbacks as well
A major advantage of …
…. However, has its disadvantages

SUPPORTING SENTENCES

TO EXPLAIN A POINT INTRODUCING SHOWING RESULTS


EXAMPLES

This means that For instance For this reason

In other words For example As a consequence

That is to say One striking / typical Because of this


example of this is

To put it in other way Such as Therefore

Meaning that Especially As a result

This illustrated by Consequently


thus

TO ADD MORE POINTS ON THE SAME TOPIC

What is more

Furthermore

Moreover

In addition (to this)

Apart from this / that

Not only …., but also ….


INTRODUCING OPPOSING VIEW REFUTING AN OPPOSING VIEW

It must be admitted that… This can be easily averted, however, by…

Opponents of … claim that … Although this is partially true, …

It should be noted that … This may be true to some extent, but …

In some rare cases …


There are those who argue that …
… but it is worth mentioning that …

AGREEING
EMPHASASING CONSTRUCTING
PARTIALLY

Obviously, To a certain extend experts Are convinced,


claim,
Scientists
In fact, To some degree warn,
Critics argue,
Actually, Up to a point suggest,
Proponents
agree,
It goes without saying, This is partly true (but) Governments maintain,
Opponents Support/oppose
Undoubtedly, In some cases the view that…
Advocate,
Without a doubt,
Are in favor of
/ against
TO EXPRESS CAUSE
Because (of) Or For this reason

Due to the fact that Or Owing to the fact that

On the grounds that

INTRODUCING REASONS

There are several reasons why … , the most important of which is …

I believe … is partly due to … and partly because …

The two main reasons why … are … and … can be caused by numbers of factors,
most importantly …

INDICATING COMPLEXITY

It is difficult to say whether …

There is no explanation for …

There is no clear cut answer to the question of …

…. Is a difficult question to answer

The question of … is open to debate

The issue of … is a complex one

DISCUSSING PROBLEMS TALKING ABOUT SOLUTIONS

There is an urgent need to … One way to …. Is ….

It is vital / essential that we … The most obvious solution is to …


To solve / tackle / address / combat a
problem

Ways must be found to … To take action / measures / steps

We should / could implement policies to


There is much that can be done to bring A good strategy would be to …


about change

We can do a great deal to …

Immediate action must be taken There is much that can be done to …

USEFUL VOCABULARY

Negative Adverse, opposing, disruptive, contrary,


bad, unfavorable

Good Positive, satisfactory, acceptable, excellent,


valuable, beneficial

Important Essential, crucial, imperative, vital,


significant

Very Highly, exceedingly, severely, immensely,


utterly, extremely, excessively

Understand Perceive, comprehend, grasp, realize,


recognize, enlightened (be)

Dangerous Alarming, risky, hazardous, critical, serious,


perilous

Believe Hold, contend, think, maintain, claim, argue


CONCLUSION

1. BALANCED STATEMENT IN CONCLUSION


... has many benefits but its limitations should be taken into account (before/if) …

Although it cannot be denied that … one should also bear in mind that …

Even though there is no doubt that … , it is also true that …

2. EXPRESSING OPINION IN CONCLUSION

I am inclined to believe that …

I (do not) agree that / with …

I am (not) convinced that / of …

It may be concluded that …

It is clear / obvious that …

It seems / appears to me that …